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DEPOSITORY 

DEC 2 1984 



HERTZBERG - NEW METHOD, INC. EAST VANDALIA ROAD, JACKSONVILLE, ILL. 62650 





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VOLUME 18. NUMBER 1 

JANUARY 1985 



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WATER 
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SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS (SWRA) is produced by the Geo- 
logical Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, and published monthly by the National 
Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce. 



SWRA is available to Federal agencies and their contractors or grantees in water resources 
research upon request, citing contract or grant number and sponsoring agency. Write: 
Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 425, Reston, VA 22092. The 
SWRA Journal is also available on subscription from NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road, 
Springfield, VA 22161. Annual subscription rates for the North American Continent are: 
Journal only, $100; Journal and Annual Indexes, $125; Indexes only, $50. Other address- 
ees, write for prices. 



Some documents abstracted in this journal can be purchased from NTIS. Price codes are 
given in the entries and a current code-price conversion table is printed on the outside 
back cover. Other documents are available from originating organizations or authors as 
indicated in the citation. 



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IgCTTll© 

WATER RESOURCES 
ABSTRACTS 



A monthly publication of the Geological Survey 
U.S. Department of the Interior 



VOLUME 18. NUMBER 1 

JANUARY 1985 



W85.00001 .. W85-00507 




has .sen approved by ,he 0„lce o, Manage^'en, a^d Bud/e'^'S S^eZrlonT' "' '"'""''' 



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♦•«« orionrv thp DeDartment of the Interior has respon- 
-. s the Nation's principal conserva. on agency^ the De^^^^^^^ resources. This in- 

A sibi.ity for most ot.our na.onally own^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ,,, ,3, 3,, 

eludes fostering the wisest ^^^^^ °^ .^^I^^^^.f^.^, values of our national parks and historical 
wildlife, preserving the «"^'^°"'^.^"^^'/"^ '^^^^^^ outdoor recreation. The Departnnent 

places, and providing for ^^e enioymen of .fe t^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^ development is in 

assesses our energy and ^'"^^^'^^^f'/^'^ Department also has a major responsibility for 
Z^:i:Z^:^^ ^^ --or peop. who nve in Island Territories under 
U.S. administration. 



PREFACE 



Selected Water Resources Abstracts, a monthly 
journal, includes abstracts of current and earlier 
pertinent monographs, journal articles, reports and 
other publication formats. These documents cover 
water resources as treated in the life, physical and 
social sciences and the related engineering and 'legal 
aspects of the characteristics, supply condition con- 
servation, control, use, or management of water 
resources. Each abstract includes a full bibliographic 
citation and a set of descriptors which are listed in 
the Water Resources Thesaurus. The abstract 
entries are classified into 10 fields and 60 groups 
similar to the water resources research categories 
established by the Committee on Water Resources 
Research of the then Federal Council for Science and 
Technology. 

Selected Water Resources Abstracts is designed 
to serve the scientific and technical information needs 
of scientists, engineers, and managers as one of 



several services of the Water Resources Scientific 
Information Center. The cumulative SWRA file from 
1968 and monthly updates are available also in 
magnetic tape through lease from NTIS. 

L^.^^^"^^^ RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFOR- 
MATION CENTER DOES NOT PROVIDE COPIES OF 
DOCUMENTS ABSTRACTED IN THIS JOURNAL 
Sufficient bibliographic information is given to en- 
able readers to order the desired documents from 
local libraries or other sources. 

Comments and suggestions concerning the contents 
and arrangement of this bulletin are welcome. 

Water Resources Scientific 

information Center 

U.S. Geological Survey 

MS 425 National Center 

Reston, VA 22092 



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CONTENTS 



SUBJECT FIELDS AND GROUPS 

Please use the edge index on the back cover to locate Subject Fields and Indexes. 

01 NATURE OF WATER 

includes the following Groups: Properties; Aqueous Solutions and Suspensions. 

02 WATER CYCLE Evaporation and Transpiration; 

Chemical Processes; Estuaries. 
n-^ WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 

Man's Nonwater Activities; Watershed Protection. 
nR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 

Control. 

Water Development. 
"' Ll'°s"L''fIwT7Lups: Ne^.0. Des,„; Oa,a AculsKlon: Ev*,.,o„. P,ocess,„, a„d Pu.»oa«on. 

"' rr froi:° o'pt. S,.c,u.s: H,.au.c. H,..* Mac... Son Mec.an,es: Boo. Me.a„,ca 
Lnta?ol09y: Conc,e»: MaKrials; Rapid Excavation: Fishenes Eng.neenng. 

no MANPOWER GRANTS, AND FACILITIES 

"c^ls ,!!l I'ol. aroups: EOuca«o„-Ex.r..ura,: Ed„ca.on-,„-Houso; Research Facl„.,ea; Oranu, 

Contracts, and Research Act Allotments. 
in SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

SUBJECT INDEX 
AUTHOR INDEX 
ORGANIZATIONAL INDEX 
ACCESSION NUMBER INDEX 






IV 



SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS 



2. WATER CYCLE 



^^^^^^^ ^^ OLIATA FROM POLLUTED 
SECTOR OF THE RIVER DRWINKA ON THF 
BASIS OF BINARY DATA, "'"''^'^ ^^ ™E 

d?obior'^" ^"'^" ^'^^^^'^ (Poland). Dept. of Hy- 

K. Wiakowski. 

^^c'f Hydrobiologica, Vol. 23, No. 4, p 319-329 
1981. 6 Fig, 2 Tab, lORef. ^ ' 

Descriptors: 'River Drwinka, *Poland, 'Water 
pollution effects, 'Protozoa, Population dynamics 
Spec.es diversity, Water quality, Bioindicators 

In the course of two seasons (1978 and 1979) 68 
samples were collected in the polluted sector of 
the nver Drwmka. The Ciliata fauna was distinctly 
differentiated in a linear way, in agreement with 
the pollution gradient. The food spectrum of Ci- 
hata also changes at particular sampling stations in 
a linear way. A gradually decreasing participat on 
of bactenophagous forms at a concomitant in- 
crease m participation of species feeding on algae 
Among the species characteristic of the most pol- 
luted sta ion, 1, were: Metopus es, M. contortus, 
Piagiopyla nasuta Caenomorphia medusula, and 

^re'lSf'Tl,''^'"''^'"™' ^- ^°'P°'^^' Paramecium 
ft/,?^ 1 u . P^'^'^* composition was similar at 
station 2 but new species included Loxocephalus 
Hindus, Stentor coeruleus, and Litonotus lamella 

I^^^^VT ,'^^'°'''' ^ ^"'^ 4, are characterized 
by the highes diversity of Ciliata in the given 
sector of the nver. The last two stations, 5 and 6 
are charactenzed by a smaller number of species.' 
On the basis of the differentiation, three zones of 
^"n'e P^r^y^e^^distinguished: a highly polluted 
zone from Niepolomice to station 3, a zone of 
transitory character at station 4, and a relatively 
clean zone at 5 and 6. An attempt has been made o 
detennine quantitatively the pollution degree based 
on the indicator values of Ciliata. Differentiation in 
pL?w"^•'.^''TP°"/.'°" of Ciliata was closely cor- 
related with the self-purification process ocurring 
it the sampling site. (Baker-IVn ^ 

iV85-00223 



atu^oTr-Iv"?"""^ '" '^^ "•'^'^ "-' - 
W84-00024 



^5^ HYDROGEOLOGY WITHIN A SI I 
BARCTIC PEATLAND: ATTAWAPISKA^' 
RIVER HUDSON BAY LOWLAND cXnI^A 

Can^ada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington (On-' 

D. W. Cowell. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3. p 169-175 

February, 1983. 3 Fig, 3 Ref ■^. P lov i /d. 

The Attawapiskat River cut through 30 m of mid- 
Silunan limestone approximately 90 km wesHf 
stoTe'cHff^ of 15^ Hudson Bay^owl^d. Ume- 
stone chffs of 2-15 m provide local relief alone 
he nver but inland the terrain is Hat, covered Cy 
1.5 m or more of peat. The area emerged from the 
Tyrrell Sea approximately 4400 yr. B.P Sinc^that 
esTabliXd'"* hydrogeological z'ones have become 
established: a vadose fluvio-karst zone in the ex- 
posed limestone along the river repre ented bv 
disappeanng lakes and streams; and^ an organo'; 
karst zone represented by sinkholes on or next to 
limestone bioherms within the peat mantle Thev 
occupy 16% and 13% of the sLyTea respec 
lively^ Organo-karst features are expecteT to 
expand at the expense of the peatland. Three kars° 
morphologies have evolved. The first morphS 
occurs where the top of the knoll is higher than the 
surrounding bog; dolines, often with intemktent 
ponds or small lakes fom at the edge of t™ reef 
The second morphology occurs where he reef 

peaSd'thVh' '""' ^'^"^''°" '' '''^ surroundTng 
peatland, the bog may encroach onto the reef The 

s low«°Tha°n°t!.' ''^^^'^P^.^here the reef surface 
IS lower than the surrounding peatland- the boe 



STef^,Tnd^"^^^Bo°uSo°:°^°^'^'''^- 

teVt"'TaMf J.°'- '■• ^°- '' " "'-"2- 

Descriptors: 'Optimization, 'Model studies 
Catchments, Boughton Model, Australia, Sensitiv': 
ty. Lumped parameter model. 

A comparative study was made of ten obiective 
functions used in optimizing an updated versfon of 
1978 aK" M°t! /Bo"ghton and Simpson 
AfIw ["'^^''^^^odel for Catchment Hydrology 
AES Working Paper 1/78, Griffith Univ., Nathfn 

^arfrr"^ T ^' '° ''."'^™'"^ how the optimized 
parameter values vaned with type of obiective 
function. Optimum parameter sets obtained fo a 
ri^^f'^K-'"^'"-^*^';'""''^' ^^"-^ shown to vary with 

M^reov°er''ar,h"""*'°" "'^'^ '" "'^ optimisation 
nZ\tZ !' ^^^ parameters need not vary. 

°aTure^of?h.'"*'H'*?P'"''""" ^"'^ compensatory 
nature of the model parameters, only a few param- 
eters need vary to produce a disfinct optoum 

varied wk'f- ^'?''t:'y' . P^^^'"^'^^ ^^""tiv^™ 
r^"t? '^P^ °^ Objective function if the pa- 

rameters were considered individually. When the 
parameters were considered in groups according to 
ype of objective functions, thi variationTn sensi° 
W85^M18o' ^'"""^ i"sig">fi'^ant. (Baker-IVI) " 

SKKg^BKS]^P^s"^^«^"^ ^-^^ 

D. G. Day. 

SriTaS'^'ReT' ^°'- ''' ""^ '' ^ '-"■ ''"• 

Descriptors: 'Drainage basins, 'Drainage densitv 
2Z S?."«h Wales, 'Australia, Suspended sed^^ 
men s. Dissolved solids. Rainfall, Rainfall-runoff 
relationship. Catchment areas. Prediction 



lA. General 



^PLICATION OF LANDSAT IMAGFRY Tn 
'LOOD STUDIES IN THE RkSoTF Jf 
I^ KARST, NORTHWEST SSSries; 

Jeorgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Geography 
'■ A. Brook. o f- J ■ 

oumal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 305-324 
ebniary, 1983. 5 Fig, 4 Tab, 8 Ref n'aVa grant 

^criptors: 'Northwest Territories, 'LAND- 
t • ^^hanm karst, 'Karst hydrology, Reniote 
^c^'zlnfr' '^'^hnology. Infrared i^'agery Su- 
rctic zone^ Groundwater movement, Hydroloev 
lowmelt, Poljes, Flooding, Ponors, Freezh^g 

^?}^u^tlT^"K ^^, P^e^''^^'* important new 
ita about the spectacular hydrology of the Na- 

Xr"snaV/"'' °"t°'*^^ '"°^' co^^^x subarc- 
^arst landscapes known. Near-infrared band-6 
»;800 nm) and band-7 (800-1100 nm) LAND 

T unages are the most suitable for hydrologic 
'estigations. Images have revealed that prior to 
Sin thr'^lV'l" '^'^^ P°'J« ^"d other'^epres 
°er rem.,nrn? ''^"' "'" '^^- "^^is suggests that 
'ter remainmg in depressions in October, when 
^es freeze over, drains underground befor^ the 
y se"ver:?:r^- ^^^^^now and ice melts in 
terns are hwrnT"' ^°2'^ because their ponor 

r^aior hvH^^'^''y '°^- ^P""S snowmelt is not 
•nSdJ? °'°^"^-^^*"' "f'he year; the most 
-nse hydrologic activity results from heavy rain- 
1. fln^H ™°"ths June-August. Nahanni depres- 

o? these^mn TV ^"^^^-^^erage rainffll in 
h m^ tti °°*hs. In years with no unusually 
L drv ^ precipitation, depressions may 
^on o^^i; 'fr^^^^J '"^''^^ inundation. Con 
S^ da?/. LANDSAT program of earth re- 
rce data acquisition provides a means of moni- 



EVALUATION AND DESIGN OF A STRFAM 
FLOW-DATA NETWORK FOR COl^EOT-" 

s^urSot.'""^^' "^f°^''' "^ ^-»- Re- 
W85-OO057 bibliographic entry see Field 7A. 

GEOMORPHIC APPROACH TO Hvnnr. 
GRAPH SYNTHESIS, wTtH ^OTONTIaI FO^" 
APPLICATION TO UNGAGED WATERSHEdI 

EnginS''" """'"' ^''°" """"^^ Dept. of Qvli 
V. P. Singh. 

Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Spnngfield, VA 22161 as PB84 V5o 15 

?n^'n?f "'^ p°^ '" P^P"^ '^°Py' AOl in microfiche! 
Completion Report, June, 1983. 97 p, 27 Fig 5 
Tab, 32 Ref OWRT Project No. A-658-LA r'n 
Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2120 '' 

Descriptors: Hydrologic modelling. Stream flow 
synthesis, Ungaged basins, 'Hydrographs 'Ui^ 
gaged watersheds. Watersheds. 

A conceptual approach, based on the work of 

f^r w^.l^'^""/?.""'' ^^"S ('^80)> is developed 
m rm K °{ *^ mstantaneous unit hydrogrLh 
lUH) by employing basin geomorphology. This 
lUH ,s then employed in convolution for synthes s 
of the direct runoff due to a rainfall event. Because 
the ^proach contains parameters which can be 
t^^Zlf °"' geomorphology, it is potentially 
applicable to ungaged basins. A computer model 
designated as GMHS, is developed using tWs ap- 
proach for hydrograph synthesis. The model is 
verified on five small agricultural watersheds. The 
■rht^/^'" " ^°'"P/'L^ ^' ^^" ^'th observations in 
WSS-OOOer'^"^ parameters and data. 

VARIATION OF MODEL PARAMFTPK 
VALUES AND SENSITIVITY WIThT^pIot 
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION, '' "^^^^ *^*^*^ OF 



Relationships between the drainage density of 
channelled flow and stream discharge, suspended 
sediment, and total dissolved solids we e exam"ned 
dunng rainfall evems for two New England 
(NSW, Australia) catchments on granite and 
greywacke Detailed observations wefe made on 
^e two catchmems. The drainage density of flow 
was measured as it fluctuated over rainfall even^ 
in a 16 month penod. Such network changes were 
re ated to vanability in stream discharge and dTs! 
^Ived solid concentrations for all storms with 
^hfl'f/°"'='^*'.°"s between these hydrologic vari- 
ables for individual storms. For the catchments 
drainage density can be used as a predictor of 

veatrtLt^fh" ^°°^"' ^°' ^^'^h '^^t'^hment re- 
rnnnffr ^^ere are major differences in the 

runoff response which can be partly attributed to 
distinctive morphological differences between the 
catohments, specifically by contrasting densities of 
channel networks due to basic lithological and 

t'racS'of fhfT"""- ^^P''^ expansion^and con 
traction of the flowing stream network exerts a 

?BaTe"TVI)'''"*'°' °" '^"'""^^ ^asin outputs 
W85-00183 



^K^T^° PARAMETER MODEL OF A CHALK 
AQUIFER-STREAM SYSTEM IN HAMP 
SHIRE, UNITED KINGDOM, ^^' 

T°Keat?ng^^*" Authority, Eastleigh (England). 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 430-436 Julv 
August, 1982. 4 Fig, 13 Ref ' ^" 

Descriptors: 'Hampshire, 'England 'Surface 
groundwater relationships, 'Chalk aquifers Math- 
ematical models, Transmissivity,^ Stora^vhy 
Aqmfers, Stream discharge. oiuiaiiviiy, 

The Chalk aquifer in the Candover area of the 
Hampshire Downs in southern England has a thin 
highly transmissive and storative zone in the vicinil 
ty of the water table. Attempts to model the aqui- 
fer-stream system m the Candover catchment using 
modeTXt,"h h""' /^^-dimensional mathematical 
model with discrete parameters at each grid inter- 





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Field 2— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2A— General 

section failed because values °f «t°f ^''Xl^/ '" *erv^ed 
of 5% were required to reproduce the observ«l 
low groundwater fluctuations wh^e values of 1% 
were required to simulate stream flows. A lumped 
parameter model of the aquifer-stream system m- 
coroorating a variable transmissivity and storati- 
vk^dlstribltion has been developed to explam the 
unusual hydrogeological features of the catehment^ 
The model represents the aquifer as a two-layer 
system, with the upper layer representing the zone 
of fluciuation of the water table and consequently 
having a relatively high storativi y (5%) and trans- 
missivity (100,000 sq m/d) and a lower layer repre- 
Sng the main zone of the aquifer with param- 
eters fypical of those observed '"./«' P"'SK"fa 
(storativity of 1% and transmissivity of 1,000 sq 
m/d) The model predicts both observed spring 
Sows and groundwater levels simultaneously, and 
the decline of computed net gains following the 
onset of recharge. In practice, the variation of 
parameters between the upper and lower zones of 
the aquifer must be continuous. (Moore-IVl) 
W85-00323 

2B. Precipitation 



RESOURCES OF THE TUG HILL REGION, 

State Univ. of New York Coll. of Environmental 

Science and Forestry, Syracuse. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field bU. 

W85-00044 

PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION 
AND SNOWMELT CRITERIA FOR SOUTH- 

Sna^We'ither Service, Silver Spring, MD. 

Office of Hydrology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2C. 

•W85-00056 

MOVING AVERAGES AND CYCLIC PAT- 

^S^n'state Univ., Corvallis. School of Forestry. 

L^rrotnydrology, Vol. 21. No.2. p 148-151, 
1982. 3 Fig, 6 Ref 

Descriptors: »Hydrologic models, *Precipitation, 
♦Time series analysis. Correlation analysis. Auto- 
correlation, Mathematical studies. 



Groundwater, Seasonal variation. Grazing, Crop 
production. 

An agricultural drought has two variations. First- 
W, afeasonal drought is a regular and predictable 
event which is limited to a single growing seasor^ 
during which poor rainfall distribution or low total 
rainfall results in reduced grazing and crop pro- 
duction. Secondly, a disaster drought, in a^ricul 
tural terms, is a farming situation where, owing to 
subnormal rainfall, there is a very substantial loss 
of crops and grazing over one or mo'e growing 
seasons. While the rainfall over much of Natal/ 
KwaZulu during the 1982-83 normal rainy season 
w7s more than 35% below the average, and was in 
kself enough to create a disaster drought situation, 
the eal problem was that this very dry season was 
nreceded by very dry seasons in the three previous 
^eats. The coincklental occurrence of both an agri- 
cultural drought and a water resources drought 
had serious repercussions on the people and re- 
sources. The consequence this last season was a 
total failure of all crops in many areas and many 
livestock deaths due to poor grazing. The water 
resources drought has caused many springs and 
some bore holes that normally provide water right 
through the dry winter months to dry up due to 
the drop in the underground water table^ It is not 
possible to predict when good rains can be expect- 
ed The planning and preparation for the expected 
dry season was probably adequate regarding the 
surface water reserves. Where the 'nadequacy 
atose was on the part of the plans for the develop- 
ment of groundwater resources^ There has been no 
coordinated planning of groundwater use in South 
Africa similar to that earned out in many other 
parts of the world. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00214 

DROUGHT STRESS AND THE DEMISE OF 
ACACIA ALBIDA ALONG THE LOW^R 
KUISEB RIVER, CENTRAL NAMIB DESERT. 
PRELIMINARY FINDINGS, .,,„,. 
Natal Univ., Durban (South Afnca). Dept. ot 
Botany. ^ 

J. D. Ward, and C. M. Breen. ,, , ^„ k, ,, 

South African Journal of Science, Vol_79, NoM 1 
p 444-447, December, 1983. 8 Fig, 1 Tab, 20 Ret. 

Descriptors: 'Drought stress, *Kuiseb River, 
*Namib Desert, 'South-West Africa. 'Acacia. 
Flooding. Water table. Groundwater recharge. 



An example is provided using annual precipitation 
data to illustrate how the combination of moving 
averages and autocorrelation techniques can be 
used to identify possible periodicities for hydrolo- 
gical time series problems. The annual precipita- 
tion averages 1032 mm at the Mt. Torlesse rainfall 
station with a standard deviation of 175 mm Coe - 
ficients of skewness and kurtosis for annual totals 
are -0 2 and 2.9 respectively. Regressing annual 
precipitation with time (in years) indicates no long 
term trend in the data. Thus the time series appears 
to be stationary and normally distributed^ There is 
a high degree of variability throughout the 73 year 
record period. Even with the smoothing time 
series method the occurrence of a definite periodic 
component remains somewhat obscure. Autocorre- 
lation of the annual precipitation data indicates that 
little dependency and periodicity apparently exist 
in this time series and suggests annual precipitation 
amounts are almost entirely independent from one 
year to the next. Correlograms developed frorn the 
3 5 7 and 9 year moving averages provide a 
wmewhat different result. Several cyclic compo- 
nents are found in the annual precipitation records 
at the station, with an 18 year cycle being the most 
pronounced. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00182 

IMPACT OF THE DROUGHT IN NATAL/ 

Natal Univ.,' Pietermaritzburg (South Africa). Inst, 
of Natural Resources. 

J. M. Erskine. ,„ . ,, ■ -,o xi„ n 

South African Journal of Science, Vol. 79, No. 11. 
p 439-440, December. 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Drought, 'Natal. 'KwaZulu 'South 
Africa. Planning, Water resources development. 



The Kuiseb River flooded annually past the Namib 
Desert Research Station at Gobabeb between 
1961/62 and 1978/79. Since then, hovvever. it has 
not flooded into the lower reaches and the Kuiseb 
water table in the Harubes-Scout River sector has 
dropped by more than 3 m. During this dry penod 
a considerable number of large mature A. albida 
trees have collapsed and died. Daily changes in 
xylem pressure potential of A. albida and A eno- 
loba, collected near Gobabeb before and after the 
1975-76 Kuiseb flood were investigated. It is proD- 
able that the prolonged Juiseb nyer flood of 1976 
together with the unusually heavy rams that 
summer, had recharged the groundwater reserves 
in the river bed, at least in the vicmity of Gobabeb. 
It is also likely that those favorable soil moisture 
conditions persisted several months after the cessa- 
tion in April of surface flow in the study site area. 
Localized stands of juvenile A. albida tress mainly 
established after the prolonged flood of 1974 and 
good rains of 1976 have continued to grow and 
appear to be fluorishing. It is suggested tha the 
roots of these quick-growing juvenile A. albida 
trees are able to follow the dropping water table, 
whereas those of the mature trees are not because 
of a relatively shallow rooting system established 
when the water table was relatively high. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00215 

PRELIMINARY CALCULATIONS OF AVER- 
AGE STORM DURATION AND SEASONAL 
PRECIPITATION RATES FOR THE NORTH- 
EAST SECTOR OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland. WA. 
J. M. Thorp, and B. C. Scott^ „ 

Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 16 No. 7. p 1763- 
1774. 1982. 3 Fig. 9 Tab. 6 Ref DOE contract DE- 
AC0'6-76RLO-1830. 



Descriptors: 'Precipitation rate, 'Storm duff '^n, 
'Seasonal variation. Storms, Temporal diMribu- 
tion. Rainfall rates. 

Regional and seasonal averages of storm duration 
and precipitation rates are needed as input varia- 
bles in models aimed at describing precipitation 
processes relating to acid rain and other problems. 
Hourly precipitation data for 77 first order weath- 
er stations were used to calculate the summer and 
winter regional average storm duration and aver- 
age precipitation rates over the northeastern 
United States. Average storm duration for surnmer 
(June-July-August), and winter (December-Janu- 
ary-February) seasons considered periods of up to 
three dry hours in summer storms, and up to 6 dry 
hours in winter storms to be part of the same 
storm. Thus, each storm consisted of one or more 
precipitation periods. The average precipitation 
event rates for summer and winter storms were 
calculated. By considering storm durations on an 
hourly basis, the 3-h summer storm was found to 
contribute the greatest fraction to total summer 
precipitation. Similariy, the 26-h wmter storm was 
found to contribute the greatest fractiori to winter 
precipitation. The summer storms typically consist- 
ed of one rain event lasting about thr^ hours with 
rain rates averaging about 2.5 mm/h. Ihe l>n 
winter storm averaged about 3 precipitation peri- 
ods (or rain bands). Each penod lasted about seven 
hours and had an average precipitation of rate ol 
1.0 mm/h. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00242 

DIRECT ACQUISITION OF RAWFALL DATA 
ON SITE (SAISIE DIRECTS ^UR LE SITE DE 
LTNFORMATION PLUVIOGRAPHIQUE), 

Centre National de Machinisme Agricole du Geme 
Rural, des Eaux et des Forets. Pans (France). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 7B. 
W85-00388 

DYNAMICS OF INTENSE RAIIVY SPELLS 
OVER THE SOUTH-EAST OF THE MASSIF 
CT^L - METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS 
AND HYDROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 
5)TOAMIQUE DES EPISODES PLUVIEUX IN- 
TENSES SUR LE SUD-EST DU JVIASSIF CEN^ 
TRAL; ASPECTS METEOROLOGIQL-ES CT 
APPLICATIONS HYDROLOGIQUES), 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Gre- 
noble (France). Inst, de Mecamque de Grenoble. 
P. Tourasse. and Ch. Obled. ,,„ ^^<, ,q<,, 

Houille Blanche. Vol. 36, No. 7/8, p 559-568. 1981. 
4 Fig. 1 Tab. 7 Ref 



Descriptors: 'Masif Central. 'France. 'RainMI 
distribution. Rainfall area. Rainstorms Hoods. 
Flood flow. Meteorological data collections. Hy- 
drometeorology. | 

The whole south-eastern side of the Masif Central 
(m south-east France) is regulariy subject especi^- 
y in August, to periods of mtense ramfall which 
/an cause violent and sometimes catastrophe 
floods in some basins. Data on all mtense rainfaJ 
periods (approximately thirty different episod^) 
from 1970 to 1979 were compiled and analyzed, m 
hourly steps, using a network of 58 rainfall record- 
ing Stations. Systematic plottmg of the most mter- 
esfing episodes revealed that dunng phases of high 
activity, rainfall had the very specific shape of a 
narrow ramy strip a few km wide and parallel to 
the topographic crest but located 20 km m front of 
t The ftrip contains very intense nuclei withm 
which rain frequently exceeds 50^^^"^^^"^''°,"^ 
These nuclei can cover a few dozen to a tew 
hundted sq km. Joint analys.3 of hourly ramM 
graphs and the concominant tneteorological fields 
has allowed for better understanding of the phe- 
nomenon, as well as the relationships which can 
exist between the main synoptic actor (intensity 
of flow, position of the front, etc.) and the organ - 
zat on of the rainfall field. The rainfall dnp devel- 
oZg over the mountainside did not usually move 
sy tematically in a single direction, but the raanWl 
svstem, once organized, remained quite stable. 
Shlt^variations in local intensity can be observed, 
associated with the magnitude of convective activ- 



ity, making the phenomenon one of intermittent 
character. (ColHer-IVI) ic.nimeni 

W85-00391 

PREaPITATION IN 6 MINUTES. FIRST EX- 
AMINATION OF SEVERAL MONTHS OF RE- 
CORDINGS ON MAGNETIC CASSETTES (LES 
PRECTPITATIONS EN 6 MINUTES PREMIER 
EXAMEN DE QUELQUES MOIS D'ENREGIS 
TREMENT SUR CASSETTE MAGNETIQUE) 
Electncite de France, Paris. Direction de la Pro- 
auction et du Transport. 
P. Guillot, and D. Duband. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 7/8, p 569-576 1981 
5 Fig, 1 Tab. ' 

Descriptors: 'Automation, *France, *Rainfall dis- 
tribution. Meteorological data collections, On-site 
data collections. Rainfall intensity. Computers. 

The progressive installation of a cassette tape re- 
corder m the 150 unit EDF network of rainfall 
recorders solves the problem of recording over a 
one to two month period in remote places This 
also allows for the automation of computerized 
tiles on rainfall in six minute time steps The 
knowledge of rainfall in such small time units 
permits: more thorough analysis of the Gradex 
hypothesis adopted for extreme rainfall conditions 
over a few hours or for a whole day; analysis of 
the influence of the chronological irregularity of 
showers on the instantaneous flow coefficient in 
the rainfall/flow relation; and measurement quality 
improvement by allowing for an intensity-linked 
adjustment to offset the inherent loss of the record- 
er. The mformation collected has possible applica- 
tion to the correlation diagram and the calculation 
W8l^00392 distribution parameters. (CoUier-IVI) 

CLASSIFICATION OF DAILY, MONTHLY 
AND SEASONAL RAINFALL OVER FRANCE 
ES?i?^'^IL^''S PRECIPITATIONS 5uSfl 
^tSTa^MSL^^^^' ^^ SAISON^IERES 

Meteorologie Nationale, Paris (France) 

G. Der Megreditchian, A. De Billy, R, Foka J Y 

Grosse, and M. C. Rulliere. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 7/8, p 589-596, 1981. 

J rig, 2 lab, 6 Ref 



A succession of showers at individual stations were 
portrayed statistically using the shortest pos^b I 
^me interval. Two long rainfall series, Montpellier! 
Bel Air and Pans-Montsouris, were used. Rainfall 
senes for discrete intervals of one-thousandth of a 
day and a tenth of a millimeter are represented by 

ttu rT^'"l '7'" °^ ''■■y «P^"« (Ds) and rainy 
spells (Rs), the latter being also characterized by 
continuous rainfall amount. The marginal distribu 
tion of rainfall amount is characterized by a high 
I'?2"^"tf^J'LT^'"'^'"*"ts lower than, or equal! 
P.ri^f T.^'^ ?-^ ■"■" "' ^*0"tPellier and 0.2 mm a° 
pns). The frequency distribution of dry spells is 

t7ufu\^' "''' '"^'^^ corresponds to'short dry 
spells between successive showers, and the second 
to much longer spells of true good weather. Rain- 

hn ,r.T"."K^ ^'^' ''f " ^'^'^^'^ °^« 24 consecutive 
hours to obtain results similar to a rainfall series in 
which successive rainy days have been accumulat- 
ed. The observed and the simulated series can then 
be compared at the level of the first two moments 
Of the vanables characterizing a daily rainfall 
model: length in days of dry and rainy speUs and 
the corresponding amount of the latter. The com- 
parison can also be made using monthly totals The 
tirst simulation shows reasonably satisfactory re- 
sults, except for the standard deviation of length of 
dry spells (over-estimated) and heights during 
W85^ 00394 (""'^^'■■^^"'"ated). (Collier-IVI) 



2C. Snow, Ice, and Frost 

NISQUALLY GLACIER, MOUNT RAINIFR 
WASHINGTON, 1857-1979: A SUMIS^RV OF 

?;ji?,Ji?^«-^E«^ OBSERVAT16S AND I 
COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA. Water Re 
sources Div. 

?i<in^^'^"'^'^ Johnson, and S. M. Hodge. 

^^ u o^P^""^''^ ^^P°'^ 83-541, 1984. 20 p, 4 Fie 

5 1 ab, 84 Ref *' 

Descriptors: Glacier fluctuation, *Nisqually Gla- 
•DataTotar- *'^°"" ''^"■^^' •^■''■-/-phy. 



Descnptors: *France, »Rainfall distribution, Rain- 
h1 ""'^"""y- Precipitation rate. Meteorological 
data collections, Areal precipitation. Climate. 

The Water Service of the National Meterological 
Agency has compiled a record of daily average 
tweZT" \^°r' .^o.enng approximatdy 
twenty years. A climatic description has been 
drawn up corresponding to the various scales This 
climatic descnption has been used to produce sets 

tT7:,°'^r '"f"'°"^' parameters of a descrip- 
tive statistical analysis and a supplementary study 
of types of spatial distribution of precipitation The 

rafntn V,'"^'',,'""*'^^]"^ '^^ 'P^t'^' distribution of 
ra^nfal have been studied over time. Homogeneous 

w^ h.nH"fi ^Vf^'^'t' '"*"f^" (regionalization) 
W85-00393 (Author's abstract) 

?T^STICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE 

wmr^Ii^.?f ^5^ ^""'^ HAiw speIlI 

AT ..^ RAINFALL SERIES. APPLICATIONS 
pL'^PJ^PELLIER-BEL air (1920 1971 and 
PARIS-MONTSOURIS (1949-1978) (REPRFSFN 
SS^NON^JIITTV^'i^^^^^^™^^^^^^^ 

MONTPELLIER-BELL AIR (mo'mVf FT 
PARIS-MONTSOURIS (1949 1978)) 

Montpellier-2 Univ. (France). 
J. M. Masson. 

"fSI ?ab"tRef "'• ^^' ^°- ^^^' P ^^''-^' '^«'- 

^'^^''♦M^^ /^'^""^f;, 'Montpellier. *Bel Air, 
distribution Q°""^' ^'^"^ti'^al analysis, 'Rainfall 
aistnbution Simulation, Mathematical models 
Temporal distribution. Rainstorms. 



Nisqually Glacier on Mount Ranier, Washington 
has a long record of terminus position observations 
and ice-surface altitude measurements along specif- 
ic profiles, and has been the topic of numerous 
scientific studies. From the earliest observations in 
1857 to the present many individuals and several 
ditlerent organizations have been involved in data 
collection at Nisqually Glacier. In order to pre- 
serve the long-term data, it was assembled and 
reduced to a standard format for this report A 
comprehensive bibliography of scientific publica- 

185"7'/nHlQ7^o m'^^ fj^'^if.' *' *"'='"'^^d. Between 
857 and 1979, Nisqually Glacier receded a total of 

A J '"^'^'"' ^"'^ advanced a total of 294 meters 
Advances occurred from 1963-68 and from 1974- 
79. Ice-surface altitude changes of as much as 25 
W85 00039""^'^ between 1944 and 1955. (USGS) 



probable maximum precipitation 
eSSS"^" criteria for so™h 

National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MD 

Otfice of Hydrology. 

F. K. Schwartz, and J. F. Miller 

fq8l''°nr°'^',°^i^^' ^^^^P"""'- N°- 54, September 
1983. 114 p, 43 Fig, 23 Tab, 26 Ref, 1 Append. 

Descriptors: 'Probable maximum precipitation 
Orographic precipitation, 'Snowmelt, •Rain- 
storms *Thaw, 'Precipitation, Stream discharge, 
Streamflow, Data collection, Hydrologic data col- 
lection, Dewpoint, 'Alaska. 

Over a considerable span of time, numerous esti- 
mates ot probable maximum precipitation (PMP) 
for Alaska have been made for individual basins. 
Generalized all-seasons PMP values were devel- 
oped, and Spring and early Summer PMP esti- 
mates were given. Two factors to be considered 
were the complicated topography of the region 
and the sparsity of daily or hourly precipitation 
measurements. Data are nearly nonexistent for the 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Snow, Ice, and Frost — Group 2C 

70% of the basins which is above 500 feet. Annual 
streamflow data were combined with available pre- 
fi!?"^^i^"ADf ^ [° 'develop a mean annual precipita- 
tion (MAP) chart. This along with analysis of 
small glaciers and snowpack-accumulation season 
Pi^V^^-^' guidance to delineation of generalized 
PMP estimates. An approximation of generalized 
PMP was developed first from the relations be- 
tween storm precipitation and PMP in the North- 
west States region, and then adjusted by a variety 
ot techniques to provide the basic 24-hour 10- 
En""f'pJ'p^^ ""^P- '" general, uniform d'istri- 
So fhef t^*^ r suggested for PMP over basins in 
Southeast Alaska. However, where fixed signifi- 
fn" w".u°' °f orography exists, it is recommend- 
ed that the user distribute the PMP in line with 
such orographic control. A summary of maximum 
daily rains of record for 49 stations is given, and 
gerierahzed estimates of snowpack and other snow- 
melt critena including temperatures, dew points, 
wl ri^i?" " provided. (Garrison-Omniplan) 
Wo5-O0056 

CHARACTERISTICS OF SNOWFALLS SNOW 

TORE^Wi™"''l^pt^.° SNOWpIcK S?K 
rlSS,,.'^^^^ IMPLICATIONS FOR AVA- 
I^CHmc, CRAIGIEBURN RANGE, Sew 

terior^' "y^lrology Research Inst., Ottawa (On- 
T. D. Prowse, and I. F. Owens. 
Arctk and Alpine Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, p 107- 
118, February, 1984. 6 Fig, 4 Tab, 53 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Climates, 'Snowfall, 'Snowpack, 
Craigieburn Range, 'New Zealand, 'Avalanches 

Wmelt.tSg'"'"''"^*"" ^"''■^"'- ^'°^'' 

Many of the characteristics of snowfall and snow- 
pack structure m the Craigieburn Range are typi- 
cal of both maritime and continental climates. 
While most snowfalls are generally low intensity, 
small magnitude events as found in continental 
regions, there is on the average one storm per year 
which produces snow at such a rate and amount as 
to pose a direct action avalanche hazard. Strong 
windspeeds are also a common feature of the area 

Wh r^2' ?u^^** ^°^^ '°^' ^"'^ hard slab avalanches. 
While both storm and long term air temperatures 
are relatively warm, typical of maritime climates 
temperature gradient metamorphism, a process 
commonly associated with but not restricted to 
cold continental areas, was shown to be prevalent 
in the basal layers of the snowpack. Ice crusts 
produced by mid-winter warming and rain events 
appear to play an important role in temperature 
gradient metamorphism and the production of 
depth hoar crystals. Equitemperature metamor- 
ptusm IS the dominant process in the Craigieburn 
snowpack but temperature gradient and melt 
freeze metamorphism are also important, the latter 
resulting from mid-winter rain and melt events In 
general, maritime climates are characterized by 
direct action avalanching resulting from large 
mputs of snow while in continental climates, where 
snowfalls are relatively small, structural weakness- 
es create a considerable potential for climax ava- 
anchmg. The findings of this study are particular 
to the pnmanly leeward locations of the Craigie- 
burn Range. Because of the strong regional vari- 
ations in alpine climate, which although not accu- 
rately quantified, are known to exist in New Zea- 
land, any inter-regional extrapolation of these re- 
(Bake?-IVD^ conducted extremely circumspectly. 
W85-00113 



INFLUENCE OF NON-UNIFORM TEMPFRA 
TURE DISTRIBUTION ON TOE STEAOT 
MOTION OF ICE SHEETS !>it,AUY 

University of East Anglia,' Norwich (England). 

School of Mathematics and Physics. 

L. W. Moriand, and G. D. Smith. 

Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 140 d 113-113 

GrT/41r' ' ''''' ' '^^•'' '' ^'' NERC gram 

Descriptors: 'Ice sheets, 'Glaciers, 'Temperature 
gradient. Ice properties. Ablation, Ice temperature. 



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^^^Hb-*v1^ 


MP 




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fl. 


^^^H^'''-'<~ 


S: 


^■^*<r->f 


< 


^B ;'.••'■.■'.'•'; 


X 




1 


^^KMb^x^* ■ *'' 


ci; 


^^HHk v'" 


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^^^^^^Hi 


BCI 


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it 












Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2C— Snow, lee, and Frost 

Plane steady flow, Viscous rate factor. Mathemati- 
cal equations. 

Large ice sheets have significant temperature vari- 
ation with depth, with melting or near-meltmg 
temperatures in some basal regions to colder tem- 
peratures at the surface but more modest tempera- 
ture gradients over their much greater spans. 1 he 
plane steady flow of a grounded ice sheet is ana- 
lyzed under the assumption that the ice behaves as 
a nonlinearly viscous Huid with a strongly temper- 
ature-dependent rate factor. The accumulation/ab- 
lation distribution on the (unknown) free surface is 
prescribed, and there is a given basal sliding condi- 
tion connecting the tangential velocity tangential 
traction and normal pressure. The basal boundary 
is the smooth contour which describes the mean 
topography viewed on the ice-sheet lengthscale, 
and is assumed to have small slope. Perturbation 
analysis is extended to the non-isothermal problem 
when the temperature distribution is prescribed. 
The thermomechanically coupled energy balance 
is not solved, but families of temperature distribu- 
tions qualitatively compatible with observed pat- 
terns are adopted to exhibit the effects of signiti- 
cant creep-rate variation with temperature. There 
is no optimum mean temperature for which the 
isothermal solution approximates satisfactorily to 
solutions for even simple temperature patterns 
varying only with depth. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-0O173 

ENERGY BALANCE OVER MELTING SNOW, 
CRAIGIEBURN RANGE, NEW ZEALAND, 

National Hydrology Research Inst., Ottawa (On- 
tario). 

T. D. Prowse, and I. F. Owens. ,,-, ,.t 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 21, No. 2, p 133-147, 
1982. 5 Fig, 5 Tab, 44 Ref 

Descriptors: *Energy balance, •Snowmelt 'New 
Zealand, •Craigiebum Range, Heat flow. Net radi- 
ation, Humidity, Wind, Rainfall. 

The energy balance method was applied to periods 
of spring snowmelt in the Craigieburn Range, New 
Zealand to assess the relative importance ot the 
individual heat flow components during both long- 
term and intense periods of seasonal snowmelt. 
During spring snowmelt, sensible heat is the major 
source of energy to the snowpack, contnbutmg 
approximately sixty percent of the total heat 
supply. Above average air temperatures and wind- 
speeds, typical of northwesterly airstreams, are 
primarily responsible for the dominating influence 
of the sensible heat flux. Over the long term, dai y 
inputs of sensible heat under such north-westeriy 
conditions are similar in magnitude to those report- 
ed for Chinooks in Canada. Net radiation is the 
second most important heat flux, reaching maxi- 
mum levels during calm, clear periods late in 
spring. Under heavy cloud, high humidity and 
strong wind, radiation heat flow is less than latent 
heat flow. The greatest total heat flux to the snow- 
pack occurs on days with rain, although the pre- 
cipitation heat flow is relatively unimportant, less 
than eight percent of the total heat supply. Sensible 
and latent heat are the most important heat supp y 
during rain. Future studies of snowmelt should 
concentrate upon obtaining more data on the size 
and relative importance of heat flows dunng spe- 
cific weather systems and especially during wet 
north-westerly airflows. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00181 



of precipitation. Sampling sites were established 
along naturally occurring snowdrifts in order to 
assess the long-term impacts of increased snow- 
pack on a subalpine meadow. The area was divided 
into three zones (light, moderate, and heavy stiow- 
pack) based on snow depths measured on 1 April. 
Sites were sampled from 1976 through 1979. Slope, 
exposure, soil texture, and pH did not differ signifi- 
cantly between snowpack zones in the study area. 
The variables sampled which decrease with in- 
creasing snowpack are soil depth, organic matter 
plant moisture stress, total plant cover, and plant 
production. Snow release date, number of species 
per macroplot, exposed rock, and total nowering 
period increase with increasing depth of the snow- 
pack A relative decline in plant cover and plant 
production is predicted for additional increases in 
snowpack. Individual plant species responses show 
that 14 species achieve maximum cover in the 
heavy snowpack zone while only six reach maxi- 
mum cover in the light snowpack zone. Ten spe- 
cies show no preference for snowpack zones. Pro- 
duction data for the 4 yr of study show consider- 
able variation between years. Differences in the 
veariy production figures are primarily due to the 
response of the graminoids which increase with 
increased growing season precipitation and de- 
crease with greater snowpack. Forb production 
did not change significantly among the 4 yr ol 
study. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00236 



EFFECTS OF INCREASING SNOWPACK ON A 
SUBALPINE MEADOW IN THE UINTA 
MOUNTAINS, UTAH, U.S.A., 

Native Plants, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. 

W. K. Ostler, K. T. Harper, K. B. McKnight, and 

D.C.Anderson. ,,,,,. xi i tn-x 

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, p 203- 
214, August, 1982. 4 Fig, 8 Tab, 28 Ref Waterand 
Power Resources Service contract 6-07-DR-2C)060. 

Descriptors: 'Snowpack, 'Subalpine zone, 'Uinta 
Mountains, 'Utah, 'Meadows, Cloud seeding. 
Weather modification, Environmental effects. 
Vegetation, Soil depth. Water stress, Plant cover. 

The Uinta Mountains of Utah are a target area for 
possible winter cloud seeding for the augmentation 



BASAL ICE IN HIGH ARCTIC SNOWPACKS, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Oe- 

ography. 

M.-K. Woo, R. Heron, and P. Marsh. 

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, p 251- 

260, August, 1982. 10 Fig, 16 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Basal ice, 'Arctic, 'Snowpack, 
'Snowmelt, Sublimation, Ice erosion. Melting, 
Freezing, Sediment transport, Channel erosion, Ice 
breakup. Runoff 

In late May or June, meltwater percolating 
through cold arctic snowpacks often refreezes as 
ice layers. In the presence of a cold substrate, such 
layers form at the base of the snowpack. This basal 
ice continues to grow so long as meltwater supply 
is sustained and the substrate remains below 
degrees C. Upon exposure, the ice is destroyed by 
sublimation and surface melting or by thermal and 
mechanical erosion by water which runs on, in or 
under the ice. Multiyear ice is preserved when the 
incompletely melted basal ice is buried by subse- 
quent snowfall or by a layer of earth materials. 
Multiple freezing and melting of water in basal ice 
layers complicate the snowmelt-runoff relationship 
in three principal ways. Where basal ice is abun- 
dant, the melt is prolonged and contributes to 
streamflow during the drier summer months. 
During breakup, the basal ice in stream beds tends 
to increase flow velocity and, consequently, the 
capacity for sediment transport. However, a basal 
ice layer in the channel will reduce opportunities 
for erosion. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00237 

2D. Evaporation and Transpiration 

TEMPERATURE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRA- 
TION GRADIENTS OF THE WHITE MOUN- 
TAINS, NEW HAMPSHIRE, U.S.A., 

Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH. Dept. of Bologi- 
csX Sciences ■ 

W. A. Reiners, D. Y. HoUinger, and G. E. Lang. 
Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, p 31- 
36, February, 1984. 2 Fig, 2 Tab, 27 Ref 



Descriptors: 'Evapotranspiration, 'Temperature 
gradient, 'White Mountains, 'New Hampshire, 
Air temperature, Soil water. Forests, Canopy, 
Mountains, Degree days. 

Air temperatures and soil moisture percentages 
were measured below forest canopies along an 
environmental gradient in the White Mountains of 
New Hampshire. The following gradients of de- 
cline with altitude were estimated from these data: 
within forest air temperature, growing degree 



days, and potential and actual evapotranspiration. 
These gradients provide a basis for the develop- 
ment of predictors for rates of ecologically signifi- 
cant phenomena such as water balance, net Pri- 
mary production, and decomposition rate* Such 
data are important for the development of predic- 
tive models for several ecological processes the 
most obvious being the annual hydrological water 
balance of mounuin watersheds. Degree days is a 
very useful parameter for estimating metabolic 
rates and distributional limits of pollutants. Actual 
evapotranspiration is useful for estimating primary 
productivity of mature ecosystems, detntal decom- 
position rates, and litter decomposition. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00111 

INTERCEPTION OF PRECIPITATION BY 
FOREST PLANTATIONS (L'lNTERCEPTION 
DES PRECIPITATIONS PAR LES PEUPLE- 
MENTS FORESTIERS), 

Centre National de Recherches Forestieres, Sei- 

champs (France). Station de Sylviculture et de 

Production. 

G. Aussenac. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 7/8, p 531-536, 1981. 

6 Fig, 3 Tab, 15 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Interception loss, 'Forest hydrolo- 
gy, 'Evapotranspiration, Transpiration, Evapora- 
tion, Meadows, Rainfall intensity. Trees. 

Interception is substantial in forest plantations; it 
represents 25 to 45% of annual precipitation for 
resinous trees and 15 to 30% for leafy varieties. 
Interception varies with the characteristics of the 
tree population (density, age). It also depends on 
rain intensity, its permanent or intermittent charac- 
ter, and the evaporating capacity of the air. Most 
of the water intercepted evaporates. Evaporation is 
two or three times faster than the speed at which 
transpiration occurs. As a result, the tree loses 80 
to 85% of the intercepted water, with no offsetting 
compensation. According to the frequency of rainy 
spells, the real and potential evapo-transpiration of 
the forest population will be higher or lower than 
the potential evapo-transpiration of meadows. (Au- 
thor's abstract) 
W85-00390 

2E. Streamflow and Runoff 

EFFECTS OF GLACIATIONS UPON KARST 
AQUIFERS IN CANADA, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Ge- 
ography. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 149-158, 
Febniary, 1983. 1 Fig, 2 Tab, 21 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Karst hydrology, 'Glaciation, 
'Canada, Limestone, Glacial drift, Aqmfers, Car- 
bonates, Rocky Mountains. 

In Canada there are 570,000 sq km of limestone 
and marble outcrop, 600,000 sq km of dolomite and 
80 000 sq km of sulfate rocks. In addition, halite 
subcrops beneath 500,000 sq km of the central 
Prairie region and interacts with modem ground- 
water circulation to a varying extent. More than 
90% of the total outcrop-subcrop has been repeat- 
edly glaciated. The most recent time termmated 
13 000-5000 yr B.P. in certain areas. Carbonate 
terrains still partly buried by glacier ice may be 
inspected in the Rocky Mountains. Nine distmct 
effects of glacial action on the propagation and 
efficiency of karst aquifers are recognized. De- 
structive effects include erasure, dissection, intill- 
ing and injection. Bedrock solution may be inhibit- 
ed during non-glacial periods by a cover of glacial 
drift rich in carbonate clasts. Glacial burial may 
also preserve an aquifer and enhance its storage 
characteristics. Raising the hydrostatic head or 
steepening hydraulic gradients may stimulate aqui- 
fer expansion. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00009 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 



RESPONSE OF FISHES TO PERIODIC 
SPRING FLOODS IN A SOUTHEASTERN 
STREAM, 

University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesbure 
Dept. of Biology. ^' 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2H. 
"85-00130 



RESPONSE OF BRAIDED RIVERS TO 
CHANGING DISCHARGE, 

Ministry of Works and Development, Christ- 
church (New Zealand).Water and Soil Science 
Centre. 
M. P. Mosley. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 22, No. 1, p 18-67 
1983. 26 Fig, 4 Tab, 27 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Braided streams, *Discharge meas- 
urement, *Ashley River, 'Hurunui River, *Rakaia 
River, *Ahuriri River, *New Zealand, Flow dis- 
charge. Water surface area. Riffles, Pools, Runs 
Channels. 

Data to describe the physical characteristics of 
selected reaches were collected on the Ashley, 
Hurunui, Rakaia and Ahuriri Rivers to search for 
the existence of common relationships between the 
braided river environment and discharge. Water 
surface width, mean and maximum depth, mean 
and maximum velocity and cross sectional area of 
transects across individual branch channels and of 
cross sections across all channels increased with 
discharge. Simple power functions fitted to these 
relationships are similar to those of braided chan- 
nels flowing over non-cohesive bed material Cu- 
mulative plots of depth and velocity demonstrate 
regulanties in the form of the study rivers No 
significant relationships were found between dis- 
charge and the number of branch channels and the 
proportion of ffow in each. The areas of riffle, pool 
and run subenvironment all increase with increas- 
ing discharge. Water surface area in pools in- 
creases more slowly than does total water surface 
area, in nffles more rapidly, and in runs at approxi- 
mately the same rate. Hence the relative propor- 
tions of these subenvironments change with dis- 
charge. The areas of smooth, wavy and broken 
water expand as discharge increases but at differ- 
ent rates. Bed sediment size distributions in a given 
channel do not appear to change as discharge and 
lateral channel extent increase, until discharge in- 
creases to a point where sediment movement 
occurs, caused for example by the introduction of 
tine sediment from upstream. Although general 
qualitative relationships exist between discharge 
and channel characteristics, variability is so great 
that the relationships have little predictive value 
v^hanging discharge is only one source of variation 
in channel characteristics. Other sources include 
differences between rivers, between reaches be- 
tween cross-sections, between branch channels be- 
tween transects on a given branch channel, 'and 
due to the effect of floods. The effect of changine 
discharge IS no greater than any one of these taken 
ii^ividually, and their aggregated effects mask the 
fi;«%?, <,. ^"^'"8 discharge. (Baker-IVI) 



flow, and flow from the shallow groundwater 
body. A quantitative analysis of the observed re- 
sults revealed that the subsurface stormflow in the 
A-honzon was the most important contributor to 
stormflow generation in the experimental basin In 
regions such as Japan where rainstorms with a 
total rainfall of more than 100 mm often occur 
much more attention should be concentrated on 

/D 1''°'^„°X^"'^ A-horizon in stormflow generation. 

(Baker-IVI) 

W85-00190 



STORMFLOW GENERATION IN A HEADWA- 
TER^BASIN IN THE TAMA HILLS "n JAPA- 

Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Inst, of Geoscience. 
M. Yasuhara, S. Takayama, and Y. Suzuki 
Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol. 45, No. 1 p 
44-50, January 1984. 1 1 Fig, 12 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Headwaters, *Storm runoff, *Tama 
Wills, Japan, Rainstorms, Storm seepage. Subsur- 
face water, A-horizon. 

h,T*'f'j^«^u con'iucted in a small headwater 
Dasin ot 0.56 ha in size in the Tama Hills to clarify 

he mechanism of stormflow generation. Observa- 
tions were made in the field during and after a 

iJU.D mm rainstorm occurred on Oct 7-8 1979 At 
each stage of the rainstorm the relationship ' be- 
tween subsurface water behavior and storniflow 
generation was established by using 56 observation 
wells and 40 tensiometers. Three contributors to 
L„™n "^ generation were recognized: subsurface 
stormflow in the A-horizon, saturation overiand 



DETERMINATION OF THE HYDRAULIC 
ROUGHNESS OF A VEGETATED ^OOD- 
PLAIN, 

Yu. N. Sokolov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 2 p 96- 
100 February, 1982. 2 Fig, 1 Tab, 6 Ref. Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnickeskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 2 o 
33-36, February, 1982. ' ^ 

Descriptors: *Flood plains, *Hydraulic roughness 
Vegetation, Design criteria, Hydraulic engineer- 

The designing of hydraulic structures on rivers 
with floodplains is associated with a determination 
ot the water conveying capacity of the floodplains. 
To determine the capacity of a floodplain requires 
not simply a representative depiction of the flood- 
plain relief, but understanding its characterization 
so that It would be correlated with the velocity 
regime of the flow measured at the stream-gauging 
station. The next step after determining the statisti- 
cal parameters of the floodplain relief is the estab- 
lishment of the relation between these parameters 
and the coefficient describing the roughness of the 
floodplain stretches. The hydrometric data ob- 
tained m field studies are used in this study. The 
method proposed for characterizing the roughness 
of the relief and vegetation permits, without con- 
ducting costly hydrometric works in the flood 
period, a differentiated estimation of the change in 
the roughness coefficient of a floodplain in time 
and space on the basis of serial photogrammetric 
or ground topographic and geobotanic surveys in 
the low water period. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00437 



?S^^ ASPECTS OF PRACTICAL CALCULA- 
CHANNE?S "^^"^^^^Y FLOW IN OPEN 

M. S. Grushevskii. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16 No 4 n 
220-225, April, 1982. 14 Ref. Translated from Gi- 
drotekhmchenkoe Stroitel'stvo, No 4 p 25-28 
April, 1982. ' 

Descriptors: 'Unsteady flow, »Water resources 
management, *Open channels. Mathematical equa- 
tions. Flow, Lakes, Reservoirs, Overland runoff 



Groundwater — Group 2F 

Cases of the interaction of a surge with a vertical 
wall are possible in the operation of hydraulic 
structures. Such a situation can occur when a surge 
propagating along the channel of a river, canal, or 
a reservoir encounters a hydraulic structure When 
investigating the force of the surge on structures 
and problems of flooding of a territory it is impor- 
tant to have a correct determination of the param- 
eters of the reflected wave. When the surge ap- 
proaches the wall an impact lasting several frac- 
tions of a second occurs at the instant of first 
contact. The wall is passed around by the flow 
which can be considered quasisteady and equations 
of hydraulics describing steady flows can be used 
Measurements of the reflection of a surge from a 
vertical wall were taken by motion picture filming 
and wire type wave recorders operating on the 
pnnciple of measuring the resistance between 
wires which changes depending on the depth of 
water. The theoretically obtained relations of the 
depths in the reflected wave with consideration of 
overflow for all values of the relative wall height 
satisfactorily agree with the experimental data and 
also with data obtained in a study of the uprush of 
a solitary wave on a vertical wall. These findings 
can be used in preliminary estimations of flood 
zones and forces in the case of uprush of long 
wave on hydraulic structures. (Baker-IVI) 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE FLOOD (FRESHET) 
HYDROGRAPH OF A GIVEN PROBABILITY 
J^TH^CONSroERATION OF ITS WFAvS 

N. S. Kashinov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17 No 9 d 
429-439, September, 1983. 8 Fig, 4 Tab, 6 Ref 
Iranslated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo 
No. 9, p 8-15, September, 1983. 

Descriptors: *Flood hydrographs, •Freshet, 
Probabilities, Storage reservoir. Reservoirs. 
Kunoff, Powerplants, Prism storage. 

The main purpose of flood (freshet) hydrographs is 
to determine the most rational combination of the 
discharge capacity and prism storage of a reservoir 
tor stonng the runoff in the period when the 
inflow to the reservoir exceeds the discharge ca- 
pacity of the hydrostation. A method is presented 
for constructing the design hydrograph taking into 
account for the first time the probability of the 
distnbution of the high runoff between the rising 
and falling limbs (rise and recession, respectively) 
during storage. The design hydrograph with given 
probabilities of maximum runoff and its distribution 
relative to the maximum after introducing the cor- 
rection factors is exhibited. (Baker-IVD 
W85-0O489 ' 



In calculations of unsteady flow in natural bodies 
of water one must deal with situations where the 
one-dimensional model is insufficient and it is nec- 
essary to to solve the two-dimensional problem 
Calculations of unsteady flow play an important 
part in the case of water resources management 
Such aspects as direct coordination with water 
management calculations, operative planning and 
management in the automated control system of 
river basins, and the hydraulic calculation of inter- 
basin water transfer routes are areas of interest 
Use of the calculation of unsteady flow in the case 
of traditional hydrological investigations is also 
descnbed. Practical aspects of calculating unsteady 
flow in rivers are noted briefly. (Baker-IVI) 



^f rt,^^I°^ ^^ A SURGE FROM A VERTI- 
CAL WALL, 

A. V. Mishuev, and M. S. Sladkevich. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16 No 4 p 
225-228 April, 1982. 4 Fig, 3 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 4 n 28-30 
April, 1982. ^ ' 

Descriptors: 'Surges, 'Hydraulic structures. Verti- 
cal distribution, Rivers, Flow, Channels Reser- 
voirs. 



2F. Groundwater 



POINT-RECHARGE OF LIMESTONE 

AQUIFERS - A MODEL FROM NEW ZEA- 
LAND KARST, 

Manchester Polytechnic (England). Dept. of Envi- 
ronmental and Geographical Studies. 
J. Gunn. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No 1-3 p 19-29 
February, 1983. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 24 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Karst hydrology, 'Groundwater re- 
charge 'New Zealand, Model studies, Sinkholes, 
Hits Limestone, Aquifer recharge, Hydrologic 
models. <= .» a 

Closed depressions of moderate dimensions (solu- 
tion dolines, sinkholes, cockpits) are a widely de- 
scnbed feature of limestone terrains, but very little 
attention has been paid to their contemporary hy- 
drological function. The mechanisms by which 
depressions concentrate near-surface waters and 
transmit them to underiying aquifers has been in- 
vestigated through the use of a depression hydrolo- 
gy model. The area of study was located 7 km 
west of the Waitomo Caves in the King Country of 
west-central North Island. The karst is developed 
on the Ohgocene Te Kuiti Group of limestones 
the most widely outcropping carbonate rocks in 
New Zealand. Water transmitted by each flow 



< 

a 

I 

4; 

4: 

ECl 



IS 
!^' 
'I 

<B 
It 
It 



i: i 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 






m& 



Group 2F — Groundwater 

mechanism in the depression hydrology model was 
^pled to test the hypothesis that their existence 
Zy be justified by the differences in their chemi- 
cal and physical characteristics. Overland now 
occurs infrequently following intense and/or pro- 
nged rainfall and it is regarded as relatively 
unimportant, Throughttow may tentatively be di- 
vided into two sub-components; flow >" the upper 
soil horizons which responds rapidly to rainfall, 
and slower sustained flow. Subcutaneous ttow 
shows a rapid increase in discharge followmg 
storm rainfall, due to the transmission of mfiltrat- 
ine pulse waves, but storm water has a flow- 
thfough time of 2-10 weeks. Shaft How >s chemi- 
cally indistinguishable from subcutaneous How but 
has a greater annual temperature range. Two sub- 
sets of vadose Hows were identified: Hows which 
travel through open joints and fissures to the un_ 
derlying conduit; and Hows which travel through 
soil-filled fissures. Vadose seeps m the four s udy 
caves have similar solute concentrations and their 
mean calcium ion concentrations are significantly 
lower than those of the other transinission mecha- 
nisms and those of subcutaneous flows. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00002 

iinear unit-response functions as 
{SdIcators of recharge areas for 

LARGE KARST SPRINGS, 

California Univ., Santa Cruz. Dept. of Earth Sci- 
ences. 

S. J. Dreiss. ,. ., ■, ii aa 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61 No. 3, p 31-44, 
February, 1983. 6 Fig, 1 Tab, 14 Ref 

Descriptors: •Precipitation, *Karst hydrology, 
•Groundwater recharge. Springs, Aquifer re- 
charge, Groundwater recharge, Surface-ground- 
water relations. Precipitation. 

Linear kernel functions derived from the spring- 
How response of large karst springs to intense, 
isolated storms are most physically realistic and 
have the greatest predictive accuracy when the 
assumed spring recharge area is consistent with 
tracer study results. This observation implies that, 
if sufficient precipitation spring discharge data are 
available, such derived kernel functions could be 
useful for identifying or validating assumed spnng 
recharge areas. For example, in the absence ot 
detailed tracing data a researcher might propose a 
number of feasible recharge areas for a spnng and 
derive kernel functions, using the average precipi- 
tation for each of these proposed areas. The shape 
and predictive accuracy of the derived kernels 
would reflect the accuracy of the location ot the 
assumed recharge areas. The effectiveness of these 
kernel function properties in delineating recharge 
boundaries would depend on the size of the spnng 
relative to the areal extent of the momtor stonn, 
the homogeneity of soil and vegetation conditions, 
and the areal distribution of the precipitation sta- 
tions. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00003 



ROLE OF THE SUBCUTANEOUS ZONE IN 
KARST HYDROLOGY, 

Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Geogra- 
phy. 

P. W. Williams. , , , .. ^-i 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 45-67, 
February, 1983. 11 Fig, 52 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Karst hydrology, Groundwater, 
Subcutaneous zone. Saturation zone, Vadose 
water. Permeability, Chemical reactions. 

The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered 
layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the per- 
manently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particu- 
lar hydrological importance in karst because ot its 
high secondary permeability, arising from the con- 
siderable chemical solution in this zone. The im- 
portance of subcutaneous storage m sustaining ba- 
kflow discharge at some sites must be recognized, 
as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to 
flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the vol- 
umes of subcutaneous and phreatic components ot 
karst spring flood hydrographs are presented. A 
discussion is included of the significance of subcu- 



taneous hydrologic processes for an understanding 
of karst geomorphology. The desirability of ex- 
plaining karst landform evolution m terms of hy- 
drologic processes is stressed. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O0O4 



KARST LANDFORMS AND DRAINAGE BASIN 
EVOLUTION IN THE OBEY RIVER BASIN, 
NORTH-CENTRAL TENNESSEE, U.S.A., 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. 

of Civil Engineering. 

E. L. White, and W. B. White 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 69-82, 

February, 1983. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 14 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Karst hydrology, 'Obey River 
Basin, 'Tennessee, Cumberland Plateau, Lime- 
stone, Permeability, Warsaw Formation Woll 
River, Obey River, Roaring River, Subsurface 
drainage, Catchment areas. 

An extensive karst landscape is developed on the 
Mississippian limestones of the dissected western 
margin of the Cumberland Plateau. The internal 
drainage from the dolines and from the sinking 
streams is perched on the impenneable Warsaw 
Fonnation and emerges as contact spnngs on the 
inner gorges of the rivers which have cut deep 
narrow valleys below the level of the upland sur- 
face. Tributary streams to the Wolf Obey and 
Roaring rivers (tributaries of the Cumberland 
River in north-central Tennessee) were analyzed 
by fitting their longitudinal profiles to exponential 
and logarithmic functions. Linear seginents of se- 
milogarithmic plots permitted extrapolating both 
active streams and under drained stream channels 
through the doline karst. Active stream systems 
maintain, on the average, the profiles and gradients 
that they would have had if they had been flowing 
in nonnal surface channels. Streams emerge from 
the karst at elevations appropriate to the hydraulic 
characteristics of the drainage basm that fed the 
system The dry under drained channels in fluvio- 
karst can be related to river terraces and erosion 
surfaces in the same way that dry upper level cave 
passages can be so related The tnbutary stream 
channels examined here relate the Highland Rim 
surface, the band of doline karst that borders the 
Cumberiand Escarpment, and the flood plams ot 
the principal rivers. The maintenance of the hy- 
draulic profile of the tributary strearns through 
their under drained reaches suggests that the de- 
velopment of subsurface drainage and the excava- 
tion of conduits by dissolution of the limestone is a 
more rapid process than is the adjustment ot the 
surface channels. The sub-surface conduit systems 
seem to keep pace with the surface channel witn- 
out difficulty. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-O00O5 



HYDROLOGY AND HYDROCHEMISTRY OF 
THE CAVES BRANCH KARST, BELIZE, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontano). Dept. ot Ge- 
ography. 

Jounlafof Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 83-88, 
February, 1983. 2 Fig, 7 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Aquifers, 'Karst hydrology, 'Water 
storage, Chemical reactions. Calcium carbonate, 
Belize Central America, Solute transport. Caves. 



A large conduit spring issuing from Cretaceous 
limestones in Belize, Central America, displays a 
positive relation of discharge to solute concentra- 
tion Beneath a maturely dissected cockpit karst, 
the hydrologic system combines allogenic surtace 
water from an invasion polje with authigenic karst 
water. Dynamic mixing produces three climatical- 
ly induced discharge phases: baseflow, normal, and 
high stage flow. Comparisons of aquifer storage 
with the total amount of discharge recorded 
during the summer showed the latter was insuffi- 
cient to entirely replace the storage and that the 
mean residence time was on the order of severaf 
months, even during the wet season. Zuhuyhas 
were only the visible part of extensive networks 
within the karst that collect diffuse flows into 
conduit-type passages. Runoff enters the karst 
through many openings, rapidly passes to the 
phreatic zone, then percolates slowly for several 



months, achieving high saturation before resur- 
gence at many discrete resurgences, liie inllux oi 
high hardness karst aquifer water into the trunk 
channel can be considered a type of flushing event, 
then but on a much grander scale than that 
common nearly everywhere else. The mean lota! 
hardness of hundreds of samples collected from 
diffuse springs indicates higher concentrations than 
expected. Discharge weighted total hardness was 
about 215 mg/1 calcium carbonate, giving a denu- 
dation rate of about 100 mm per 1000 yr. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00006 

HvnROSTRATIGRAPHIC SUBDIVISIONS 
AND FAULT BARRIERS OF THE EDWARDS 
AQUIFER, SOUTH-CENTRAL TEXAS, U.S.A., 
Geological Survey, San Antonio, TX. 
R. W. Maclay, and T. A. Small. ,,.,,.,: 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 127-146, 
Febniary, 1983. 11 Fig, 1 Tab, 9 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Karst hydrology, 'Geologic frac- 
tures, 'Texas, 'Edwards Aquifer, Aquifers, 
Groundwater, Stratigraphy. 

The karstic Edwards Limestone within the Bal- 
cones Fault Zone of south-central Texas forms a 
productive confined aqmfer that consists predomi- 
nantly of dense carbonate rocks and contains sev- 
eral layers of highly permeable and porous honey- 
combed rocks that have been produced by the 
leaching of evaporitic, tidal flat or reefal deposits. 
The Edwards aquifer not only supplies the water 
requirements for a population of more than one 
million people, but it also supplies the water 
needed for extensive irrigation. Fractures have hy- 
draulically interconnected these layers at some 
places. Faults, however, commonly place rocks ol 
very high permeability opposite rocks of very low 
permeabUity, thus creating a lateral discontmuity 
and a flow barrier. At places, fault barriers prob- 
ably cause partial to almost complete blockage of 
groundwater flow nonnal to the fault. This kmd of 
discontinuity is very common in the aquifer, and it 
may exert a major control on the direction of 
groundwater flow within it. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-0OOO8 

UPPER SALMON RIVER KARST, ANTICOSTl 
ISLAND, QUEBEC, CANADA, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontano). Dept. of Ge- 
ography. 

J. Roberge, and D. C. Ford. , ,q , at 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 159-162, 
February, 1983. 1 Fig, 3 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Karst hydrology, 'Anticosti Island, 
'Quebec, Carbonates, Glacial sediments, Ground- 
water, Groundwater movement. 

Anticosti Island is composed of medium- to thin- 
bedded carbonates of low dip and low relief The 
island was glaciated daring the Late Wisconsin but 
drift cover is thin because of manne overwash 
The principal karst extends along the joint set with 
38 sq km holokarst area and 105 sq km allogenic 
catchment. No evidence for karst features older 
than the postglacial period was found '" this area, 
or of glacial interference with the groundwater 
circulafion system. The system and [andforms are 
most probably of postglacial age. (Baker-lVl) 
W85-00010 



KARST HYDROLOGY OF THE BRUCE PE- 
NINSULA, ONTARIO, CANADA, 

Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington (On- 
tario). 

D. W. Cowell, and D. C. Ford. .^i .ar 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 163-168, 
February, 1983. 1 Fig, 1 Tab, 6 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Karst hydrology, 'Drainage 'Bruce 
Peninsula, 'Ontario, Niagara Escarpment, Scour- 
ing, Groundwater movement, Sinkholes. 

The Niagara Escarpment forms the eastern bound- 
ary of the deeply scoured dolomite plain of the 
Bruce Peninsula. The Bruce Peninsula represents 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 



an ear y karstification of a cuesta-bounded dolo- 
mite plain. Normal surficial channel drainage on 
the backslope competes with groundwater drain- 
age to the scarp foot. This results in the progres- 
sive karstification of the carbonate mass. Nearest 
the scarp is a zone of holokarst dominated by 
vertical drainage and lacking normal surface chan- 
nels. \yestward of this zone are at least five small 
Huvio-karst basins which have regular surface flow 
but are drained entirely by sinkholes. Most of the 
remaining drainage is normal surface flow draining 
westward away from the escarpment. Three drain- 
age conditions found on the Bruce Peninsula are 
described. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00011 

KARSTIC INTERPRETATION OF THE WINNI- 
PEG AQUIFER (MANITOBA, CANADA) 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept of Ge- 
ography. ^ ' 
D. C. Ford. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 177-180 
February, 1983. 1 Fig, 4 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Aquifers, 'Winnipeg, 'Manitoba, 
•Transmissibihty, 'Permeability, 'Karst hydrolo- 
gy. Carbonate aquifers, Sandstone aquifers 
Groundwater pollution. Wells, Water pollution 
sources. Glacial tills. P""uiion 



now during wet periods. Glacial till has effectively 
buffered postglacial runoff to inhibit the renewal of 
solutional attack upon the bedrock and the Yntro- 
duction of ordered drainage within it. Mean hard- 
ness of samples taken from surface water equals 98 
mg/1 (CaC03 + MgC03, expressed as CaC03) 
distribution IS ideally normal. The karst springs 
may be grouped into two principal classes by tern- 
perature. Springs grouped into the principal class 
of approximately 8 C are interpreted as circulating 
deeply and so attaining the ambient temperature of 
the rock. Springs of the principal class of 15-18 C 

Sth".1cXt/^i;°-'"^ '^'^''^ ^' -^ ^•^^"ow 
W85-00014 



Groundwater — Group 2F 

suggest that the phreas has very limited volume 
There is little storage in the aquifer and its rapid 
response and recession indicate a sparse but well- 
integrated network of conduits. The springs are the 
pnncipal drain of the central ice field. Karst flow 
systems may be maintained beneath temperate ice 

dicted''hv'?r'"""^!,""'y °^ "'^ 'P""e^ i^ c°"tra: 
d cted by their rapid response and recession, and 

of 7m"r^^™""'^r'^%^^'°'="'^'- '^^^ >"ferred age 
^Z^'^ ^' ",*''° S"ffi"ent for conduit develop- 
ment. Recent glaciation has blocked a pre-existing 

or"';cre:!rvV'^ ^''-^^^^ -- '-'--^ ^- 

W85-(XX)16 



At Winmpeg the Upper Carbonate Aquifer lies 10 
to 15 m below an erosion surface that bevels 
dolomites limestones, and minor shales. The aqui- 

!!!' r'"?u^ ""^^ '""'■^ '•'3" 3400 sq km and is 
confined by overlymg glacial tills and lake clays 
I his preglacial limestone pavement karst was pre- 
served intact because glacial ice was frozen at the 
base and could neither scour nor infill it. Karst 
aquifer capability was greatly enhanced by glacial 
action. The Upper Carbonate Aquifer display 
high storage and transmissibilty: transmissibilitv 
ranges from 25 to 2500 cu m/day. Two hundred 
commercia and industrial wells and thousands of 
commercial wells have been drilled in this aquifer 
over a penod of at least 130 years. Overiying lake 
clays function as an aquiclude, shielding the aqui- 
ler from pollution by surficial sources. A 20 to 22 
blsil'^Li^T <^5''0''«te Aquifer is confined to 
basal dolomitic limestones: transmissibihty no- 
where exceeds 60 cu m per day. Two underlying 
sandstone aquifers are confined by shales at thf 
WM° r^ sedimentary rock section: they contain 
highly saline water (TDS = 30,000 to SofoOO mg/ 
I). The Upper (:arbonate aquifier is probably not 
being expanded by further solution. High dissolved 
solids recorded in the aquifer are aUribued 'o 

a^^erSSTviT" ''"^' *"'° "'^ ^^"'^^^°- 
W85-0O013 

CAnSa,'^'*^ ^^^^' NEWFOUNDLAND, 

M. S. Karolyi, and D. C. Ford 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 181-185 

February, 1983. 1 Fig, 4 Ref ' 

pescriptors.-^'Goose Arm, 'Newfoundland, 'Karst 
hydrology 'Groundwater movement, 'Subsurface 

refatio^:' HSf'''"".^^^-^' *Surface-'groundwate 
relations. Hardness, Springs, Water temperature. 



alpine karst systems at crowsnf'st 
canV'^^^'*^^-^'*"^^" ?o°lumbu^ 

^^^aster'Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Ge- 
D. C. Ford. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 187-192 
February, 1983. 2 Fig, 5 Ref ' 

Descriptors: 'Crowsnest Pass, 'Alberta, 'British 

fGrnnn'f' t^"''' hydrology, 'Geoh^drology 

Groundwater movement. Caves, Aquicludes 

Vadose water. Springs. M"'i-iuues, 

Crowsnest Pass is a deep E-W breach through a 
westeriy dipping thrust ^late of massive pTatfom 

ed^nK '^'^■' '^'^'"^8'^ ^^' ''^'"^'''=' strike-orient- 
ed to the Pass in separate systems above and below 

l.LJ'"'^ "'^'■,, ^'P'"u^ ^^^"^^ '^'^q"^ and trough 
valley entrenchment has disordered the aquifers In 
different catchments there is now karst drainage 
down dip agamst dip, aslant strike, or surface 
drainage. Karst.c strike drainage survives where 
hydraulic gradients exceed 1:15. The aquiclude i! 
breached at one side. Caves and other\arst fea' 
tures are abundant at all elevations between the 
mountain crests and the floor of Crowsnest Pass 
Passage fragments close to crest elevations rarely 
retain more than 100 m of gallery length. Lar|er 
fragmented cave systems at intermediate elevations 
may attain an aggregate gallery length of 5 km and 

foon^co^?''^"'' V'^ •"' '^^'^ '"•^ f^^^J Ph^eatic 
nl^.f J^^"^' "^^""^ ""^y '=''^""61 small quanti- 
ties ot vadose invasion water today. Modern active 

knoln'hvTh'-^*''"'' ''' '^^«^'y inaccessible, are 
sninTv.^ their springs or function as flood over- 
spil channels. Regional prediction of karstic flow 
in alpine terrains is problematic; simple model nre- 
ms'miS ™ ^""^'^ '° ^''P'^- (Collier-IVI) ^ 



LINCOLNSHIRE LIMESTONE - HYDROrm 
^HEMICAL EVOLUTION OvIr A T^N^Y^Si" 

Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford (England). 
W. M. Edmunds, and N. R. G. Walton 
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 201-211 
February, 1983. 2 Fig, 1 Tab, 13 Ref ' 

Descriptors: 'England, 'Geochemistry, 'Ground- 

^cTe'mi.''l°""*'°"'- *G™tindwater ^movement. 
Chemical properties, Nitrates, Sulfates, Calcium 

2 p'^^'" ^^'^\°F'' *°" concentration Carbon- 
sumdr T'^'''J^'«""='"'"' Strontium, Hydrogen 
chemicals *" withdrawal, Agricultural 

FnL^Ln'"''"'"'^''^ (Jurassic) Limestone of eastern 
England a sequence of hydrogeochemical process- 
es along a 28-km flow line was defined fnl^l 
These processes include solution, redox and ion- 
exchange reactions, sulfate reduction, and mixing 
with saline formation water. Resampling in 1979 
showed an almost exact replication of the hydro 
chemical profiles for pH, 02, HC03(-), Na(T) 

T^f^^A..^^^^c+^• P(-)' ^"d total mineralization 
The N03(-), S04(2-), Cl(-), and Ca(2 + ) leveh 
have all increased significantly downgradient 

and an easterly shift of several kilometers for the 

erJS^'T'^'l °^"^(-) '' noticeable. Groundwat' 
er abstraction has stressed the natural system, and 
there now exists a dynamic equilibrium between 
the development induced recharge and the much 

fhe hvH°™'"? ^-^'T '^^' P""'='Ple changes 'n 
the hydrogeochemical controls can be attributed to 
over-development of the aquifer. A front of recent 

Ettd //'t''°"i'''"'"^*^'^ ''y ^grichemicals, has 
migrated eastwards giving rise to an increased 
concentration of Ca(2 + ), S04(2-), N03(-), and 
U(-). The aquifer has a significant capacity for in 
situ nitrate reduction. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00017 



CASTLEGUARD KARST, MAIN RANGES PA 
NADIAN ROCKY MOUOTMNS "'^'^^^^' ^^■ 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Ge- 

C. C. Smart, and D. C. Ford 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 193-197 

February, 1983. 2 Fig, 4 Ref 

^ew''^*^'^ \Castleguard karst, 'Columbia Ice- 
field, *Rocky Mountains, 'Glacial springs, 'Karst 
hydrology, Geohydrology, Groundwater move- 
ment. Springs, Aquifer systems, Glaciers. 



Karst landforms locaied at the head of Goose 
Arm, a major fjord, comprise 200 sq krn of de! 
formed carbonates with relief of 60-350 m blanket- 
ed with carbonate-rich till of the Last G aciation 
Karst deve opment is mature and well integrated^ 
landforms include small ponors, smal collanse 

kaS"af l.\"' '"''°^*°" ^°''"^^ '" *>"• -d 'i oral 
karren at lake margins. Groundwater drainage is 
extremely disordered; there appear to be as man v 
springs as there are sinkholes and the flowpath^ are 
very short (200-2800 m). Gradient and^rientation 
°hiDs to JnTn^' '^I'P'^y "° systematic relation 
nl^fnJ K^ °^"'- structure. The anomaly is ex- 
^u f^r ./ '"J^ction of glacial till into a pallo- 
over 76l of?hl,m^'f *= depressions are present 
k HrJn.H i ^°° "i ■"" area but only 13% of it 
salso dr.i""H^'®^°""'^ ^* ^" '''"^«- A further 40% 
IS also drained underground, but with surface over- 



hi.i^r Pi"""." °['*'^ drainage from the Colum- 
bia Icefield IS discharged through the bed of the 
subglacial Castleguard karst into well integrated 

ro.,Jif"th""l ^^^ ^"''«'^'='^' ^ater is dfained 
through the karst to constricted springs in the 
Cast eguard Valley. Spring discharge measure! 
ments reveal few discharges in excess of 1 cu m/s 

showed diurnal oscillations in the discharge peaks 
which lagged 5-7 hours behind the diurnal peaks in 
the conventional glacial-melt rivers. During its 
dfschargr fnTfff' S*S Spring displayed conftant 
flowin/i H f Pf '°''"^ 'P"ng^ commenced 
flowing in diurnal pulses. Fluorescent dye injec- 
tions confirmed a groundwater link between the 
cave springs and Big Spring; the linkage is not a 
fl'Z hr^'^'K","'^'^ relationship. Measurements of 
flowthrough time to Big Spring from a site 4 5 km 
distant and 750 m higher ^yielled minimurn La^ 
velocities of 200 m/hr and 640 m/hr. These results 



TRACE-ELEMENT PARTITION rOFFFf 
CIENTS IN THE CALCITE-WATER SYST^ 
AND THEIR PALEOCLIMaYic SIGNICT 
CANCE IN CAVE STUDIES, 5>it,NIFI. 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Ge- 
M. Gascoyne. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 213-222 
February, 1983. 4 Fig, 2 Tab, 18 Ref 

?r.'frT°''p I'^^ 1^'' *Magnesium, 'Geochemistry, 
Pr I^n ' ^aleochmate, 'Stalactites, 'Groundwatl 
tion SnT. t;:^^' ^^^ '"^'^''' ^^1'=*™' Deposi- 
Seep water "'■ ^'mestone. Air temperature. 

Timing and intensity of past climates may be in- 
ferred from the mineral content of calcium carbon- 

r n/n'^^'Pr^lf *^°™^'' *" '^^^^^^ These deposits, 
called speleothems, include stalactites and stalagl 

(^r^ J!'^m''°''P5'^'T. °f ««ain trace elements 
t.;fn. .^' ^^" ^"'l^") '" '^alcite is known to be 
temperature-dependent. Apparatus for collecting 
Zll ^i P'"econcentrating trace-metal cationi 
was used for sampling drip-water from stalacti°^ 
Using specially developed ion-exchange sampling 
techniques, analysis of trace-metal content of sTp^ 
age water and associated fresh calcite deposits in 
caves in Vancouver Island and Jamaica shows t ha" 
Mg IS distributed between phases in a com s en 
manner within the temperature regimes of the 
caves (7 degrees and 23 degrees C. respect^ely) 



a 



Wl 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2F — Groundwater 

Averaee values of the distribution coefficient for 
Me art respectively 0.017 and 0.045 at these tem- 
peratures. These results indicate that the Mg con- 
tent of calcite varies directly with temperature and 
in a sufficiently pronounced manner that a l 
degree C rise in depositional temperature ot a 
speleothem containing 500 ppm Mg, at approxi- 
mately 10 degrees C, would be seen as an increase 
of approximately 35 ppm Mg - a readily determina- 
ble shift Variations in trace-metal content ot tossil 
speleothems is useful as an alternative paleotemper- 
ature indicator. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00018 

EFFECTS OF GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SEA- 
SONALITY ON THE CHEMISTRY OF CAR- 
BONATE GROUNDWATER, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Ge- 
ography. 

J.J.Drake. ,. », , -, -m t^/; 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 223-236, 
February, 1983. 5 Fig, 1 Tab, 12 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Geochemistry, *Geomorphology, 
•Calcium, •Carbonates, 'Carbon dioxide, 'Season- 
al variation. Groundwater chemistry, SoH gases. 
Temperature, Gases, Soil temperature. Ground- 
water recharge, Climates. 

The equilibrium chemistry of carbonate ground- 
water at the regional and long-term scales ot ag- 
gregation is affected by geomorphic factors and by 
the seasonality of temperature and recnarge re- 
gimes The general trend of Ca concentration dit- 
ferences between regions is governed by annual 
mean air or groundwater temperature and by the 
nature of the solution system. Higher Ca concen- 
trations result from the coincident system where 
carbonate material, soil air and water are all 
present together and lower Ca concentrations trom 
the sequential system where carbonate material 
occurs downstream of the soil air. Comcident sys- 
tems occur in areas where carbonate material is 
present in the regolith (either by natural or human 
activity), where a porous or friable bedrock lies at 
shallow depth or where soils are shallow. Sequen- 
tial systems occur where there is a deep noncar- 
bonate regolith, where there is a non-carbonate 
cap to the carbonate bedrock or where there is a 
high water table. The assumptions of a fixed soil- 
air C02 production contained in a simple model ot 
the chemistry of saturated groundwater in carbon- 
ate terrains is invalid where recharge occurs 
through soils with a small relative air volume, at 
low temperatures, and where solution occurs 
under coincident-system conditions. This model 
does explain the general patterns of variations be- 
tween regions worldwide. Reductions in equilibri- 
um Ca concentration can be caused by low soil-air 
volumes relative to percolation volume. This may 
be particulariy significant in cool regions, where 
soils are shallow and clayey, and where recharge 
occurs in short high-intensity events. (CoUier-IVl) 
W85-00019 

SALTWATER-FRESHWATER INTERFACE IN 
THE TERTIARY LIMESTONE AQUIFER, 
SOUTHEAST ATLANTIC OUTER-CONTINEN- 
TAL SHELF OF THE U.S.A., 

Geological Survey, Albany, NY. 
R.H.Johnston. ,,„,.„ 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 239-249, 
February, 1983. 5 Fig, 13 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Floridan aquifer, 'Florida, •Georgia, 
•Saline-freshwater interfaces. Saline aquifers. 
Groundwater potential. Carbonate aquifers. 
Aquifers, Coastal aquifers. Offshore, Groundwater 
reservoirs. Saline water intrusion. Chloride, Water 
resources development. 

The tertiary limestone aquifer of southeastern USA 
is a sequence of carbonate rocks from which more 
than 3 billion gal (approximately 11,400,000 cu m) 
of water are pumped daily. This aquifer system is 
the principal source of municipal, industrial, and 
agricultural water in south Georgia and most of 
Florida. Hydrologic testing in an offshore oil well 
determined the position of the saltwater-freshwater 
interface in Tertiary limestones underlying the 
Florida-Georgia continental shelf At the offshore 



well 55 mi (approximately 88 km) east of Fernan- 
dina Beach, Florida, drill-stem tests made in the 
interval 1050-1070 ft (320-326 m) below sea level in 
the Ocala Limestone recovered a sample with a 
chloride concentration of 7000 mg/1. Formation 
water probably is slightly fresher. Pressure-head 
measurements indicated equivalent freshwater 
heads of 24-29 ft (7.3-8.8 m) above sea level. At the 
coast (Fernandina Beach), a relatively thin transi- 
tion zone separating freshwater and saltwater 
occurs at a depth of 2100 ft (640 m) below sea 
level. Fifty-five miles (approximately 88 km) oti- 
shore the base of freshwater is approximately 1 lOU 
ft (approximately 35 m) below sea level. The dif- 
ferences in depth to the freshwater-saltwater tran- 
sition at these two locations suggests an interlace 
with a very slight landward slope. Assuming the 
Hubbert interface equation applies here (because 
the interface and therefore freshwater flow lines 
are nearly horizontal) the equilibrium depth to the 
interface should be 40 times the freshwater head 
above sea level. Using present-day freshwater 
heads along the coast in the Hubbert equation 
results in depths to the interface of less than the 
observed 2100 ft (640 m). Substituting predevelop- 
ment heads in the equation yields depths greater 
than 2100 ft (640m). The interface is in a transient 
position between the position that would be com- 
patible with present-day head and the position that 
would be compatible with predevelopment heads. 
Some movement of the interface from the predeve- 
lopment position has occurred dunng the past hun- 
dred years. The implied movement is incompatible 
with the hypothesis that the freshwater occurring 
far offshore in this area is trapped water remaining 
since the Pleistocene Epoch. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00020 

RELATION OF CONCEALED FAULTS TO 

WATER QUALITY AND THE FORMATION OF 

SOLUTION FEATURES IN THE FLORIDAN 

AQUIFER, NORTHEASTERN FLORIDA, 

U.S.A. 

Geological Survey, Jacksonville, FL. 

G W Leve 

Jouraal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 251-264, 

February, 1983. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 15 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Floridan aquifer, 'Florida, 'Chlor- 
ides, 'Geologic fractures, 'Solution features, 
'Saline water intrusion. Saline-freshwater inter- 
faces, Demineralization, Carbonate aquifer. Arte- 
sian pressure, Calcite, Dolomite, Mineralization, 
Aquifers, Dissolution, Geochemistry, Groundwat- 
er movement. Water quality. 

Geological and hydrological information on the 
Floridan aquifer in northeastern Flonda indicates 
that isolated occurrences of water having relative- 
ly high chloride concentration in the upper part ot 
the aquifer may be associated with buned faults. 
Water having chloride concentrations of more 
than 7000 mg/1 occurs in the deeper zone of the 
aquifer at depths below approximately 600 m 
below sea level in the coastal and east-central part 
of the study area. This deep salty water is under 
higher artesian pressure than water in the shal- 
lower generally freshwater zones, but it is restnct- 
ed from moving upward by relatively impermeable 
dolomite beds. Two buried faults with vertical 
displacements of 30-45 m are in areas where rela- 
tively high concentrations of chloride have been 
detected in water in the upper part of the aquifer. 
Geochemical, artesian pressure, and water temper- 
ature data show that the source of the relatively 
high concentrations of chloride in water in the 
upper part of the aquifer is from the deeper zone; 
the faults may have breached the dolomite confin- 
ing beds and allowed the upward movement of 
salty water from the deeper zone. The upward 
movement of mineralized water along the faults 
may also have formed some of the solution features 
found in the aquifer near the faults. In this area, 
freshwater in the upper part of the aquifer is nor- 
mally saturated with respect to calcite and dolo- 
mite Water from wells tapping the upper part of 
the aquifer near the faults is not fully saturated 
suggesting that the mixing of deep mineralized 
water with shallower freshwater produces a mix- 
ture that is not saturated with respect to these 
minerals and allows for the dissolution of limestone 
in the aquifer near the faults. Dissolution of lime- 



stone may also be occurring at the freshwater- 
saltwater interface in the deeper zones of the aqui- 
fer. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00021 

SULFUR ISOTOPES AND HYDROCHEMICAL 

VARIATIONS IN SPRING WATERS OF 

SOUTHERN INDIANA, U.S.A., 

Indiana Univ. at Bloomington. Dept. of Geology. 

N. C. Krothe, and R D. Libra. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 267-283, 

February, 1983. 6 Fig, 4 Tab, 14 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Indiana, 'GeochemUtry, 'Ground- 
water movement, 'Sulfur isotopes, 'Spnng water. 
Carbonates, Karst hydrology, Sulfates, Gypsum, 
Conduit flow. Diffuse now. Sulfur bacteria. Hy- 
drogen sulfide. 

Sulfur isotope dau can be combined with hydrolo- 
gical and geochemical techniques to determine the 
sources of sulfate dissolved in a carbonate terrain. 
Water chemistry and delta S-34(S04) studies sug- 
gest two flow systems in the karst terrain of south- 
ern Indiana; a conduit (shallow) flow system, 
dominated by surface water entering the grouiKl 
through fractures; and a deeper regional ground- 
water flow system recharged by diffuse How. The 
chemistry of the water in the regional system may 
be dominated by the solution of gypsum in the 
Lower St. Louis Limestone. Water chemistry and 
sulfur isotopes in the springs studied vary with 
flow type and discharge. The high S04(2-) con- 
centrations in local waters may result from solu- 
tion of gypsum. Reported delta S-34(S04) for 
Upper Mississippian evaporates and fresh water 
range from -H4 to -(-19 to -t-8 to -hl2 0/00. 
respectively. Isotope analysis of gypsum cores 
from the Lower St. Louis Limestone evaponte 
unit shows delta S-34 values between -t- 14.10 and 
4-15 13 0/00 in the study area. Groundwater 
chemistry studies show a direct linear relationship 
between S04(-2) concentrations and delta S-34 
values. Groundwater varies in S04(-2) concentra- 
tions between 20 and 1970 mg/1. The delta S-34 
values range from -(-10.61 0/00 for a conduit 
spring to -(-18.57 0/00 for a diffuse spnng. The 
waters with high S04(2-) concentrations have 
delta S-34(S04)-values higher than the local 
gypsum deposits analyzed and contain H2S, sug- 
gesting a deeper flow system in which fractiona- 
tion by bacterial reduction of S04(-2) is occurrmg. 
Waters with low S04(-2) concentrations have 
delta S-34(S04) values in the range of local tresli 
waters, indicating a shallow flow system. (Collier- 
IVI) 
W85-00022 



NITROGEN-ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF 

GROUNDWATER NITRATE IN CARBONAra 
AQUIFERS: NATURAL SOURCES VERSUS 
HUMAN POLLUTION, 

Texas Univ. at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geol- 

0£y 

For primary bibhographic entry see Field 5B. 

W85-00023 

REGIONAL GEOHYDROLOGY OF THE 
NORTHERN LOUISIANA SALT-DONffi 
BASIN PART IV, HYDRAULIC CHARACTER- 
ISTICS OF THE WILCOX-CARRIZO AQUI- 
KER 

Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W85-00034 

BASIC GROUND-WATER HYDROLOGY, 

Geological Survey, Raleigh, NC. Water Resources 

Div. 

R C Heath 

Available from Dist. Br., USGS 604 S. Pickett St . 

Alex Va 22304. USGS Water-Supply Paper 2220, 

Second printing, 1984. 84 p, 10 Tab, 30 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater, 'Geohydrology, 
Groundwater pollution, 'Aquifer charactenstics, 
'Aquifer testing, Transmissivity, Permeability co- 



mms& 



efficient, Darcy s law, Water well hydraulics 
Groundwater movement. Thesis equation, Jacob 
equation, Water well problems. 

This report has been prepared to help meet the 
needs of local. State and federal water managers 
as well as the needs of hydrologists, well drillers' 
and others engaged in the study and development 
of ground-water supplies. It consists of 45 sections 
on the basic elements of ground-water hydrology 
arranged m order from the most basic aspects of 
the subject through a discussion of the methods 
used to determine the yield of aquifers to a discus- 
sion of common problems encountered in the oper- 
ation of ground-water supplies. Each section con- 
sists of a brief text and one or more drawings or 
maps that illustrate the main points covered in the 
text. In the sections dealing with the analysis of 
aquifer (pumping) test data, equations are given in 
both consistent units and in the inconsistent inch- 
pound units still in relatively common use among 
ground-water hydrologists and well drillers. As an 
aid to those who are not familiar with metric units 
and with the conversion of ground-water hydrau- 
lic units from inch-pound units to metric units 
conversion tables are given on the inside back 
cover. Definitions of ground-water terms are given 
where the terms are first introduced. Abbreviated 
definitions are also given on the inside front cover 
for convement reference by those who wish to 
review the definitions from time to time as they 
read the text. Finally, for those who need to 
review some of the simple mathematical operations 
that are used in ground-water hydrology, a section 
on numbers, equations, and conversions is included 
at the end of the text. fUSGS) 
W85-00036 ^ 



tempts to account for the origin of the hot springs 
on the basis of mixing relations and isotopic analy- 
ses were inconclusive; the springs may represent 
mixtures of thermal and nonthermal water which 
are altered by gases rising from sources beneath 
the caldera floor. Annual recharge to deep aquifers 
beneath the caldera is probably in the range 2,500 
to 6,500 acre-feet. Observations in a Geological 
Survey dnll hole suggest that part of the water 
may flow to aquifers at depths as much as 1,900 
feet beneath the caldera floor. Potential recharge 
to a postulated geothermal reservoir probably is 
extremely small. (USGS) 
W85-0OO84 



EFFECT OF WATER TABLE DEPTH IN OR 
GANIC SOIL ON SUBSIDENCE /ND SWELL- 

Department of Agriculture, Saint-Jc-n (Quebec) 
Research Station. ' 

W85-0015r^ bibliographic entry see Field 2G. 



HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN A FAULT- 
r2^??^^^n?^J?^«™ERMAL RESERVOIR 
CHARGED AT CONSTANT PRESSURE 

Cahfomia Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley 

K. P. Goyal, and T. N. Narasimhan. 
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87 No 
BIO, p 8581-8590, October, 1982. 11 Fig, 1 Tab 29 
76SF00098'^''^^"'^' °°^ contract DE-AC03- 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Groundwater — Group 2F 

of heat losses to the confining layers. The model 
can be used for theoretical studies of the develop- 
ment of fault-charged reservoirs. It can also be 
used to estimate the rate of recharge from the fault 
source and the time of evolution, using tempera- 
ture data from wells. The evolution of the thermal 
field IS greatly dependent on the ratio of the heat 
capacity of the aquifer to that of the caprock- the 
lower the ratio, the greater the heat losses from the 
aquifer to the caprock and bedrock. A steady state 
temperature field is greatly dependent on the dis- 
tance to the constant temperature boundary condi- 
tion at the ground surface. The model has been 
applied to the hydrothermal system at Susanville 
California. A reasonable match with the areal tem- 
perature distnbution in the primary aquifer and the 
temperature profiles of individual wells was ob- 
tained. This allowed an estimate of the recharge 
rate from the fault into the hydrothermal system to 
mnf^i" ^/ ""! .^^'c"'ated recharge rate 
(0.000000 cu cm/s m) into the Susanville hydro- 
therma system proved to be quite significant, a 
threefold mcrease in the potential of the Susanville 
hydrothermal anomaly for space heating purposes 
is predicted. (CoUier-I VI) e I'uipos.es 

W85-00177 



V.'. 



J«0!gD-WATER REGIONS OF THE UNITED 

Geological Survey, Raleigh, NO. Water Resources 
R. C. Heath. 

Available from Supt. Documents, GPO, Washine- 
TJl^^n? l°f 2. USGS Water-supply Paper 2242, 
1984. 78 p, 59 Fig, 6 Tab, 53 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater reservoirs, 'Ground- 
water availability, Geohydrology, 'Groundwater 
uS'Stetes"^ classification. Regional analysis, 

Features of ground-water systems useful in delin- 
eating ground-water regions include the compo- 
nents of the systems, the nature of the water- 
Deanng openings, mineral composition of the rock 
inatnx, water storage and transmission characteris- 
tics, and recharge and discharge conditions. Using 
hese cntena the United States, Puerto Rico, and 
the Virgm Islands are divided into 15 ground- 
water regions. In addition to discussions of 
ground-water geology and the classification of 
ground-water systems, this report also contains a 
brief descnption of the physical features, geologic 
framework, and the principal aspects of ground- 
W85 00037"^"'''' '" ^^''*' ''^^°"- (USGS) 



Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

E. A. Samuel, and R. W. Craig 
Available froni the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed 
Pnv.?T^''^° ^°225, USGS Water Resources 
Tab n R f" ''°" 83-4091, 1983. 52 p, 5 Fig, 12 

?aT7i!°!;'^ *Geothermal resources. Hydrology, 

Areal hydrogeology. Natural resources. Data col- 

Se"' °''^^°"' 'Newberry Volcano, Cascade 

Precipitation in the Newberry Caldera is very 
ari^n^i"i' f"''^ T^^ evaporation, evapotranspir- 
b c»rk«n" . ^'^^^'"flo^- Calcium, magnesium, and 
™^ ^ '°"i predominate in the more dilute 
ground and surface water. Thermal waters from 
spnngs and wells have concentrations of 900 milli- 
grams per liter or more and are characterized by 
lugh concentrations of sodium and sulfate At- 



Descnptors: 'Geothermal studies, 'Heat transfer 
'Mass transfer, 'Geothennal reservoirs. Boundary 
layers, Rayleigh number, Geologic fractures. Ther- 
mal water, Mathematical models. 

A two-dimensional, generic-type model was devel- 
oped for a iquid-dominated geothermal reservoir 
charged by heated water from a vertical fault zone 
and overlain by a thin, impenneable, thennally 
conducting cap rock. This model is applicable to a 
system with an impermeable clay cap orders of 
magnitude smaller than the underiying reservoir 
depth or to a system where the heated water is 
present in an extensive region just below the sur- 
face. X he mass flow rate or the pressure associated 
with the charging process at the fault inlet is 
unknown and can only be estimated and the pres- 
sure m the fault at the bottom of the reservoir is 
assumed to be prescribed. Quasianalytic solutions 
tor the velocity pressure, and temperature are ob- 
tained in the fault-reservoir system for a high Ray- 
leigh number flow. In this approximation, the up- 
welling fluid does not cool off appreciably until it 
reaches the cold upper boundary of the reservoir 
and encounters conductive heat loss. This thennal 
boundary layer, which is thin at the top of the 
faul , grows outward laterally and occupies the full 
thickness of the aquifer far away from the fault 
1 he mathematical model is based on the flow of 
liquid water m a saturated porous medium The 
solution techniques involve the combination of 
perturbation methods, boundary layer theory and 
numencal methods. (CoUier-IVI) 
W85-00176 ^ 



FLUCTUATION OF THE GROUNDWATER 
LEVEL AND FRESH-SALT WATER INTER 
nIsE) ^^^^'ONSE to the TIDE (IN jI?A. 

^i^'Tlu'^"'"' Matsuyama (Japan). Dept. of Ap- 
plied Physics. '^ 
Y. Kishi, and K. Inouchi. 

Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol 45 No 1 d 
61-68, January, 1984. 12 Fig, 15 Ref. ' ' 

Descriptors: 'Model studies, 'Groundwater move- 
ment, 'Saline-freshwater interfaces, 'Tidal effects 
Water level Confined aquifers, Unconfined 
aquifers. Aquifers. 

A model was used to investigate the fluctuation of 
groundwater level and fresh-salt water interface in 
response to tidal influences. The model assumes 
that groundwater is composed of two immiscible 
tluids, fresh water and salt water, in unconfined 
and confmed coastal aquifers. Solving mathemati- 
cal approximations of groundwater flow produces 
simple analytical fonns which express the fluctua- 
tion of the groundwater level and fresh-salt water 
interface in response to the harmonic oscillation of 
the level of the sea. Numerical solutions of ground- 
water flow are then obtained and the results com- 
pared with simple analytical solutions. Fluctuation 
of the groundwater level was almost the same as 
that predicted from the model in which ground- 
water is assumed to be composed of only a single 
fluid. Amplitude and phase lag of the oscillation of 
the tresh-salt water interface are nearly the same as 
those of the groundwater level in the case of the 
unconfined aquifer. In the case of the confined 
aquifer, on the other hand, amplitude of the fresh- 
salt water interface is considerably smaller and the 
phase lag is about 45 degrees compared with those 
ot the groundwater level. (Baker-IVn 
W85-00192 



THEORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEO- 
™ERMAL^|YSTEMS CHARGES BY^VE^kw- 

Cahfomia Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley 

G S. Bodvarsson, S. M. Benson, and P. A 

Witherspoon. 

Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87 No 

Bll,p 9317-9328, November, 1982. 17 Fig, 1 Tab 

76SF(X)098 '^"P^"''- °°^ contract DE-AC03- 

Descriptors: 'Geothermal studies, 'Geologic frac- 
tures, 'Susanville, 'California, Heat transfer. Re- 
charge Boundary layers. Thermal water. Mathe- 
matical models. 

A two-dimensional model has been developed of 
honzontal aquifers recharged with hot water by a 
vertical fault. The model considers the transient 
development of such systems including the effects 



PUMPING TESTS IN PATCHY AQUIFERS 

Institute of Geological Sciences, London (Eng- 
land). Hydrogeology Unit. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W85-00300 



PROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCUT ATOR 
Rv^^?^^^ FOR PUMPING TEST ANALYSE^ 
?L^^^'^^^ SQUARES' METHOD USING 
JACOB'S MODIFICATION OF THEIS' EQUA^ 
TION, 

King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). 

Faculty of Earth Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B 

W85-00301 



mL^ a^^b^e^rT'"'^''''"' °" ^ ^^^"^^ 

Department of Agriculture, Lethbridge (Alberta) 
Irngation Div. '' 



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Group 2F — Groundwater 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W8 5-00302 



LOWER HAWTHORN AQUIFER ON SANIBEL 
ISLAND, FLORIDA, 

Law Engineering Testing Co., Manetta, GA. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W85-00303 



HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF A FINE- 
GRAINED TILL, CATTARAUGUS COUNTY, 
NEW YORK, 

Geological Survey, Carson City, NV. 
D. E. Prudic. ,„„, 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, March-April, 1982. 
7 Fig, 3 Tab, 18 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Tills, •Permeability coefficient, 
•Cattaraugus County, 'New York, Landfills, Ra- 
dioactive waste disposal. Slug tests. Groundwater 
movement, Porosimeter tests, Anisotrophy, Over- 
burden pressure. 

Hydraulic conductivity of a fine-grained till was 
evaluated by field and laboratory techniques as 
part of a study of the movement of radionuclides at 
a nuclear-waste landfill in western New York. In 
general, both methods produced similar results. 
Hydraulic conductivity values determined from (a) 
slug tests of piezometers, (b) several types of labo- 
ratory tests on cores, and (c) calculation from 
mercury porosimeter tests, agreed within a factor 
of 25. Slug tests were analyzed by two methods: 
one assumed horizontal flow to the piezometer 
screen; the other assumed spherical, isotropic flow. 
Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity from 
slug tests of 12 piezometers was 6 x 10 to the -8 
cm/s by the first method and 2 x 10 to the -8 cm/s 
by the second. Laboratory tests of core samples 
were designed to determine the extent to which 
anisotrophy and increased pressures with depth 
may affect hydraulic conductivity. Consolidation 
tests were done on four core samples to determine 
changes in hydraulic conductivity with pressure. 
Vertical hydraulic conductivity of the samples de- 
creased by 40% as pressure increased from near 
atmospheric to the 7 kg/sq cm 2, a pressure that 
would prevail at a depth of 30 m. This indicates 
that hydraulic conductivity of the till decreases 
with depth in response to overburden pressure. 
Despite evidence of higher horizontal than vertical 
permeability in one set of laboratory tests of till 
samples, other laboratory and field tests as well as 
analyses of ground-water flow by a computer 
model indicate that the till is nearly isotropic. 
Hydraulic conductivity of the till was estimated 
with reasonable accuracy from mercury-porosime- 
ter tests. However, estimating hydraulic conduc- 
tivity of fine-grained samples from some regions by 
this method may be inappropriate because the 
method uses dry samples, which could severely 
affect the results if swelling clays are present. 
(Author's abstract) 
W85-00305 



CALCULATION OF VELOCTTY IN THREE 
SPACE DIMENSIONS FROM HYDRAULIC 
HEAD MEASUREMENTS, 

Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 
L. M. Abriola, and G. F. Pinder. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 205-213, March- 
April, 1982. 5 Fig, 2 Tab, 1 Ref, 3 Append. 

Descriptors: 'Velocity, 'Groundwater movement, 
•Hydraulic head, *Three dimensions, Mathemati- 
cal studies, Vertical head gradient, Aquifer sys- 
tems. 

When an aquifer system exhibits a significant verti- 
cal head gradient, it is generally necessary to con- 
sider velocity components in three space dimen- 
sions. A systematic and straightforward method 
was developed for the estimation of velocity com- 
ponents in three dimensions from hydraulic head 
data from a network of wells screened at different 
elevations. Groups of four measurement points are 
connected to form tetrahedrons, and a linear inter- 
polation scheme is used to obtain a head gradient 
estimate for each tetrahedron. Application of 
Darcy's law then yields the desired velocity com- 



ponent values. In the absence of significant vertical 
gradients, a two-dimensional approach will be 
roughly equivalent, and the simpler two-dimen- 
sional approach may be used with confidence. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00306 



REPEATED PULSE TECHNIQUE FOR DE- 
TERMINING THE HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES 
OF TIGHT FORMATIONS, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Hydrology and 
Water Resources. 

G. R. Walter, and G. M. Thompson. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 186-193, March- 
April, 1982. 10 Fig, 1 Tab, 10 Ref 

Descriptors: *Hydraulic properties, 'Repeated 
pulse method, •Aquifer testing, Geohydrology, 
Transmissivity, Observation wells, Groundwater 
storage, Anisotrophy, Slug tests. 

Slug and bailer tests are being used increasingly to 
evaluate the hydraulic properties of 'tight' geolog- 
ic units. Although these pulse methods of stressing 
a system are used typically only on single wells, 
the repeated pulse method described here stresses 
the system in the same manner, but the response is 
measured in observation wells. This type of pulse 
test yields much the same information as conven- 
tional pumping tests, but it is easier to perform in 
very low permeability units. The observation well 
response hydrographs are analyzed by curve- 
matching techniques. In general, a unique set of 
type curves must be computed for each pulse test. 
These types curves are computed easily if the 
pulsed well is treated as a line-source (or sink). The 
accuracy of the value of transmissivity (T) deter- 
mined from the line-source type curves compared 
to using the finite-diameter well solution depends 
both on the pulsed well radius (re) and the time 
interval between pulses (delta t). If T delta t/rc sq 
is maintained greater than 50, then T determined 
from the line-source solution will be within 25% of 
that determined from more accurate, but computa- 
tionally inconvenient, finite-diameter well type 
curves. The repeated-pulse test technique was ap- 
plied to an experimental well array completed in 
the Conasauga Shale Formation at Oak Ridge Na- 
tional Laboratory. Values of transmissivity deter- 
mined by the repeated-pulse method agreed well 
with the results of slug tests performed on each 
well individually, and in addition, provided infor- 
mation on storage coefficients and anisotrophy at 
the site. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00308 



TYPE CURVES FOR LARGE-DIAMETER 
WELLS NEAR BARRIERS, 

King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). 
Faculty of Earth Sciences. 
Z. Sen. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 3, p 274-277, May- 
June, 1982. 3 Fig, 5 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Aquifers, •Groundwater movement, 
•Wells, Barriers, Mathematical equations, Darcy's 
Law, Depression cone volume. 

Large-diameter well with well storage are fre- 
quently encountered in finite aquifers. A new 
methodology is presented for deriving the relevant 
type curves for this situation. In the Mid-East, 
large-diameter wells are mostly hand dug with 
diameters of 1 to 3 meters. The continuity equation 
and Darcy's law are used, coupled with the image 
method and the depression cone volume. The re- 
sultant type curve equation is very simple and 
lends itself to calculation on an ordinary hand 
calculator. There is no need for any table to plot 
the required type curve. Comparisons with the 
corresponding type curves in an infinitely exten- 
sive aquifer have been given. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00310 



SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN 

GROUND WATER FROM CLOGGING AND 
NONCLOGGING SHALLOW WELLS IN THE 
NETHERLANDS RIVER REGION, 

Keuringsinstituut voor Waterleidingartikelen, Rijs- 
wijk (Netherlands). 



For primary bibliographic entry sec Field 4B. 

W85-00313 



ANALYSIS OF LEAKY AQUIFER PUMPING 
TEST DATA: AN AUTOMATED NUMERICAL 
SOLUTION USING SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, 

Kansas State Geological Survey, Lawrence. 
P. M. Cobb, C. D. McElwee, and M. A. Butt. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 3, p 325-333, May- 
June, 1982. 7 Fig, 2 Tab, 18 Ref, 1 Append 

Descriptors: •Pumping tests, 'Leaky aquifers, 
•Drawdown, Confined aquifers. Mathematical 
models. Computer models. Sensitivity analysis. Al- 
gorithms. 

A methodology for analyzing the leaky artesian- 
aquifer pumping test use« a numerical regression 
algorithm built on sensitivity analysis. A by-prod- 
uct is the solution to the drawdown equations. The 
algorithm has consistently proven its ability to 
converge the correct set of aquifer parameters for 
a typical data set. In this case correct means the 
values obtained by manual curve matching meth- 
ods for real data, or the values used in generating 
the hypothetical data. Initial estimates of the aqui- 
fer parameters may vary by about three orders of 
magnitude above or below the correct values. For 
typical data sets the rms fitting error should be less 
than a few tenths of a foot. If this is not the case, 
one is probably not dealing with a simple leaky 
aquifer. If the data diverge too much from ideal 
data, convergence may not occur; if convergence 
does occur, the rms error may be unacceptable. 
Since the three degrees of freedom (three aquifer 
parameters) give the algorithm considerable lati- 
tude in achieving convergence, an imperfect data 
set may be run successfully and a set of values for 
transmissivity, storage, and leakage produced. For 
this reason, only the best data available should be 
analyzed, and the geohydrology should be exam- 
ined by experienced personnel. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00315 



REPRESENTATION OF MULTIAQUIFER 
WELL EFFECTS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL 
GROUND-WATER FLOW SIMULATION, 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 

W85-00316 

COMPACT MODIFIED THREE-DIMENSION- 
AL AQUIFER SIMULATION PROGRAM FOR 
SMALL COMPUTERS, 

Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Centre of Ex- 
ploration Geophysics. 

B. H. Briz-Kishore, and R. V. S. S. Avadhanulu. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 3, p 342-344, May- 
June, 1982. 3 Fig, 1 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Groundwater movement, 'Comput- 
ers, •Simulation, Aquifers, Computer models. 
Three-dimensional models, Geohydrology. 

The three-dimensional ground-water flow model, 
developed by Trescott (U.S.G.S. Open-File Report 
75-438, 1975) simulates aquifers with heterogenous, 
anisotropic character having irregular boundaries. 
The program requires about 250K bytes of 
memory for compilation and 72K bytes of memory 
for execution on IBM/370 using FORTRAN H 
OPT 2 system. To popularize the program for 
minicomputers, the entire organization was re- 
structured and various programming facilities were 
used. The implementation of segmentation and 
overlay at job command level, design of new sub- 
routines, and regrouping of the entries at program 
peripheral level and availing of program facilities 
have significantly reduced the program code. The 
new program requires about 1 IK bytes of memory. 
The modified design was tested with an example 
from Trescott and achieved 80% memory optimi- 
zation with a slight increase of run time. The 
efficiency of the developed methodology is estab- 
lished by the identical results obtained. (Moore- 
IVI) 
W85-00317 



10 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 



CLASSIFICATION OF GROUND-WATER SYS- 
TEMS OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Geological Survey, Raleigh, NC. Water Resources 
Div. 

R. C. Heath. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 393-403, July- 
August, 1982. 6 Fig, 3 Tab, 6 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater systems, •Classifica- 
tion, Geohydrologic units. Mapping, Discharge, 
Recharge, Groundwater storage, Transmissivity, 
Geohydrology. 

Delineation of groundwater regions is one of the 
most effective tools for transferring knowledge and 
for enhancing public understanding of groundwat- 
er occurrence and availability. The five features of 
groundwater systems useful in classification are: 
components of the system, nature of the water- 
bearing openings, composition of the rock matrix, 
storage and transmission characteristics, and re- 
charge and discharge conditions. Using these fea- 
tures, the United States can be divided convenient- 
ly into 14 regions: Western Mountain Ranges; Al- 
luvial Basins; Columbia Lava Plateau; Colorado 
Plateau and Wyoming Basin; High Plains; Nongla- 
ciated Central Region; Glaciated Central Region; 
Piedmont and Blue Ridge; Northeast and Superior 
Uplands; Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain; South- 
east Coastal Plain; Alluvial Valleys; Hawaii; and 
Alaska. (Moore-IVI) 
Wg5-00318 



REGIONAL STUDY OF THE DAKOTA AQUI- 
FER (BARTON'S DAKOTA REVISITED), 

Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

J. O. Helgesen, D. G. Jorgensen, R. B. Leonard, 
and D. C. Signor. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 410-414, July- 
August, 1982. 6 Fig, 14 Ref 

Descriptors: *Dakota aquifer, *Geohydrology, 
Aquifer characteristics, Potentiometric level, Con- 
fmed aquifers, Water supply development. 

The Dakota aquifer is an important resource to the 
midwestem U.S. Eariy work of N. H. Darton was 
a significant contribution to understanding the hy- 
drology of the system. Since Darton's work, many 
investigators have studied Dakota-aquifer hydrolo- 
gy with regard to development of local or state- 
wide resources. Preliminary mapping of relatively 
recent fluid-level data indicates regional potentio- 
metric trends similar to those interpreted by 
Darton, but altitudes substantially lower in part of 
the area. The classic artesian-system concept of the 
Dakota aquifer is not consistent with some of the 
data and observations of the past several decades. 
The simple aquifer geometry and effective lateral 
hydraulic continuity normally associated with that 
concept do not appear to characterize the Dakota 
aquifer regionally. Questions remain with regard to 
the significance of hydraulic head distributions, 
flow patterns, rates and distribution of recharge 
and discharge, geochemical processes, and water- 
quality variations. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00320 



STATISTICAL IDENTIFICATION OF HY- 
DRAULIC CONNECnONS BETWEEN THE 
SURFACE OF A MOUNTAIN AND INTERNAL 
MINERALIZED SOURCES, 

Idaho Univ., Moscow. Coll. of Mines and Earth 

Resources. 

R. E. Williams. 

jround Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 466-478, July- 

\ugust, 1982. 7 Fig, 2 Tab, 15 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Mining, 'Molybdenum, 'Block 
;aving, 'Water pollution sources, 'Geohydrology, 
'Mount Emmons, 'Colorado, Groundwater pollu- 
lon, Springs, Mine drainage. Water quality, Geo- 
ogic fractures. 

Jlount Emmons (near Crested Butte, Colorado) is 
he site of a proposed molybdenum mine that 
vould extract ore from within the core of the 
2,000-foot plus peak. The ore body will be ex- 
racted using a block caving technique that re- 
luires a thorough understanding of the hydrology 



of the mountain. To test the hypothesis that water 
quality data from various sources can be clustered 
and grouped into distinct populations that can be 
correlated with hydrogeologic features, cluster 
analysis and canonical analysis are applied to mine 
water quality data, drillhole water quality data, 
springwater quality data and surface-water quality 
data. Identified subpopulations indicate the pres- 
ence or absence of mineralized sources in recharge 
areas, along flow paths or in discharge areas for 
the different water quality groups. The statistical 
analyses in combination with fault-vein mapping 
and debris slide mapping facilitate identification of 
preferential hydraulic connections between the 
surface of Mount Emmons and internal mineral- 
ized zones. The majority of the springs on Mount 
Emmons were derived from debris slides. These 
springs discharge water than meets drinking-water 
standards, and they should not be affected signifi- 
cantly by mining. Groundwater discharge areas 
that can be expected to be affected by mining are 
located in the vicinity of the iron bog and the 
ferricrete soils and the Keystone and Union fault 
veins on the south side of the mountain. On the 
north side of the mountain both springs in Redwell 
basin appear to be fault-controlled and probably 
would be impacted by mining if block caving were 
to extend sufficiently far north. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00327 



UNRELIABILITY OF OPEN OBSERVATION 
BOREHOLES IN UNCONFINED AQUIFER 
PUMPING TESTS, 

Birmingham Univ. (England). Dept. of Civil Engi- 
neering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W85-00331 



HAND CALCULATOR PROGRAM FOR EVAL- 
UATING THEIS PARAMETERS FROM A 
PUMPING TEST, 

Electronic Associates, Inc., West Long Branch, 

NJ. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 

W85-00332 



EVALUATION OF AQUIFER BEHAVIOR IN A 
TYPICAL CRYSTALLINE BASEMENT, 

Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Centre of Ex- 
ploration Geophysics. 

B. H. Briz-Kishore, and V. L. S. Bhimasankaram. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 563-568, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 7 Fig, 3 Tab, 10 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Crystalline basement, 'Aquifer char- 
acteristics, 'India, Drilling, Well yield. Cone of 
depression. Groundwater level. Laminar flow. 
Pumping tests, Surface-groundwater relations^ 
Geologic fractures. 

A systematic overal' study of aquifer characteris- 
tics, the flow and yields of groundwater in frac- 
tured crystalline rocks was conducted in a small 
area of 40,000 sq m in Shadnagar basin (India). The 
area represents a typical crystalline basement. The 
study area consists of a central pumping well and 
six observation wells placed in three different di- 
rections and at different distances. The water 
levels in all the wells observed during drilling rise 
after drilling is completed. Yields of the multilevel 
wells indicate that they are independent of the 
thickness of the weathered zone and the number of 
fractured zones. The observation of laminar flow, 
steady-state condition, and cone of depression 
during pumping revealed that the fractured aquifer 
responds similarly to a continuous porous medium. 
Saturation and dewatering of the aquifer system 
over a long period results in the continuity of the 
entire groundwater system. The cone of depression 
may change in response to fracture orientation and 
configuration of the surface drainage system. The 
fracture system is in hydraulic connection with 
surface water in streams after pumping. (Moore- 

W85-00334 



TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE EAST 
SHORE AREA, UTAH, 

Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. 
D. R. Cole. 



Groundwater — Group 2F 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 586-593, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 8 Fig, 1 Tab, 15 Ref DOE 
contract DE-AC07-80ID 12079. 

Descriptors: 'East Shore, 'Utah, 'Hot springs, 
'Warm springs, 'Groundwater, Oxygen isotopes, 
Deuterium, Hydrogen, Cations, Anions, Geohy- 
drology, Groundwater movement. 

Stable isotope and fluid chemistry investigations in 
complex hydrogeologic areas have proven useful 
in delineating the origin of thermal waters and 
their interaction with local ground-water reser- 
voirs. The application of these techniques is illus- 
trated using water samples collected from all hot 
and warm springs and many of the wells in the 
East Shore area, Utah. These samples were ana- 
lyzed for major cations and anions, oxygen- 18/ 
oxygen- 16 and deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The 
data presented suggest the presence of at least two 
and perhaps three distinct hydrogeologic regimes. 
One regime involves fault-controlled deep circula- 
tion of waters derived from high elevations in 
mountains toward the east. These waters evolved 
into the sodium plus potassium, chloride-enriched 
hot spring fluids that are high in total dissolved salt 
concentration (greater than 4,000 mg/1), exhibit 
oxygen- 18 enrichment due to geochemical rock- 
water interaction at depth and have deuterium/ 
hydrogen ratios similar to high elevation mountain 
springs. A second hydrogeologic regime is com- 
prised of waters derived from lower elevations that 
infiltrate into the shallow valley sediments. These 
dilute calcium plus magnesium, bicarbonate fluids 
comprise most of the area's ground-water supply. 
Leakage of thermal waters into overlying cooler 
aquifers is observed in the vicinity of the hot 
springs, and is believed to occur in several other 
portions of the East Shore area. These leakage 
zones make up the third hydrogeologic regime 
observed in the East Shore area. (Author's ab- 
stract) 
W85-00337 



IN-SITU DETERMINATION OF THREE-DI- 
MENSIONAL AQUIFER PERMEABILITIES, 

Insitu Consulting, Laramie, WY. 
S.-C. Way, and C. R. McKee. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 594-603, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 12 Fig, 3 Tab, 13 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater movement, 'Aquifer 
properties, 'Permeability, Testing, Mathematical 
equations. Groundwater flow. Flow. 

In conventional methods of aquifer tests, homoge- 
neous and isotropic formations are assumed. How- 
ever, in many instances, aquifers are anisotropic. 
Three dimensional flow equations are derived to 
resolve this problem in homogeneous, anisotropic 
and leaky aquifers. With the equation and method 
as outlined, the three components of directional 
permeability can be determined in the presence of 
leakage, and the statistical distribution of fractures 
and stream channels can be determined. The direc- 
tional permeability of the formation is analyzed by 
matching the field drawdown (or pressure buildup 
data) against one of the type curves generated by 
the computer. The drawdown data (or pressure 
buildup data) may be obtained in partially penetrat- 
ing observation wells near a partially penetrating 
pumped well. An example using the partial pene- 
tration well function on an in-situ mining property 
to evaluate directional permeability demonstrated 
excellent agreement between field data and type 
curves generated from the equation on the comput- 
er, thus verifying the method as presented. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00338 



DOWN HOLE FLOWMETER ANALYSIS 
USING AN ASSOCIATED CALIPER LOG, 

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 
Taupo (New Zealand). Geophysics Div. 
M. C. Syms. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 606-610, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 3 Fig, 4 Ref 



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Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2F — Groundwater 

Descriptors: ♦Permeability coefficient, ♦Flow- 
meters, ♦Geothermal wells. Mathematical equa- 
tions. Caliper logs. Groundwater movement. 

A flowmeter has been constructed for use in geo- 
thermal wells and an interpretation technique de- 
veloped for analyzing the logs. Because the geo- 
thermal wells are lined with slotted casing, which 
has an open annulus behind it, caliper logs are not 
easily obtained. The interpretation method as pre- 
sented does not require borehole diameter informa- 
tion to derive volumetric flowrates. Location ot 
constant flow regions, inflow and outflow zones is 
done by manually comparing the shapes of the 
caliper and flowmeter logs. A flowrate log is then 
produced using quantitative volumetric flowrates 
calculated for several depths in the well. The log 
contains all the significant flow information with- 
out spurious noise and would be suitable for con- 
verting to an apparent hydraulic conductivity log. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00340 



HYDROGEOLOGIC CONTROL OF LOCAL- 
IZED IRON-ENRICHED GROUND WATER, 
LIMA, OHIO, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W85-00342 

IDENTIFICATION OF RECHARGE AREAS 
USING GEOCHEMICAL FACTOR ANALYSIS, 

Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington. 
F W. Lawrence, and S. B. Upchurch. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 680-687, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 3 Fig, 1 Tab, 19 Ref. 

Descriptors: ♦Factor analysis, ♦Groundwater re- 
charge, ♦Floridan Aquifer, Permeability, Artificial 
recharge. Limestone, Geochemistry, Groundwater 
movement. 

Factor analysis is useful for interpreting commonly 
collected groundwater quality data and relating 
those data to specific hydrogeologic processes. 
One hundred nine groundwater quality samples 
from wells completed in the upper Floridan Aqui- 
fer near Live Oak, Florida were analyzed for 
major dissolved constituents. R-mode factor analy- 
sis was used to separate those chemical variables 
that reflect areally-significant recharge processes 
from those related strictly to the dissolution of 
aquifer materials. Areas impacted by direct, rapid, 
artificial recharge through drainage wells and sink- 
holes, as well as by slow, natural recharge into the 
Floridan Aquifer were delineated. In spite of the 
relatively low amount of variability accounted for 
in the analysis, several clear patterns of recharge 
are apparent. These patterns demonstrate the utili- 
ty of factor analysis as a data filtering and pattern 
recognition technique. Factor analysis aids in sort- 
ing out chemical variables related to hydrogeologi- 
cal processes beyond strict lithologic controls. The 
technique applied to the Floridan Aquifer con- 
firmed that recharge rates and pathways are relat- 
ed to topographic regions, identified possible frac- 
ture traces that influence recharge and groundwat- 
er movement, and delineated areas in the vicinity 
of Live Oak where groundwater is impacted by 
artificial recharge from urban and agricultural 
sources. This technique is useful only in combina- 
tion with sound chemical principles and proce- 
dures. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00345 

GROUND-WATER AGE DISTRIBUTION IN 
MADRID BASIN, SPAIN, 

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. 
de Geologia. 

M. R. Llamas, E. S. Simpson, and P. E. Martinez 
Alfaro. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 688-695, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 4 Fig, 4 Tab, 1 1 Ref 

Descriptors; ♦Groundwater dating, ♦Solute trans- 
port, ♦Madrid Basin, ♦Spain, Model studies. 
Carbon radioisotopes. Alluvial deposits. Fluvial 
sediments. Basins, Groundwater movement. 

A flow net and a discrete-state compartment (or 
mixing cell) model were employed to calculate the 



age distribution of groundwater circulating 
through the aquifer formed by alluvial deposits 
that occupy the Madrid Basin in central Spain. 
Carbon- 14 decay ages were determined for nme 
groundwater samples taken from eight locations 
The ages obtained by the now and mixing cell 
models were consistent and generally agreed with 
the ages obtained by C-14 studies. The disagree- 
ment of C-14 age in one sample possibly was 
caused by some contamination with modern water 
during sampling. The older age anomaly in another 
sample might have been caused by the long time 
required by the recharge water to pass through the 
unsaturated zone in the interfluves where this zone 
may be 100 m thick. Although a better adjustment 
of the C-14 data is desirable, it is not certain that 
this refinement will permit a better calibration of 
any of the models. It is more important to use the 
results of such studies to guide the design of future 
C-14 field sampling programs. The mixing cell 
model coupled with a now model could provide a 
simplified method to analyze solute transfer in 
groundwater. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00346 



SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND THE GROUND- 
WATER INVERSE PROBLEM, 

Kansas State Geological Survey, Lawrence. 
C. D. McElwee. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 723-735, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 28 Ref 

Descriptors: ♦Sensitivity analysis, ♦Model studies, 
♦Groundwater hydrology. Evaluation, Mathemati- 
cal studies. Error analysis, Transmissivity, Storati- 
vity. 

An indirect inverse method using sensitivity analy- 
sis is employed to help understand the reasons for 
model insensitivity. The results of sensitivity analy- 
sis allow the modeler to aelineate insensitive areas 
of the model where inverse procedures will be 
more subject to error. Sensitivity coefficients are 
defined and discussed. A differential equation is 
developed for the sensitivity coefficients that will 
generally be solved by numerical techniques. A 
relatively simple least squares' inverse procedure is 
used on a hypothetical model to illustrate typical 
problems that can be encountered. In particular, 
the effect of data accuracy is considered. The fact 
that considerable error in the transmissivity and 
storativity may occur in areas of low sensitivity 
should not be looked upon as a failing of the 
inverse procedure. It is simply a fact that not all 
areas of the model have been stressed equally. 
Until additional head data become available to 
establish a minimum sensitivity level in all areas of 
the model it simply is not possible to estimate 
accurately the transmissivity and storativity every- 
where. The inverse process may also experience 
problems due to a basic nonuniqueness near no- 
now boundaries. The main advantage of the 
present work is that areas of low sensitivity may be 
delineated. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00350 

ISOTOPES IN GROUND- WATER INVESTIGA- 
TIONS, 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 
L. Toran. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 740-745, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 5 Fig, 34 Ref 

Descriptors: ♦Isotope studies, ♦Groundwater, Re- 
views, Tracers, Isotopic tracers. Environmental 
tracers. Groundwater movement. Mixing, Water 
chemistry. 

Isotopes have been used during the past 20 years to 
obtain a better theoretical and practical under- 
standing of groundwater. For an isotope to be 
useful in hydrology, the following characteristics 
are necessary. First, the relative mass difference of 
common to rare isotopes of the element should be 
large. Second, the abundance of the rare isotope 
must be substantial, but still contrast with the dom- 
inant isotope. Third, occurrence of some natural 
process modifies the relative abundance of an ele- 
ment's isotopes in a system. The distribution of 
isotopic species in water provides information on 
sources of groundwater, on flow paths and mixing. 



and on physical and chemical characteristics of 
aquifers. Numerous examples in the literature illus- 
trate the techniques and applications of isotopes to 
groundwater studies Demands are increasing for 
better understanding of hydrologic systems to fa- 
cilitate management of water as a resource, and to 
evaluate environmental problems. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00351 



GROUND-WATER DISPERSION CALCULA- 
TIONS WITH A PROGRAMMABLE CALCULA- 
TOR, 

Rhode Island Univ., Kingston. Dept. of Civil and 
Environmental Engineering. 
W. E. Kelly. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 736-738, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 2 Tab, 3 Ref 

Descriptors: ♦Groundwater movement, ♦Error 
analysis, ♦Dispersion, Computers, Mathematical 
methods. 

A simple and convenient method is presented for 
calculating two-dimensional dispersion on a TI 58 
or 59 programmable calculator. Accurate values 
for the complementary error function may be ob- 
tained quickly using the solid state softwater pro- 
gram available in the Master Library module. With 
this capability, analytic expressions for dispersion 
may be easily evaluated and programs for comput- 
ing one- and two-dimensional dispersion devel- 
oped. An example is offered to show the type of 
results that may be obtained. The program retains 
the limitations of the analytic solution and the 
approximation of the well function. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00352 



FIELD DETERMINATION OF AQUIFER 
THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE PARAM- 
ETERS, 

Kansas Univ., Lawrence. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

A D Parr, F. J. Molz, and J. G. Melville. 
Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 22-35, January- 
February, 1983. 14 Fig, 3 Tab, 30 Ref Battelle 
Pacific Northwest Laboratories contract B-67770- 
A-0, Oak Ridge National Laboratory contract 
7338. 

Descriptors: ♦Aquifer characteristics, ♦Thermal 
capacity, ♦Thermal energy storage. Energy 
sources. Evaluation, Permeability, Thermal con- 
ductivity. Pumping tests. 

Extensive testing is required to evaluate the poten- 
tial of an aquifer for thermal energy storage. Im- 
portant parameters include the regional gradient, 
vertical and horizontal permeability of the storage 
aquifer, horizontal dispersivity, vertical permeabil- 
ity of the upper and lower aquitard, thermal con- 
ductivities, heat capacities, and chemical charac- 
teristics of the aquifer matrix and native ground 
water Procedures and analyses of a series of tests 
for a confined aquifer near Mobile, Alabama were 
completed prior to an aquifer thermal energy stor- 
age experiment. The chemical analyses indicated 
that there was a potential for clay particle swelling 
and loss of permeability in the storage aquifer if 
relatively high quality water was heated and in- 
jected. It appears that thermodynamic parameters 
such as heat capacities and thermal conductivities 
can be estimated without actually performing 
measurements. The determination of hydraulic pa- 
rameters requires the performance of extensive 
field testing. Temporary, partially screened obser- 
vation and pumping wells were installed into the 
aquifer for the anisotropy test. The series of pump- 
ing tests emphasized the importance of obtaining 
good eariy drawdown data for each of the well 
tests. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00355 

RAINFALL/WATER-TABLE LEVEL RELA- 
TIONSHIP OF AN UNCONFINED AQUIFER, 

Hunter District Water Board, Newcastle (Austra- 
lia). 

M. N. Viswanathan. 

Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 49-56, January- 
February, 1983. 7 Fig, 9 Ref 



12 



Descnptors: 'Aquifer recharge, 'Water level 
•Ramfall, Infiltration, Unconfined aquifers Recur- 
sive least squares method, Groundwater recharge 
Aquifer characteristics. 'ccnarge. 

Soil parameters that determine the infiltration rates 
of a shallow unconfined coastal aquifer due to 
rainfall were obtained using the recursive feas^ 
squares method. The parameters were predicted by 

TZl'T '^ ■"""" '^i^^'^ «"°^ between the 
predicted and measured water table levels The 
parameters were treated as time dependent varia- 
bles, and their variation was tracked byln roduc- 
Zl^ f°j;«f""g factor of value 0.98 into the algo- 
nthm that predicts the parameters. Forgetting 
factor curtails the memory of the algorithm, hence 
the parameter values depend more on current 
values of levels and rainfall than on past value" 
Three sets of soil parameters were use'^ To deter 
rnine the variation of water table levels. Most of 
the recharge due to rainfall appears to take nlace 
within the first two days of rainfal Af.er'^ hat 
there IS very httle variation in the water table leve 
due to rainfall although there is a slight drop in 
due'to1h°e"es/ '^°"? ''"'^ ""^ day, ^presumTbly 

watertaMe.fK.I^vV"'"'''''' '" "^""''^ '"^^ 
W85-0O359 

Water Surveys (Nigeria) Ltd., Bauchi 
W87o0361^ bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 



PrfrSIT' ^""^y- *Radiation, *Soil water 

James Bay, Frost, Seasonal variation Ground 

temperature Temperature effects, Snow cover 

soil physical properties. '-"ver, 

Detailed and regular measurements of the radiation 
and energy balances and of the thermal and water 
regimes of the soil to a depth of 5 m were conduct 
ed from August 1979 to Aueust IQsn ;„ , 
pine forest near Lake Helene jlmes fiav °?^" 
results derived from these measurememf l^dica'e 
that temperature conditions and thus seasonal fm.? 
in the ground are explainable in terms of radiative 
and heat energy exchanges near the^urface of thi 
physical properties of the soil, of snow accumula 
^,"h ^"'l of ^a'er concentrations and movemems 
W85!c^°142^ ^'^°''' ^"'''"'^'^ movements 

USE OF TEMPE CELL, MODIFIFn to di^ 
STRAIN SWELLING, FOR DETERmNATioM 
OF HYDRAULIC CONWcnmTfS^ sf^^^ 
WATER CONTENT '-^'^li » aimu SOIL 

fcrcTst'at°on''^"^"''""' ^^^'^""'^^^ (^'•'-«^)- 
J^°- Jommerfeldt, G. B. Schaalje, and W. 

?fiT77'.^"J°""?^i?'"^°" Science, Vol, H No 2 n 
265-272, May, 1984. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 9 Ref ^ 

Sntenr°'T*^"™'"H'^"y coefficient, *SoiI water 
content, *Tempe cells, 'Swelling, Subsurface 
drainage, Permeameters, Pore size, SoilTypes So^^ 
water suction. '>pes, son 



2G. Water In Soils 

KARST DEVELOPMENT AND THF ni«Ti>i 
BUTION OF KARST DRAINAGE™st?ms m 
DEJIANG, GUIZHOU PROVINCE cS^A 

Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst, of Geogra- 

L. Song, Y. Zhang, J. Fang, and Z. Gu. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3 n 3-17 

February, 1983. 5 Fig, 4 Tab. "■ ' ■*. P J-17, 

Descriptors: 'Karst hydrology, 'Drainaee svs 
ems. 'China, ^Dejiangf 'Guifhou ProvTnc? Sub" 
surface drainage, Geologic fractures, Groundwat-" 

The development and distribution of karst anrf 
underground drainage systems Z °he Deiiana 
rown and Shaqi areas are controlled by geoCc 
.tructure, hthology, erosive and corrosive bfse 

S'cSon fnr°^''.'°'°^*'^^^°'"''°" hySro! 
ogic conditions and neotectomc movement Karst 

unnelfand'th: '"''^^' ''^P-^^--- sinkholef and 
unnels and the mam courses of the subterranean 
ra^^age systems are distributed along the resTona^ 
ults and the axial part of the folds^n theS 

if re""'— ".=-p™s 

Eotertnni; ^ Cretaceous and especially the 

eotectonic era, intermittent movements createH 

lT"t''\f °^-^"'''"^'=" ^"d caves w'tdifS 
■adiem nf ''^^ '""^'^'^ ^' *''gh«^ altitudes. The 

r to the slonfnf ?h""? "'/T^' 'y^'^^' i^ ^imi! 
r to the slope of the land. Longitudinal profiles 
derground are convex. Controlled by geo°ogic 
ucture and neotectonic movements, the Nfo^ 
u^an underground system has developed recen° 
luTLT'"^ '^^" '^^ Lengshuiyan system 
e I i/v, ■^°'''"'y^" ^y^'^'n has been capturrg 
e Lengshuiyan system and the subsurface water 
85 mm^ '° """ "°"*'- (Bal'er-IVI) 



Saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) and volumet 
re soil water content (theta), at different levTof 
suction, must be known when designing subsurface 
drainage systems. A pressure cell,^ called the 
Tempe cell, modified by others to determine K 
was further modified to restrain swelling of the sSl 
and to facilitate air and water movement across the 

aTes" heX^ar' 'h^ """"^-i ™^ -ethorsU'u' 
.„^ fne lateral and vertical restraints present 
under field condtions. If swelling is restrained 
pore geometry is altered. An apparatus was devel 
forle'eX^ll^"^ "^^'^ '=°""' be'd^r^m S 

levels could 1^'^''°"''."^"''^ '"" '"'="°" 
levels could be varied without disturbing thp 

sample. K and theta were determined for sfvera! 

prepared soil samples by the constant head oerme 

ameter method and by the Temne rell ,7„fh ^ 

tr'Temr'"",! ^^r'"^^' -"?or"d!irres'g 
the Tempe cell with swelling restrained With 
swelhng restrained, the K results from the pe 

Zte of 7J'' ""^ "°*, "'"^^ significantly fr'^m 
those of the core samples. For the sandy to siltv 
loam soils at suction levels 0, 10, and 20 kPa°the,a 

oth^r c ^^1 '^'"'^^ ^""^ '^^^ 'han that from the 
other samples, whereas for the clay loam so Is 
theta of he core sample was less than that from the 
others at suction levels of and 10 kPa F^r ^n 

tTe'SVh:'^"^^ '=°r^'^'l 'o cTay^confent o 
tne soil. The Tempe cell, as finally modified with 

the!a'?|/rhf ■"!'■ '^'" K^'^'' '° determine KanS 
tneta tor characterizing the drainability of a non 
structured to weakly structured soil, using ei"her 
^IP^^fj'^ja'^P'es or cores. (Collier-IVI) ^ 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Water In Soils— Group 2G 

turbed cores under greenhouse conditions Meas 
urements were made in two tiers, 0-0.3 m (top tfer 
and a3 m to WTD (bottom tier) durng he 
growth of a carrot crop with WTD as abovf and 

WTD ofVCr"^ H^ r ■" '""^ -tertbre^'The 
aTn°ch as t^/c r"'".'°Pj'«^ '° ^"•'^'^e twice 
as much as the same tier in the 0.6 m WTD Ton 
tier subsidence seemed irreversible in both WTD 
because minor swelling was observed toUowing a 
nse in the water table. Most of the revers"ble 
water tabrr'n""".^ V" '^^ """o"" ''«^- Ratsmg the 
36 and 2^^ f-'"i'v> '^-'°'^' ""'"'^ subsidence by 
fiv<.i xiT" ^""^ *^ °-^ and 0.9 m WTD, respec- 
tively. After correction for oxidation subs?dence 
accounted for 3.2 and 5.9% of the 6- and 9 „ 
profiles, respectively. The bulk density increase i^ 
the 0.6-m profile before and after the end of the 

inTre™* iTI^ "°' ^'^""■■""' ""' a '^mfic 'n 
s^fh.;!f ^^ ^^^ measured in the 0.9-m profile 

Subsidence rate decreased in both tiers durfng he 
growing period reaching a minimum in bo"h WTD 
PofraT.m H '^''^/"''^idence rate in Z a 9 m 
profile at 100 days after seed ng was 2 5 times the 
WsV-Mfse '"°"''- (Collier-IVI) ™'' """ 

TIOM^IT^^Jj:^ EXPRESSION OF FUNC- 
MoStURE, ™°™ INDICATION OF SOIL 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst of Evolii 
nonary Morphology and Animal Ecology "' 

B. V. Vinogradov 

?0°5''{o8^^'°/°^i'^^' ^'^*^"'^^^> V°'- 272. No. 1-6 p 
3U5-508, September, 1983 1 Fip 4 Rof t, i . !■ 

from Doklldy Akademfi Nauf SS^SR ^vTfll 
No. 1, p 247-250, September, 1983. ' 

?mltT''- ?°'' "^f "• *'^^"'0'e sensing, 'Math- 
Wrr:!ipXdev":ioSr' -^-^- L"™-''' 

2^rirScS^-t?ii^— s 

soil moisture is presented. Experiment^Hnvl^stifia 
tions on loamy achromatic soil demonstrated the 
complex nonlinear character of the re S be 
tween the coefficient of spectral lumino fty (p) m 

w) "ft"hVoTsu°rf "' n';;"" ^""^ "^^ ™" 
KW) oi the 0-2 surface soil horizon. A universal 

equation was formulated which for the first Hme 

yields a quantitative expression of the p(w) de 

renect"s't'hr'h '^' '"'''" l^""^' °f ^o*' "^oi^tu^e and 
reflects the phase state of the moisture in the soil 
Th^s makes it possible to extrapolate widely the 
remote indicators of soil moisture, to min mize he 
?urves"|fTw'^or"th '° --.'-=' "P^^ cSaVon' 

Sojl^ajid Irrigation Research Inst., Pretoria (South 
W&s'-Cmi? '"''''°e"Ph'c entry see Field 21. 



''o^n"»P^°"'''*'"'cal Journal, Vol' 21 No 2 n 
-240, May, 1984. 11 Fig, 6 Tab. 38 Ref. ' ^ 



^Ax?T?L,°^ ^ATER TABLE DEPTH IN OR 
GANIC SOIL ON SUBSIDENCE AND SWE^L-' 

fcrcTstnJn^^"'^"''"^^- ^^-*-'-" (Q-bec). 
J. A. Millette, and R. S. Broughton. 

273-282. May, 1984. 6 Fig, 3 Tab, 22 Ref ^ 

Descriptors: 'Water table, 'Subsidence, 'Swelline 
♦Organic soils. Density, Oxidation, Drainage! Caf: 

Organic soil subsidence occurs rapidly after initial 
drainage and subsequent cultivation. The sS 
ence process is mainly related to drainage depth as 
"th r\S'Vh°" '^)''^"''h """^ density' 'an'd 

tXi^f^,V'e\:ro'i m°u:° tr:oiit[^ 

face, on subsidence, subsidence rate, and swelHng 
of an organic soil were observed in large uS 



t^?XtS^a1S.^^S.T- ^«"^-™' 

ImltTLab'" '^"'""''^ Service,' Riverside, CA. Sa- 
W87S^ bibliographic entry see Field 7B. 

PROGRAM HVRLVl - INTERACTIVF oftitd 

TEST^I iQ^Jr uv^'^'*^ SOILS FROM FIELD 
TESTS USING HVORSLEV'S FORMULAE, 

National Hydrology Research Inst., Calgary (Al- 
berta). Ground Water Div 's«"y i^Ai 
K. U. Weyer. and W. C. Horwood-Brown. 



r, 

Cii 

•a. 
u 



a 

•3 

's 

4 
it 



13 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2G— Water In Soils 

A comouter program is presented for interactive, 
user° oriented' calculation of PermeaW.fes rom 
slue tests using Hvorslev's formulae for filters in 
uniform son. The analysis scheme is cost efficient 
and allows for simple sensitivity analyses^ The 
nroeramHVRLVl applies to field conditions 
whIreThe wen point filter is installed in uniform 
Tc^l Three basic methods for permeability determi- 
nation are considered: the constant head method 
"he vanable head method, and the bas^ ime lag 
method Assumptions include: soil at filter intake, 
Se depth and directional isotropy no disturb- 
ance segregation, swelling or consolidation of the 
"u noiir'or gas entrapped in so. , we^ po>n^ o 
nine- hydraulic losses in pipes, well point or tuter 
Segh^ble; and no sedimentation or leakage. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00312 

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SATURATED 
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND SOME 
PH?flCAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, 

Depanment of Agriculture, Lethbridge (Alberta). 
Irrigation Div. 

M I Hendrv and B. A. Paterson. 
Ground witer! Vo. 20, No. 5, p 604-605, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 2 Tab, 3 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Permeability .coefficient, 'Soil Prop- 
erties, 'Irrigation, Estimating, Permeability, Soil 
chemistry. Soil physical properties. 

Possible relationships between measured saturated 
hydrauhc conductivity and physical and chemical 
parameters could be found which would aid in 
estimating the irrigation potential of so'l .Physico 
chemical parameters employed included: depth 
below ground at which the sample was collected 
or at which the measurement was made, texture, 
saturation percentage, bulk density, electrical con^ 
ductance and the sodium adsorption rat o of the 
sou Saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity was 
rneasured in the field at 1094 sites usmg a single 
rinnnfdtration method and on 995 undisturbed 
soil cores in the lab using the constant-head perme- 
ame«r method. It was concluded that any a1,temp 
to use the independent Parameters identified in this 
technical note to estimate either laboratory or fidd 
hydraulic conductivity values will likely produce 
erroneous results. Additional parameters are 
needed. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00339 

2H. Lakes 



mosses Brown senescent moss portions had signifi- 
Tnt y iess effect on conductance than active gr^n 
portions, except in Sphagnum^ Invasion of Sphag- 
Lm, vertical zonation of the mosses on hum^ 
mocks, zonation with distance from the lake, the 
Xnd;nce of non-Sphagnum moss hummock , and 
the ability of the non-Sphagnum species to lower 
the pH of marsh water during laboratory incuba- 
tions are evidence that non-Sphagnum mos^sja- 
cilitate succession from alkaline marsh to Sphag- 
num bog. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00088 

STUDIES ON LEBANESE STREAMS: THE BI- 
OLOGICAL ZONATION OF THE NAHR QAB 
niAS (CONTRIBUTION A LA CONNAIS- 
SANCF DES COURS D'EAU DU LIBAN: LA 
IonTtiSn BIOlSgIQUE DU NAHR QAB 

Lebanese Univ., Beirut. Faculty of Sciences. 
Annafei°du Limnologie, Vol 19. No. 2, p 121-127, 
1983. 1 Fig, 6 Tab, 6 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Lebanon, 'Nahr Qab llias 'Aquatic 
animals, Invertebrates, Insects, Plecoptera. Dip- 
tera, Ephemeroptera, Mountain streams. 

Intermittent and permanent Pa^s °f tl^ Nahr pab 
llias, a chalky stream, are studied^ Chmatological 
hvdwgeological, hydrographic and biological data 
are given Tht stream is divided into three sectors. 
Almost all of the fauna of the montaine section is 
composed of insects which withstand the dryness 
of summer by one means or another. The P ecotera 
dominate the upper part. The annual pattern of 
flow does not permit other insects to survive. The 
montaine zone is the refuge of Plecoptera or any 
other macroinvertebrates not provided with rivals, 
except Diptera with rapid growth. The submon- 
taine sector is characterized by the relative stabili- 
W of the now throughout the year. Thus coloniza- 
tion by other groups of insects is possible. The 
Ephemeroptera dominate in the lower part_ T^e 
division of the hydrographic basin of the Qab Il.as 
into different sections, as a function of altitude, is 
comparable, in certain respects to the biological 
zonation observed in Europe. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00093 






FFFFCTS OF BRYOPHYTES ON SUCCESSION 
^P^AlZvLINE MARSH TO SPHAGNUM 

M?cWgan State Univ., Hickory Comers. W.K. 
Kellogg Biological Station. „ . ,, , 

J. M. Glime, R G. Wetzel, and B. J^ Kennedy^ 
The American Midland Naturalist, Vol lOS^o. 2 
p 209-223. October, 1982. 3 Fig. 3 Tab, 40 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Marshes, 'Bogs. 'Mosses, 'Succes- 
sion, 'Sphagnum, 'Lawrence Lake, *Michigan. 
Marl, Sediments, Bryophytes, Aquatic plants, Cal- 
cium. 

The alkaline eastern marsh of Lawrence Lake, a 
marl lake in southwestern Michigan, was samp ed 
by randomly placed line transects to determine the 
bryophyte cover and corresponding vascular plant 
zones. Cluster analysis indicated three distinct 
bryophyte zones designated as: Drepanocladus/ 
Brachythecium, Campylium/Drepanocladus. Cam- 
pylium/Drepanocladus/Fissidens. These zones 
correspond with the recognized vascular plant 
zones cattail/sedge and rose/cattail/sedge. cattail/ 
sedge/PotentiUa, and upland Potentilla, respective- 
ly Mosses occupied over 50% of the surface m 
some areas. Initial calcium ion concentration in 
marsh water used was 99.3 mg/liter. Both green 
and brown moss portions significantly lowered cal- 
cium ion concentration in both light and dark. 
Green moss portions were significantly more eftec- 
tive than brown in both light and dark^ Specific 
conductance of marsh water used was 906 micro- 
mho/cm. Specific conductance of marsh water 
was lowered significantly following incubation ol 



SULFATE REDUCERS CAN OUTCOMPETE 
XtoANOGENS at FRESHWATER SULFATE 
CONCENTRATIONS, 

Michigan State Univ.. Hickory Comers. W.K. 

Kellogg Biological Station. 

D R. Lovley. and M. J. Klug. 

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 

45 No. 1, p 187-192. January, 1983. 2 Fig, 3 Tab, 

20'Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Lake sediments *f'T°^^'^^Tc: 
'Bacteria, 'Sulfates, Oligotrophic lakes Methano- 
gens, Anaerobic conditions. Sulfate-reducmg bac- 
teria. 

Since the inability to adequately sample the most 
active sulfate reducing zone in eutrophic sediments 
may have resulted in an underestimate of the abili- 
ty of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to compete 
with methanogenic bacteria (MB) in freshwater, 
the interactions between the two populations were 
investigated in the sediments of an oligotrophic 
lake in which the sulfate gradient m the sediments 
was less steep. Inhibition of sulfate reduction with 
molybdate stimulated methane production trom 
both hydrogen and acetate. Molybdate did no 
stimulate methane production m sediments that 
were preincubated to deplete the su fate pool. Sul- 
Le reduction accounted for 30 to 81% of the total 
of terminal metabolism proceeding through sulfate 
reduction and methane production in Eckman grab 
amples of surface sediments. The ab.htyo sulfate 
reducers to effectively compete with methanogens 
for acetate was related to the sulfate reducers 
lower half-saturation constant for acetate metabo- 
hsm at in situ sulfate concentrations^ Processes 
other than sulfate reduction and methanogenesis 
consumed hydrogen at elevated hydrogen partial 
nressures and prevented a kinetic analysis of hy- 
drogen uptake by sulfate reducers and methano- 
ls "demonstration that sulfate reducers can 



successfully compete with methanogens for hydro- ■ 

gen and acetate in sedimenU at in situ sulfate ■ 

Concentrations of 60 to 105 microM extends the 1 
known range of sediment habitat in which sulfdte 
reduction can be a dominant terminal process. bKB 

have the potential to be the dominant acetate and j 

hydrogen consumers in the surface sediments or ■ 

freshwater lakes. (Baker-IVI) * 
W85-O0O98 

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF HY- 
DROGEN IN A EUTROPHIC LAKE, 

Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (Gennany. 

F.R). 

R. Conrad, M. Aragno. and W. SeUer. 

Applied and Environmental M'crob'ology, Vol. 

45, No. 2, p 502-510, February, 1983. 6 Fig, 44 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrogen, 'Eutrophic lakes, 'Laltt 
Loclat; 'Switzerland, Vertical distribution. Sedi- 
ments, Lake sediments. Mineralization. Decompos- 
ing organic matter. Stratification. 

The vertical distnbution of hydrogen was meas- 
ured in the Loclat, a eutrophic and holomictic laJce 
near Neuchatel, Switzerland, before and during 
summer stratification. Hydrogen concentrations 
decreased with depth in the anaerobic hypoUmmon 
and were often below the detection limit m the 
water adjacent to the lake sediment. Highest hy- 
drogen concentrations were noted in the aerobic 
water of the epUimnion and meulimnion. I he pos- 
sible role of cyanobacteria and algae for hydrogen 
production is discussed. Aerobic or anaerobic hy- 
drogen consumption activities were noted at ^ 
depths of the water column, with highest activities 
in the hypolimnion. Aerobic hydrogen consump- 
tion activity was insensitive to azide inhibition, but 
sensitive to heat, mercuric chloride, or cyamde. 
Aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bactena may play a 
role in the control of hydrogen escapmg from 
particles into the free lake water. Whereas the fr^ 
water usually contained less than 4 micro 1 of H/1, 
much higher hydrogen concentrations may locally 
arise on particles large enough to constitute micro- 
sites for anaerobic decomposition of orgamc 
matter. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00104 

LIMNOLOGICAL STUDY OF LAKE RA>^ 
(CHILE); MORPHOMETRY, PHYSICS, CHEM- 
ISTRY AND PLANKTON, 

Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst, de 

RCampos, J. Arenas. W. Steffen. C. Roman, and 

2rc1.i"rr Hydrobiologie Vol. 94, No IpVil^ 
171, July, 1982. 15 Fig. 6 Tab 35 Ref. Re^ch 
Fund of the Univ. Austral de Chile grant S-80-23. 



Descriptors: 'Limnology, 'Plankton, Lake 
Ranco 'Chile, 'Morphometry, Seasonal vanat on, 
sSion, OUgotrophic lakes, Zooplankton, 
Mountain lakes, Ramfall, SiUca, Nutnents, Snow- 
melt. Rainfall runoff. 

Lake Ranco lies in the pre-Andean mountain rarige 

with a surface altitude of 69 m. Ranco is a temper- 

Tt" monomictic, oligotrophic lake with a penod of 

wiAter circulation and one of summer stagnation^ 

The physical and chemical parameters of the lak^ 

were studied over one year's cycle. Lake Ranco 

Contains small amounts of orthophosphate and m- 

tra"e The quahty and quantity of Phytoplanktor 

were analyzed. The physicochemical factot^ 

present seasonal fluctuations P"ncipally due tc 

high winter pluviosity (2400 mm a year) and to th 

spring-summer radiation. The amoum of silica l 

Wgh in Lake Ranco, similar to that existing u 

oligotrophic lakes with hard waters averaging fo 

the vear 11.3 mg/1. The mam supply of nutnent 

seems ?o come from the influents which are mainl 

influenced by rains and melted snow. In genera^ 

the nuuients in oligotrophic lakes present or.ho 

grade distributions. Of the 90 Phytoplankton s^ 

cies identified, only seven are penannuals. (Bakei 

IVI) 

W85-00108 



14 



;'<!?:>-•'• 



NITROGEN CYCLE OF LAKE VECHTEN (TUV 
NETHERLANDS); ROLE OF sISme™ 

Limnologisch Inst., Nieuwersluis (Netherlands) 
H. Verdouw, and E. M. J. Dekkers 
Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, Vol. 94, No. 2, n 251- 
263, July, 1 982. 3 Fig, 6 Tab, 1 7 Ref '^ 

D^criptors: 'Nitrogen cycle. *Sedimentation. 
•Lake Vechten, 'Netherlands, Particulate matter 
Nitrogen, Transport, Seasonal variation, Stratifica- 
tion. 

Sedimentation was measured in Lake Vechten 
during three year cycles to evaluate the role of 
downward transport of particulate matter in the 
nitrogen cycle. Besides seasonal patterns, horizon- 
tal and vertical variations in sedimentation were 
measured, revealing a funnel effect together with 
transport of particulate material along the lake's 
edge_ rhe total nitrogen sedimentation at 8 m 
depth dunng the stratification period was calculat- 
ed using correction factors for the edge effect 
caused by the consequent transport of particulate 
matenal along the lake bottom. The greatest rate 
of sedimentation occurred during spring and 
autumn, lowest during the winter. AveragS sedi- 
mentation rates during the stratification period also 
differed considerably m different years. Sedimenta- 
tion of particulate material appeared to be an im- 
portam element m the nitrogen cycle of the lake, as 
the amount of nitrogen sedimenting through the 8 
in plane dunng stratification roughly equalled the 

L°Jers.7BaavTr^"* °' '""^ °^^^'^'"8 -*- 
W85-OOI09 

D^^^^^^?^**^ SEDIMENTARY ENVI- 
??,J?^^?^^ °N SAf^N ISLAND, NWT 
CANADA: RECONNAISSANCE OF LAKES ON 
CUMBERLAND PENINSULA 

Queen's Univ., Kingston (Ontario). Dept. of Geog- 

R. Gilbert, and M. Church. 

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, p 321- 
De^t n?p''' ^^^\.^ ^'^' 2 ^''^' 33 Ref. Canadian 
♦-227/76 ' ^"^ Resources grant EMR 



of Higher Education, 



Crewe and Alsager Coll. 

Alsager (England). 

A. A. Savage. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 23, No 1 n 55-70 

May, 1982. 8 Fig, 26 Ref ' '^ "' 

Descriptors: *Lake classification, * In vertebrates 
vation, Conductivity, Distribution. 

Data on populations of Corixidae in 55 water 
bodies in England, Scotland and Wales, are consid- 
Hict -K ♦ '^/ significant correlation between the 
distribution of each of six species of Corixidae and 

cotfi ."nn'^r'*^ °^ ^"'"^ ^°'^'^'- T~^° species, S 
scotti and S concmna, are confined to waters of 
low and high conductivity respectively. S. falleni 
and C. praeusta tend to occur in water bodies of 
intermediate size and high conductivity; the former 
being more numerous S. distincta occurs in ponds 
and lakes of relatively low conductivity but is 
replaced by S. scotti at very low conductivity S 
dorsahs IS found at all but the lowest conductivities 

hnHi*r'^f\'\'" '^.P'^'^^'^ "y S. fallen, in waer 
bodies of high conductivity and intermediate size 
The comparisons of the relative numbers of the six 
species give an indication of the biological differ- 
ences between a series of water bodies and there- 

StLXL^ivl;" "'"^ p^"^^^-"^ °^— 

W85-00119 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Lakes— Group 2H 

Outline ecological descriptions are given for 24 
standing waters in Morocco incorporating physical 
data aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and water- 

v»W ^f" ^*^f ^'"e"L'> "'^''^ °^ ^^^ conservation 
value of each site. The vegetated sebkhets com- 
whi^h ?r"P ?.f shallow mixohaline waterbodies in 
^eroH. in^K "^ ""^y '^"Se higher for short 
periods in the summer prior to seasonally drying 
out. They have clay silt or sandy bottoms and the 
salmity is low enough to allow the growth of 

wetlfnLT™''''^'^ IP^'^'^'- S^«^°"^' mesohaline 
wetlands dry out in the summer and showed simi- 
lar physical and biological characteristics. They 
resemble some of the vegetated sebkhets in being 

svstem Th '"^''''''f'' ^'°'" '^^ '^^ "y a dunf 
system. The principal source of water is the winter 
flooding of oueds, and they are thus fed by fresher 
waer and less saline in character. The freshwate 

T(ZTf^^''-'.^'^ "" ^'^^ ^'"'"de lakes above 
lUW m of moderate size up to 250 ha. Thev are 
generally considerably deeper than the other wato 
bodies sampled, up to a maximum of 100 m, and 
are fed by impermanent rivers and/or groundwat- 
m.nl f Ti '' ^'^'^' •''eWy calcareous and per- 
manent and the average ratio annual evaporation/ 

varilb e bu? T '"''''' ''^ ''^^ ""«"' -"st^et 

f!^^Sr^^Xn2mSr^£^ 

wSUr(LleT/^r°"^' --•'- -'^ --'ne 
W85-00123 



.>v.-: 



ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF STANDINP 
WATERS IN NORTH WEST AFRICA II SITF 
DESCRIPTIONS FOR TUNISIA ANbA^GE 

(France)^'°'°^'''"^ '^^ '^ ^"""^ '^" ^^'^'- ^^'^^ 
N. C. Morgan. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 24, No 2 n 83 1 M 
October, 1982. 2 Tab, 29 Ref ^ ' 



Descriptors: 'Standing waters, 'Wetlands, 'Ecolo- 
gy, 'Tunisia, 'Algeria, North West Africa, Lakes 
Oases Chotts, Sebkhets, Invertebrates, Wa erfow ' 
Aquatic plants. cnuwi, 



°Baffin'^M H^'r^'u'^''™^"'^' *Lake sediments, 
Baffm Island, 'Northwest Territories, Zooplank^ 
on, Cumberland Peninsula, Limnology, Varves 
iron. Redox conditions. Seasonal variation. 

Jtudies were made of four lakes receiving sienifi- 
ant quantities of glacial sediment and of five fakes 

'ss Zn^Sli'^'i' '"I'T"'- ^" ^^'«" '=°"t'in 
-ss than 10 mg/1 dissolved sediment, with highest 

^alues in the gladal lakes where ion scavenging 
Zvtn?'J'°T '^"' suspended sediment. Zoo 

d?mlnK '^^"". ^"''/°'^> =^^bo" content of 
-diments are an order of magnitude higher in the 
onglacial lakes. Shallow box cores we?e taken in 

der to study the recent sediments. Two distini" 
^.mentary environments are represented i^ "he 
reelvniTv?*'^. °"' ''°'"i"^«ed by higher energy! 
Tgely physical processes such as turbidity curren 
ow and another where chemical processes go": 
Tied principally by oxidation/reduction condi- 
gn prevail. In the former, which occurs in both 
acial and nonglacial lakes, periodic high sediment 
flow associated with glacial or nivll melTo 

th summer precipitation, produces distinct la- 

nae. The coarse laminae were supposedly denos- 

uedThrouVh""rr.«'^'=*^' '''^'^^ whLh c'on- 
lued through the lake intermittently as under- 
•ws or possibly interflows. Although they con- 
n less than 10% sand, grading and load struc 
res indicate that these beds werl probabfy depos- 
d from underflows or interflows in the lake, fron 

ereTedZn^"" '° '''' '^ "^'^'^t '^°" f^™ 
sly under redox conditions which change as 
position occurs. Despite a very pronounced dif! 
ence between winter and summer inflow to the 

i^er^Kiv?)' '^ ^-^^"-'^ '" -y ^^ 

55-00110 



l8rA^sX^.??o1.^rLiS?«««AE) IN 



Outline ecological descriptions are given for 39 

M?v Tq^7.'''*^\T^^''"^'^ '" Tunisk from 5-20 
May 1976 and Algeria, north of the Sahara, from 
18 January to 3 February 1977. The study incorn" 
rates physical data, aquatic vegetation! "nverte- 
brates and waterfowl. An assessment is mkde of the 
conservation value of each site. The sites were 
'i°r/° P^°^"^« ^ "nge of major standing water 
ypes from permanent freshwater to temporary 
saline chotts. Sites were primarily of a Mediterra 
nean climate. The chotts consisted of a serks of 
large shallow depressions stretching east-wes 
along the northern extremity of the SaharfwWch 
were lakes dunng the Pleistocene pluvials a^dln 
some cases are below sea level. The unvege"ated 
sebkhets 1^ to the north of the arid zone^o he 
chotts where the ratio evaporation:precipitation 
ranged from 2.3 to 4.2 for the sites sampled They 
form shallow pans with clay/silt bottom and are 
seasona with eu-hyperhaline water cond"tions 

lar to that of the unvegetated sebkhets, being verv 

halT' '"'? °"J ^""""'"S ' "" '" ^^'^^ depth, an^ 
having a clay/silt and/or sandy substrate Sites 
also included oases, freshwater mountain lakes 
(bS-IvI) "'""'* '"''"'• ''"' ^''^"^^ '^ke'- 
W85-00122 



ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF STANDINP 
WATERS IN NORTH WEST AFTtlCA III SITF 
DESCRIPTIONS FOR MOROCCO 

(F?anc"e)^'°'°^'''"^ '^^ '^ "^""^ ''"' ^^'^t' ^'^^^ 
N. C. Morgan. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 24, No. 3, p 161-182 
November, 1982. 1 Tab, 20 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Standing waters, 'Morocco, 'Ecolo- 
gy, Aquatic plants. Invertebrates, Conservation 
Waterfowl Sebkhets. Lakes, Mountain fakes' 

v'lriaS.sSir^' "^"'"^ ""'^"^^' ^^^^°"^' 



RESPONSE OF FISHES TO PFRinnrp 
l?RiAM,'^''°^' ^^ ' s5?THE™TERN 

KroSii?°"''^™ '^'^^'-•pp-' "^"-burg. 

S. T. Ross, and J. A. Baker. 

American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 109 No 1 n I 

14, January, 1983. 6 Fig, 1 Tab, 44 Ref '^ 

?F?ooT°Pn /r''\ ''"''"^'°'' *FIoodplains, 
s^i?,? ; ^°P"^a"°" dynamics. Species diversity 
Seasonal vanation. Diurnal variation. Turbidity! 

Periodic flooding is characteristic of most lotic 
sy tems. Nondestructive floods occur in low grad^U 
ent systems in which floods are characterized by 
^teral expansion rather than increases in depth 
lT,f^ M «'"^ floodplains may be seasonally in- 
undated. Movement of fishes onto a fringing flood- 
plain was studied by seining and trapph,g^dur°ng 
five spring floods. Twenty-six species of fish wTrf 
collected from the inundated foodpla.n The 

caTn. "' ^"""l'' f 'P^"''- Species numeri- 
cally dominant on the floodplain were Fundulus 
ol.yaceus F. notti. Gambusia affinis, Notrop" 
^rnl'v ' N/^''^""^- N. roseipinnis, Lepomi ma! 
c ochirus, L. cyanellus and L. marginatus. The 
number oi fish taken per try was generally the 
greatest on the upper floodplain during the day 
and greatest nearer the channel at night Nieht 

f^T'^ °^ ^f^^' °" "'^ floodplain was apparently 
low. Several species were common in the channel 
but did not exploit the floodplain. Activity of P 
nigrofasciata was negatively correlated with flood^ 
induced turbidity. A flood-exploitative species 
Notropis texanus, had higher population abun^ 
dance dunng 3 high-flow years than in 3 low-flow 
years, suggesting that the fish in Black Creek may 

suitnhrv"^H '" P'" "2^^°"eh structural habitat 
suitability and in part through stochastic events 

ent tha, L' T"'''^ °^^P""S flooding. It is appar- 

factol;:.\Sr!?vT '"""'^ ''''"'""^ '° ''^"^ 
W8 5-00 130 



INTEGRATION OF FOREST AND LAKE FFR 
TILIZATION: TRANSPORT AND TRANSFOr" 
MATIONS OF FERTILIZER ELEMENTS 

British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Van- 
couver. Fish and Wildlife Branch 
W85-roi47''' '"''"°S''^P*''c entry see Field 5G. 



DISTRIBUTIONS OF FERROUS IRON ANn 
SULFIDE IN AN ANOXIC HYPoIimNiSn 






'•* 




^^. 




{■■■:•:■ 


■>;<■ 


i 


•>',•'■ 



Si 

K 

CI 

I 

< 

Ki 



a 

S 






' 'X 



15 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2H — Lakes 

Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Pali- 
sades, NY. 

R. B. Cook. . 

Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc- 
es Vol 41, No. 2, p 286-293, February, 1984. 3 
Rg 4 Tab, 53 Ref NSF grants OCE-78-20898, 
DAR-79-17291 and DEB-80-17639. 

Descriptors: •Hypolimnion, *Ferrous iron, ♦Sul- 
fides, ♦Diagenesis, * Experimental Lakes Area, 
♦Ontario, Sediment-water interfaces, Interstitial 
water, Iron, Lake sediments, Eutrophic lakes. An- 
aerobic conditions. 

Equilibrium processes control the Fe(2-I-) and 
sigma-H2S concentrations in the water column and 
pore water of an anoxic hypolimnion. Measure- 
ments of the solid phase chemistry of the sediments 
may determine if the species predicted to have 
been formed on the basis of equilibria were actual- 
ly present and may verify diagenetic changes. In 
1979 water samples were collected from over the 
deepest part of an experimentally eutrophied lake. 
Lake 227 of the Experimental Lakes Area near 
Kenora, Ontario. In the anoxic hypolimnion 
sigma-H2S exhibits a mid-depth maximum (15-22 
micro mol/1, summer) while Fe(2-|-) increases with 
depth (650 micro mol/1, summer; 200 micro mol/1, 
winter). At the mid-depth sigma-H2S maximum 
and below, saturation with respect to amorphous 
FeS is reached, and the concentration of sigma- 
H2S is limited by the high Fe(2-I-) concentrations, 
in accord with the FeS solubility product. Values 
for pKsp (solubility product constant) for Feb 
determined from the sigma-H2S maximum and 
below averaged 3.16 in 1979. Sediment pore water 
samples were taken in the top 10 cm of sediment; 
pore water sigma-H2S and Fe(2-(-) are in equilibri- 
um with amorphous FeS. Analyses of sediment 
sample cores confirms the existence of an iron 
sulfide phase. Fe(2-f ) increases to concentrations 
at which siderite may form, although the presence 
of siderite has not been verified. In the anoxic 
hypolimnion about 90% of the observed fivox origi- 
nates at the sediment-water interface, while the 
remainder is derived from pore water flux. (Col- 
lier-IVI) 
W85-00149 



EMPIRICAL PREDICTION OF CRIJ!»TACEAN 
ZOOPLANKTON BIOMASS AND PROFUN- 
DAL MACROBENTHOS BIOMASS IN LAKES, 

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). Dept. of Biol- 



i;i^;|.;| 



CONTRIBUTION OF PARTICULATE PHOS- 
PHORUS (> 250 MICRO M) TO THE TOTAL 
PHOSPHORUS POOL IN LAKE WATER, 

Alberta Univ., Edmonton. Dept. of Zoology. 
E. E. Prepas, and J. Vickery. 
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc- 
es, Vol. 41, No. 2, p 351-363, February, 1984. 7 
Fig, 1 Tab, 23 Ref, 3 Append. 

Descriptors; ♦Alberta, ♦Phosphorus, ♦Lakes, ♦Par- 
ticle size, Cycling nutrients, Euphotic zone, Pro- 
ductivity, Chlorophyll, Epilimnion, Hypolimnion, 
Thermal stratification, Mixing. 

Previous studies have presented conflicting data on 
the importance of large particles to the total phos- 
phorus pool of lakes. Particulate phosphorus (PP) 
> 250 micro m was concentrated in the euphotic 
zone of 17 lakes studied over a three year period in 
central Alberta. When the euphotic zone extended 
below the epilimnion, PP > 250 micro m was 
concentrated deep in the euphotic zone. PP > 250 
micro m was a significant but variable portion of 
the total phosphorus (TP) pool in individual lakes. 
The contribution of this fraction varied amorig 
lakes: average summer values for the euphotic 
zone range from 3 to 19%. Among lakes, the 
contribution of large particles to the TP pool de- 
creased proportionally as lake productivity (esti- 
mated by chlorophyll a (Chl-a)) increased. The 
relative contribution of PP > 250 micro m in 
summer accounted for a significant portion of the 
residual variation in the spring TP-summer Chl-a 
relationship but not the summer TP-summer Chl-a 
relationship in the study lakes. These apparently 
contradictory results can be explained by differ- 
ences between lakes that mixed intermittently 
throughout the summer and those that remained 
permanently thermally stratified during this time. 
(Collier-IVI) 
W85-00151 



ogy- 

J. M. Hanson, and R. H. Peters. 
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc- 
es, Vol. 41, No. 3, p 439-445, March, 1984. 2 Fig, 4 
Tab, 57 Ref 

Descriptors: ♦Biomass, ♦Lakes, ♦Productivity, 
♦Macrobenthos, ♦Zooplankton, Chlorophyll a, Lit- 
toral zone. Phosphorous, Crustaceans, Nutrients, 
Benthos, Lake morphometry. 

Changing nutrient levels and other factors are re- 
lated to lake biomass and productivity. Data on 33 
North American, 14 European, and two Afncan 
lakes was taken from the literature to develop and 
compare several estimators of crustacean zoo- 
plankton biomass and profundal macrobenthos bio- 
mass. Parameters utilized were mean total phos- 
phorus concentration, mean chlorophyll-a concen- 
tration, Secci depth, mean depth, maximum depth, 
lake surface area, mean crustacean zooplankton 
biomass, and mean profundal macrobenthos bio- 
mass. Both mean zooplankton biomass and mean 
profundal macrobenthos biomass correlated better 
with mean total phosphorus concentration than 
with Secchi depth, mean depth, maximum depth, 
or lake surface area. Mean total phosphorus con- 
centration was also superior to mean chlorphyll-a 
concentration as an estimator of zooplankton bio- 
mass, but data were insufficient to evaluate chloro- 
phyll-a concentration as an estimate of macro- 
benthos biomass. Inclusion of maximum depth as a 
variable in a multiple regression resulted in a slight 
but significant improvement in the zooplankton- 
total phosphorus relationship. Inclusion of lake sur- 
face area as a variable in a multiple regression 
significantly improved the predictive power of the 
profundal macrobenthos - total phosphorus rela- 
tionship. Correlations of littoral zone production to 
lake nutrient levels or morphometry can not be 
attempted due to a scarcity of data. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00152 

PREDICTION OF CHLOROPHYLL A CON- 
CENTRATIONS IN FLORIDA LAKES: IMPOR- 
TANCE OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES, 

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Center for Aquatic 
Weeds. 

D. E. Canfield, Jr., J. V. Shireman, D. E. Colle, 
W T. Haller, and C. E. Watkins, II. 
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc- 
es Vol 41 No. 3, p 497-501, March, 1984. 2 Fig, 3 
Tab, 17 Ref. EPA grant R-905497. 

Descriptors: ♦Chlorophyll a, ♦Macrophytes, ♦Flor- 
ida, ♦Lake Pearl, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Trophic 
level, Phytoplankton, Aquatic weed control, Eu- 
trophic lakes. Nutrients. 

Submersed aquatic macrophytes can inhibit the 
development of phytoplankton and thus may be an 
important source of the variability in nutnent-chlo- 
rophyll regressions which are an accepted tool for 
estimating the response of lakes to changes in 
nutrient load rates. Chlorophyll a concentrations in 
Lake Peari, Florida, increased as the percentage of 
the lake's total volume infested with aquatic rna- 
crophytes decreased. Using data from 32 Florida 
lakes, predictions of chlorophyll a concentrations 
were improved by including a term for the per- 
centage of the lake's total volume infested with 
macrophytes in existing nutrient-chlorophyll 
models. The best-fit multivariate regression equa- 
tion was (log CHLA = 102 log TN + 0.28 log 
TP - 0.005 PVI - 2.08), where CHLA is the chloro- 
phyll a concentration (mg/cu m), TN is the total N 
concentration (mg/cu m), TP is the total P concen- 
tration (mg/cu m) and PVI is the percentage of the 
lake's total volume infested with macrophytes; this 
equation assesses the potential effect of aquatic 
macrophytes on chlorophyll yields and Secchi disc 
transparencies in lakes of different trophic status. 
Chlorophyll concentrations in Lake Pearl aver- 
aged 12 mg/cu m during a monitoring period; 
predicted CHLA averaged 9 mg/cu m and were 
not significantly different from the measured aver- 
age. The amount of variance in CHLA explained 
by including a PVA term will depend on the lakes 



included in the data set; other factors fcuch as 
zooplankton grazing, nonalgal turbidity, and hy- 
draulic flushing rates may be more important for 
determining CHLA in some lake*. Aquatic weed 
control measures may impact CHLA. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00154 

SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF DOMINANT 
PHYTOPLANKTON, CHLOROPHYLL A AND 
NUTRIENT LEVELS IN THE PELAGIC RE- 
GIONS OF LAKE BIWA, 

Kyoto Univ., Otsu (Japan). Otsu Hydrobiological 

Station. 

Y. Tezuka. 

Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol. 45, No. 1, p 

26-37, January, 1984. 1 1 Fig, 1 Tab, 37 Ref 

Descriptors: ♦Seasonal variation, ♦Phytoplankton, 
♦Chlorophyll a, ♦Nutrients, ♦Lake Biwa, ♦Japan, 
Transparency, Nitrates, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, 
Trophic levels, Eutrophication. 

In order to clarify the present trophic sutus ol 

Lake Biwa, the largest, monomictic lake in Japan, 

seasonal variations of dominant phytoplankton, 

chlorophyll a and nutrient levels were surveyed 

for offshore waters of its north (main) and soutl 

(subsidiary) basins from February to Decembei 

1981. Thermal stratification began to develop ii 

April and was well established in mid summer 

almost lacking an epilimnion. Practical destratifica 

tion began to occur in September, and thereaftei 

the depth of the epilimnion increased toward De 

cember. Surface water temperature in the soutl 

basin followed a similar seasonal pattern to that o 

the surface water temperature in the north basin 

but it was somewhat lower than that of the nortl 

basin in the coldest month. Secchi disc transparen 

cy of the north basin was high in winter, low il 

spring and autunm, and intermediate in summer; i 

was low in the south basin throughout the yeaJ 

Species composition of dominant phytoplankters i 

the surface water was rather similar in both basin" 

For all water samples collected from both basin! 

dissolved inorganic phosphorus was below th 

limit of detection. Total phosphorus concentration 

were low in the summer. The annual mean concer 

tration of total phosphorus in the surface wate 

was higher in the south basin than in the nort 

basin. Concentrations of ammonium nitrogen wei 

low compared with nirate plus nitrite nitrogei 

Nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen was detected in hig 

concentrations except for three months froi 

August to October in the surface layer of the nori 

basin and the whole layer of the south basii 

(Baker-IVI) 

W85-00188 



PARTITIONING OF HEAVY METALS INT 
MINERAL AND ORGANIC FRACnONS I 
SEDIMENTS FROM A RESERVOIR, 

Central Research Inst, of Electric Power Industr 

Tokyo (Japan). 

M. Sakata. 

Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol. 45, No. 1, 

38-43, January, 1984. 2 Fig, 16 Ref. 

Descriptors: ♦Reservoirs, ♦Sediments, ♦Japa 
♦Heavy metals. Minerals, Manganese, Iron, Zir 
Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, Leaching, Sedime 
size. Storm runoff 

A sediment core was collected from S Reserve 
located in the western part of Okayama Prefectu: 
Japan. Water depth at the sampling station was 
m Selective chemical leaching of the core s© 
ment samples enabled the vertical distnbution 
six heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cd) 
be determined. The heavy metal content of 1 
core is relatively high in small grain layers. 1 
variations of fine particle percenUge and a 
heavy metal content in the sediment core may 
attributed to the occurrence of storms with hea 
rainfall which carries larger sizes of sediments. 1 
majority of the Mn and Cd is contained in i 
NH20H-HC1 soluble fraction (mostly iron a 
manganese oxide and hydroxide coatings on s 
cate minerals), whereas more than 50% of the 
Zn, Ni, and Cu is present in the HF soluble tr 
tion (silicate lattice). Only manganese is significa 



16 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 



y ennched m the NH20H-HC1 soluble fraction of 
^/, '^1^ ^"^ T^"'^ collected by the sediment trap 
near the bottom, probably due to the release of 
manganese from bottom sediment into overlvine 
water. Manganese oxide and hydroxide reprecipi^ 
ta ed under oxic conditions of the bottom water 
after the release might have been effectively col- 
W85-Oof89 sediment trap. (Baker-IVI) 

SEASONAL FLUCTUATION IN THE NUMRFR 
OF AEROBIC HETEROTROPHIC BACTEWA 
AND ITS RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL 
FACTORS IN THE UPSTREAM AREA OF THE 
TAMAGAWA RIVER GN JAPANESE), 

JaXLaTofBUgT"""^^ ^"'^ ^-•'-'^^^ 
K. Morikawa. 

Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol 45 No I n 
69-78, January, 1984. 8 Fig, 2 Tab. 21 Ref. ' " 

Descriptors: 'Seasonal variation, 'Rivers, ♦Bacte- 
ria, Tamagawa River, 'Japan, Chlorophyll, Acid- 
ity, Dissolved oxygen. Biochemical oxygen 
demand Chemical oxygen demand, Nitrates, Ni- 
trogen, Phaeophytin. 



Seasonal vanations in water temperature, pH dis- 
solved oxygen, BOD, COD, N03-N, discharge 
amount of chlorophyll a plus phaeophytin, and the 
number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in water 
were determmed m an upstream area of the Ta- 
magawa River in Tokyo, Japan. The number of 
l!^ I.""/ "^^'^^ fluctuated between 3000 and 
S thyn-c r- Generally, they were numerous 
n„ri n discharge was small and vice versa. 
During flood stage, in spite of huge flow, the 
bactena number was large. The periphyton of the 
nver bed exfoliated when the discharge was large 
md the amount of chlorophyll a plus phaeophyfn 
f ht?.ri '""^^^°y«r 100 -ng/sq m. The number 
1>, 1 ,'" Pl"Phyton and the amount of chlo- 
ophyll a plus phaeophytin a have a high correla- 
on coefficient. The percentage of pigment pro- 
ucmg bactena rose with the increase of chloro- 
^^J '' "' P.l'^^ophyt'n a, suggesting a bacterial 
ommunity relatmg to the epiphytic algae. After 
id°no H^ °^ periphyton, the number o^f bacteria 

hvH 1 nhL^^K^' '"r''- "' '^^ ^'"°""' of chloro- 
hyll a plus phaeophytin a, suggesting another 
acteria commumty not depending on Ihem No 
orrelation was noted between thelumber of bac 
/SS-OOl'gf" ^'^ "'^' '" periphyton. (Baker-IVI) 



reduced to 22.1% and lateral inputs to 1.3% of the 
,., ^^'i,. .f'^^'P'*^""" contributes 9.1% but 
^roughfall and nitrogen fixation associated with 
wood are negligible. The turnover time for nkro 
gen IS a slow 72.4 yr. Overall, the beaver-modified 
section accumulated about 1000 times more „ ro 
gen than before alteration. The ecosystem mpca- 

ceots of n'.r"' ^""''f^ ^"««^^' thafcurrem con- 
cepts of patterns and processes in running waters 

STRUCTURE OF BENTHOFAUNA ACrnvrA 

ThT R/v'i.R™^.^^^^^ ENvVronISt ^o'^F 
TRICrf ' '^AZURIAN LAKE DIS- 

r'^'^f T^'\ J^olnipzo-Techniczna, Olsztyn-Kortow 
(Poland). Inst, of Hydrobiolgy and Water Conse^ 

S. Wielgosz. 

Descriptors: 'Benthic fauna, *Lotic environment 
Znhnt' P^T' ^"'' '^^^""^n Lakes? ZoJ: 
Distribu'tirn'.''"'^''^" "''''"''''• ^P-- '^--"y. 

The structure of zoobenthos aggregations in the 

StrL"?'"' °' '''' ^'''''^'' w°as invesS 
gated and 63 taxons were identified. Among the 
Identified taxons, 27 forms and morphological 
groups of Chironomidae, Odontomesa fulva°^a„d 
Paratrissocladius excerptus were found for the first 
ime in the the Mazurian Lake district. They are 
rarely found in Polish inland waters. The location 

tin n7 W '''^'''^' '"SS^"*' considerable differentia- 
tion ot lotic environments in the River Wei Differ- 
entiation of the taxons at various locations made it 
possible to classify the stations in the ep potham 
mon zone. On the basis of variability inS the 
degree of water degradation was evaluated Flue! 
tuations in numbers and biomass of the bentho- 
fauna were described. Young cohorts of Glypto- 
endipes spp. drifting from the lake had a marked 
(Barer-?VO ' '"'"^ of zoobenthos in the river 
W85-00225 



Lakes— Group 2H 



Acta Hydrobiologia, Vol. 24, No. 1, n 29-37 igs? 
1 Fig, 2 Tab, 14 Ref. ' F ' J ', iyaz. 

Descriptors: 'Rivers, 'Bioindicators, 'Water pol- 

PoiLh^'^T'h' t^",'"'"' *^'^'^ P'^^™"- Rive , 

Poland, Industrial wastes, Municipal wastes 

Heavy metals. Sulfates. wastes. 

The Biala Przemsza River is polluted by both 
municipal and industrial waste waters which also 
include the salts of heavy metals and sulfates Two 

weTidenlfLH""'"'"';)^ '^*^"'" ^P^"«^ of ciliates 
were identified according to their pollution levels 
ihe common most important species in the biocen- 

showfn'rtw "r^" '" '°''' ^"'^ ^^™ ^«°on". 

showing that water temperature is not an impor- 
tant factor in population diversity. In the ciliate 
dCmmanf"!/'" -'"ophagous ciLtes were pre! 
whTr^TJ- ^f vorous species were found only 
where the pollution was decreasing owning to the 
river's self-purification process. The quflity of 
water was classified as polysaprobic or beta-mezo 
saprobic according to the location. The abilky of 
some species to serve as pollution level indicators 
was discussed. (Baker-IVI) maicators 

W85-00227 

GROUPS OF PELAGIC ZOOPLANKTON tm 
THREE LAKES OF DIFFERENT TROPHY 

Akademia Rolnicza, Lublin (Poland). Dept oV Zo- 
ology and Hydrobiology. ^ 
C. Kowalczyk, and S. Radwan 

2"^" Tab,''2°7 Rif.' ^°'- ^^' ^°- '■ P 3^-5'' 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Zooplankton, 'Trophic levels 
Se^Vo^^nd' *^""'""o Lake," 'Piaseczno 
t^ri«%„ ' B'0'."«l>cators, Cladocera, Rota- 

toria, Species composition. 



ITROGEN BUDGET OF A SUBARfTTr 

Si^N^r^sr^^ "^ beaveIT/s^J^ 

'oods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA 
J. Naiman, and J. M. Melillo 
«:ologia. Vol 62, No. 2, p 150-155, May, 1984 3 
g. 2 Tab, 36 Ref. NSF grant DEB 81-05677 

^criptors: 'Beavers, 'Nitrogen, 'Nutrient 

?%;s:ss,^e;^sss f 

^i^^J f "" ^posystems by transferring or- 
iic matter from the terrestrial to the aquatic 
tern and by building dams. To quantify^"heir 

ru'sedtoTo"'? ''''' °' ""^°een dynam." 
re used to construct a nitrogen budget for a 

^Z olu''°'"'f"'t' ^t^eam (Beaver Creek) in 
T,ii f H^ ^""^ ^ ''^^^^^ 'l^'n In that stream 
\,^i^ l^^onstrates the importance of sedi- 
it accumulations and an expanded wetted area 
^he annual nitrogen economy and to pathways 
trogen cycling. Major changes after impound- 
(per unit area) include a reduction in al- 

onrt h"'°«'" ^"'^ ^" '""«^^« '" nitrogen 
tion by sediment microbes. In riffles, 83 3% of 

annual mtrogen inputs (7.2 g N/sq m) are 
mtr r, ."^ ,"'''"' f ochWou^s tpm 

% In th L"^' '"P"'' '^°™ 'l-e forest floor 
t f7 7 2 M/. ^^r^' P°"'*' '"ost of the annual 
It (/.7 g N/sq m) is accounted for by nitrogen 

%)■ dTo'f i T^ accumulated ^edS 
-%), direct allochthonous inputs have been 



FACTORS AFFECTING ALKALINF PHn« 
PHATASE ACTIVITY IN A LAKE rSHORT 
TERMS EXPERIMENTS) (SHORT- 

MSology" ^'°'^"'^>- °^P'- °f Environmental 

"^rtfu";, R;,J- Chrost, R. Wcislo, and M. Krupka. 

^Rg" Tab 3°5 R^ef'- °' '"' ''°- '' ^ '"^O' ''«2. 

Descriptors: 'Lakes, 'Plankton, 'Alkaline phos- 
phatase, Eutrophication, Enzymes, Stagnarion 
JlaXolSr' ^^"-' distribution,^PhS 

The dynamics of alkaline phosphatase activity of 
plankton in the epilimnion of eutrophic lakes fori 
day and night cycle during summer stagnation 
were investigated. Environmental factors whch 
might influence enzymatic hydrolysis of organic 
phosphorus compounds were studied as well A 
hfolnm^^ ° ^^riations of physicochemical and 
biological parameters was discovered during 24 hr 
when measunng these parameters in 4 hr infervals 
The results indicate the existence of complex and 
tTonnf'"'h •'"".:'"' °^ circulation and trSrma 
tion of phosphorus in the waters between algae 
environment, and bacteria. A number of facfors 
influencing circulation of phosphorus in the e£- 
nion undergo significant changes and fluctuations 
m a day-and-night cycle. The realization of the 
range of these variations is very useful in heloins 

llrSrnf(Br%T'" °^ ^^^^°"^' °^ ^"""" ' 
W85-0O226 



EFTECT OF WASTE WATER ON CILIATF 
COMMUNITIES IN THE BIALA PrI^EMsI^ 

SmfnTa" Sgy^^'^" ^''°^^"''>- '^^ °' ^"^ 
A. Czapik. 



In the material collected from three lakes of the 
Leczna - Wiodawa, Lakeland: Bikcze, Brzeziczno 
and Piaseczno, 42 species and forms of Rotatoria 
12 species of Qadocera, and 8 species of Copepoda 
TeltwTAfV'' predominating species indicate 
,n .l^D f differentiation of those lakes, especially 
of I..1 °*^*?™ ^"'^ Cladocera groups. Indicators 
of ecological importance were calculated on the 
wa found fn^ charactenstic species composition 
was found for the investigated lakes. For lakes 
Bikcze and Brzeziczno the species composition 
consisted of 4 species (Keratella cochlearfs? Bos 
mina coregoni, Eudiaptomus graciloides and Po- 
lyarthra vu Igans) and for lake Piaseczno, 5 species 
were identified (Keratella cochlearis, ConocMus 
unicornis, Daphnia hyalina, Bosmina coregoni and 
Eudiaptomus graciloides). The most essenfe ^f 
ferences between the lakes occurred in the C ado- 
cera group, then in the Rotatoria group. Keratella 
cochlearis, a species of great ecological valence 
shows a high value as an indicator in each invest^ 

ffcifo^S?VIr '''"''' "°""'^' '" ^^'^ 
W85-00228 

f^^A^S^^ ^IJ^^^^^^^ (EPHEMEROP- 
ta?d1 i^^c^^^^'^AL STREAMS OF THE 

P .^.'^'^^ ^^° ™E PODHALE REGION, 

Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow. Zaklad 
Ochrony Przyrody i Zasobow Naturalnych 
M. Olechowska. 

^Fig," Tab,"!"/ fif' ''°'- '"' ^°- '' P "-^l- 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Mayflies, 'Tatra Mountains, 'Pod- 
hale region, 'Poland, 'Zonation, Larvae, Moun- 
tain streams, Seasonal variation. Altitude. 

The zonation of mayfly larvae was investigated in 
four large streams of the Podhale region- Czarnv 
Dunajec, Bia ka, Rogoznik and Bysfry Prdimi^ 
or^m^vfl"'""*'"" r'' ""'^d out on the zoni ™n 
Tatr^ M ' /" '?^ Waksmundzki stream (High 
Tatra Mountains)and in the the streams Pysz 

tains')' In"'' HK?"'""^'" (^^^«^"' Tatra Moun- 
unTfLl^u'^^"]^ '""^^'"'' l^^^^'l communities are 
unaffected by polution and correspond to zones 1-3 

InH^lfT".'- ^" '^^ high-mountain stream Waks- 
Zh V (e^h^f^tf'zed by difficult environmental 
conditions) only four species were found. In ?his 





^R-:^S5^: 






r. 



pBte:^^ 






'.'■ » ."*;\ i\ 


<l 




V.'.,''*<,*,*'. *.'. 


D. 




■' ' . ' ' '■'■ ■'■'': 


^ 




'■-/'.■■'■''''. 


»i. 






r: 




'.'■■-'•! 


1 




-.'.'•."•'.■'■' 


<: 




■■;■■",•/ 


^\ 




■ ;.'..' 


4; 




■. ' ■'.■.■■•', 


'« 




■.'.''•'^'.'\ 


a: 




■- ^•■^ 


Si 




M 






17 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2H — Lakes 



stream mayny larvae were found only "P 'o ^n 
altitude of 1400 m. Their absence above 1400 m 
may be due to the great seasonal variation in water 
yield in the upper part of the valley. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00229 

RECENT TROPHIC CHANGES IN KOOTENAY 
LAKE BRITISH COLUMBIA, AS RECORDED 
BY FOSSIL DIATOMS, 

Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Vancouver 
(British Columbia). Field Services Branch 
G. L. Ennis, T. G. Northcote, and J. G Stockner. 
Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 61, No. 7, p 
1983-1992, July, 1983. 6 Fig, 2 Tab, 50 Ref 

Descriptors: *Diatoms, 'Kootenay Lake, •British 
Columbia, *Trophic level. Fossils, Eutrophication, 
Fertihzers, Industrial wastes. Phosphorus, Sedi- 
mentation rate. Species diversity. River regulation. 
Nutrients, Turbidity. 

Short sediment cores (ca. 40 cm long) were col- 
lected from three locations within Kootenay Lake, 
B C and the occurrence of diatoms within the 
cores was recorded and analyzed. This analysis ot 
fossil diatoms in the sediments of Kootenay Lake 
has provided evidence for environmental change 
as a result of man's activities in the drainage basin. 
Changes to the trophic status of the lake are relat- 
ed to operation of a phosphate fertilizer plan 
(beginning in 1953) on the major southern inlet 
river and to more recent water regulation on both 
the southern and northern major inlet rivers. 
Diatom numbers and volumes at the deeper core 
depths were lowest. Diatom species in the deeper 
core depths consisted of an assemblage of oliogo- 
trophic and eutrophic indicators corresponding to 
high (but not critically high) phosphorus loading 
to the lake. Above the 5-cm depth, numbers in- 
creased and peaked at the 3-cm depth in samples 
nearest the south end of the lake. At other loca- 
tions within the lake, where sedimentation rates 
were lower, numbers peaked in the top centimeter 
of sediment. Concomitant with increased phospho- 
rus loading diatom species indicative of oligotro- 
phic conditions such as Cyclotella ocellata de- 
clined while eutrophic indicators including Cyclo- 
tella glomerata. Melosira granulata v. angustissima, 
Stephanodiscus spp., Asterionella formosa, and 
Fragilaria crotonensis increased. Asterionella tor- 
mosa and Fragilaria crotonensis showed highest 
abundances in the top 2 cm of the core. These 
species, which form a major component ot the 
spring and fall diatom blooms, were responding to 
both increased nutrients and improved light condi- 
tions resulting from decreased freshet turbidity. 
The Araphidineae/Centrales ratio was not usetul 
in classifying trophic changes in Kootenay Lake 
since numbers of centric diatoms did not decline 
with nutrient enrichments (although there was a 
dominance shift from oligotrophic centrics to eu- 
trophic Gentries). Shannon-Wiener diversity values 
remained high throughout the recent history of the 
lake. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00249 



While the expected behavior of the innovations 
can be derived from theoretical considerations tor 
linear systems, no such theory exists for non-linear 
systems. Simulated data were used to demonstrate 
that the theoretical criteria are applicable to non- 
linear photosynthesis-light models. Five ma.ss bal- 
ance equations containing photosynthesis-light re- 
lationships were each used with five different 
levels of system and parameter noise to produce Z5 
time series of oxygen concentration. The proce- 
dure was applied repetitively in attempts to identi- 
fy adequate models for each of these data sets. In 
1250 tests of model adequacy there were no Type 1 
errors (failure to accept the correct model as ade- 
quate) and the incidence of Type II errors (accept- 
ing as adequate an incorrect model) was less than 
3% The EKF estimation procedure is reliable and 
robust- it should be useful in examining the photo- 
synthesis-light (P-I) relationship in streams. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00268 

IDENTIFICATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS- 

Light MODELS for aquatic systems; ii. 

APPLICATION to A MACROPHYTE DOMI- 
NATED STREAM, 

Virginia Univ., Chariottesville. Dept. of Environ- 
mental Sciences. ■ »- r^ k-=ii„ 
B. J. Cosby, G. M. Hornberger, and M. G. K-elly. 
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 23, No. 1/2, p 25-51, 
May, 1984. 5 Fig, 11 Tab, 18 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Photosynthesis, 'Solar radiation, 
♦Macrophytes, 'Aquatic plants, *Gryde River 
♦Denmark, Mathematical models. Extended 
Kalman filter, Dissolved oxygen. Autotrophs. 

A recursive estimation technique, the extended 
Kalman filter (EKF), is used with stream oxygen 
data to identify photosynthesis-light (P-I) models 
for the Gryde River. The Gryde river is a small 
second-order stream in the Jutland pemnsula in 
Denmark. The autotrophic component of the 
stream is dominated by macrophytes. A detailed 
account is given of the procedures for establishing 
operating conditions for the EKF. The utility of 
the innovations based criteria for model discnmi- 
nation using data from a natural system is demon- 
strated Eight P-I models are examined using 
twelve sets of data. Application of the innovations- 
based criteria required athat all of the models be 
rejected as inadequate for all time penods exam- 
ined A posteriori analysis of the models failures 
indicated: linear models of the P-I relationship are 
inadequate for this river; photosaturation was a 
necessary characteristic of P-I models; static P-i 
models are inadequate for this river; all models 
were improved by allowing temporal vanation ot 
the photosynthesis parameters. Unlike bulk data 
estimation techniques, recursive analysis tech- 
niques applied to a time series of environmenta 
data provide objective a prion cntena of model 
adequacy and explicitly recognize uncertainty m 
the system and observations. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00269 



IDENTIFICATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS- 
LIGHT MODELS FOR AQUATIC SYSTEMS; I. 
THEORY AND SIMULATIONS, 

Virginia Univ., Chariottesville. Dept. of Environ- 
mental Sciences. 

B. J. Cosby, and G. M. Hornberger. 
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 23, No. 2, p 1-24, May, 
1984. 4 Fig, 4 Tab, 38 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Photosynthesis, 'Solar radiation, 
•Mathematical models. Simulation, Dissolved 
oxygen, Mass balance, Extended Kalman filter. 
Autotrophs, Streams. 

The rate of photosynthesis (defined as the rate of 
oxygen release by photoautotrophs) determines the 
rate of energy input to an ecosystem. A general 
procedure is described which uses a noisy series ot 
diel oxygen concentration measurements to test the 
adequacy of non-linear photosynthesis-light models 
containing unceriain parameters. The extended 
Kalman filter (EKF), used with an oxygen mass 
balance equation and observed stream oxygen con- 
centrations, provides serial estimates of the state 
(oxygen concentration) and the model parameters. 



TEMPORAL SUCCESSION IN A DESERT 
STREAM ECOSYSTEM FOLLOWING FLASH 
FLOODING, ^ . „ , 

Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Dept. of Zoology. 
S. G. Fisher, L. J. Gray, N. B. Grimm, and D. E. 

Ecological Monographs, Vol. 52, No. 1, p 93-110, 
March, 1982. 14 Fig, 8 Tab, 67 Ref NSF grants 
DEB 77-24478 and DEB 80-04145. 

Descriptors: 'Succession, 'Desert streams, 'Flash 
floods, 'Ecosystems, 'Sycamore Creek, 'Arizona, 
Algae, Invertebrates, Mayflies, Diptera, Diatoms, 
Primary productivity. Organic matter. Nitrogen, 
Phosphorus. 

Recovery of a desert stream after an intense flash 
flooding event is described as a model of temporal 
succession in lotic ecosystems. A late surnmer 
nood in Sycamore Creek, Arizona, virtually elimi- 
nated algae and reduced invertebrate standing crop 
by 98%. Physical and morphometric conditions 
typical of the preflood period were restored in 2 d 
and the biota recovered in 2-3 wk. Algal communi- 
ties responded rapidly and achieved a standing 



crop of nearly KXJ g/sq m in 2 wk. Community 
composition was dominated by diatoms «irly in 
succession and by filamentous greens and blue- 
greens later. Macroinvertebrates also recolonized 
denuded substrates rapidly, largely by immigration 
of aerial adults and subsequent oviposition. 
Growth and development were rapid and several 
generations of the dominant mayfly and dipteran 
^xa were completed during the 1st mo of recov- 
ery Invertebrate dry bioma.ss reached 7.3 g/") /» 
in 1 mo. Gross primary production (Pg) rneasured 
as 02 increased in a similar asymptotic fashion and 
reached 6.6 g/sq m/d in 30 d. Pg exceeded com- 
munity respiration (R) after day 5 and Pg/R aver- 
aged 1 46 for the remainder of the 2-mo sequence. 
This ecosystem is thus autotrophic and exports 
organic matter downstream and by drying, lateral- 
ly Uptake of nitrate and phosphorus were propor- 
tional to net primary production and exhibited a 
marked downstream decline in concentration 
during both light and dark periods. Temporal tra- 
jectories of various community and ecosystem at- 
tributes are compared with those suggested by 
Odum (Science 164:262-270, 1969) to be diagnostic 
of successional status. Agreement was poor in at- 
tributes which are especially modified in open, 
frequently disturbed ecosystems such as streams. 
(Author's abstract) 
W85-00270 

IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENT IN THE GRAZ- 
ING ECOLOGY AND StZE CLASS INTERAC- 
TIONS OF AN ARMORED CATFISH, ANCIS- 
TRUS SPINOSUS, 

Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Zoology. 
M. E. Power. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, Vol. 10, No. 3, p 
173-181, April, 1984. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 28 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Catfish, 'Ancistrus, 'Stream sedi- 
ments •Rio Frijoles, 'Panama, Sediments, Algae, 
Detritus, Fish behavior. Feeding, Seasonal vana- 
tion. 

In the Rio Frijoles of central Panama, many log 
and rock substrates are mantled with sediment, 
particularly during the dry season when water 
levels are low. Armored catfish, Ancistrus spino- 
sus graze rock and wood substrates and ingest 
both attached algae and sediment that settles onto 
substrates. During the dry season, this sediment is 
organic-rich (18-24% ash-free dry weight), and is 
derived from decomposing periphyton and vegeta- 
tion from the surrounding, largely deciduous 
forest This sediment is not a food for Ancistrus, 
and imposes energetic costs. These costs were esti- 
mated to be 15-22% of the daily energy budgets ot 
10 g individuals held under expenmental condi- 
tionl In the stream, the presence of thick sediment 
on substrates increases the tendency for small An- 
cistnis to seek out larger individuals or areas 
cleared by them. Sedimentation is probably most 
stressful for Ancistrus in the Rio Fnjoles dunng 
the dry season. Sediment-free substrate is not m 
short supply during the rainy season, due to expan- 
sion of the habitat and the prevalence of deep, tast- 
flowing water. (Moore-IVI) 
W 8 5-00279 



DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERNS OF Sm- 
FISHES ON THE NEW JERSEY COASTAL 
PLAIN, ,^,, „ , 

Rutgers - The State Univ., Piscataway, NJ. Dept. 

of Biological Sciences. 

J H. Graham, and R. W. Hastings. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, Vol. 10 No. 3, p 

137-148, Apnl, 1984. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 53 Ret, 1 

Append. 

Descriptors: 'Sunfish, 'Ecological distribution, 
'New Jersey, 'Pine barrens. Hydrogen ion con- 
centration. Acidic waters. Aquatic habitats. Troph- 
ic level, Currents, Substrates, Fish food, Embryon- 
ic growth stages. 

Sunfishes of the genera Lepomis and Enneacanthus 
are characteristic inhabitants of quiet waters on ttie 
New Jersey coastal plain. In southern New Jersey, 
E. chaetodon and E. obesus are now almost tola 1> 
restricted to the Pine Barrens region of the Outei 



18 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 



mmm: 



Coastal Plain. In contrast, E. gloriosus is widely 
distnbuted. Lepomis gibbosus and L, macrochirus 
are also widespread, but have established few pop- 
ulations in the more acidic waters of the Pine 
Barrens. Factor analysis was used to determine 
underlying patterns of distribution among these 5 
species, using 6 habitat variables, measured over 54 
collection sites in New Jersey. Two general factors 
account for 41% of the distributional variation 
Habitat vanables most strongly associated with 
factor 1 suggest an underlying trophic gradient 
^ystrophy to eutrophy) with its associated species 
Factor 2 suggests an underlying current-bottom 
pdient. The basis for the scarcity of Lepomis spp 
rom acidic waters was explored by examining the 
(Jlerance of recently hatched embryos to reduced 
)H. No increase in mortality was observed at pH 
k25 for L. gibbosus eleutheroembryos and pH 4 5 
or L. macrochirus eleutheroembryos. The two 
pecies appear to be poorly suited to dystrophic 
labitats; young Lepomis are primarily plankti- 
■ores, a dietary niche that is conspicuously re- 
luced in dystrophic waters. Fish of the genus 
inneacanthus glean invertebrates on substrate or 
egetation, a behavior well suited for dystrophic 
abitats where most primary and secondary pro- 
uction is associated with aquatic macrophytes and 
ibstrate. (Author's abstract) 
('85-00280 



RELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF RUN- 

i^^n'^o'iJ^./JJI^ ^^ ««EAT BRITAIN 
ASED ON MACRO-INVERTEBRATE SPE- 
ffiS AND THE PREDICTION OF COMMUNI- 
r TYPE USING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA 

ak Rjdge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sci- 
ices Div. 

F. Wright, D. Moss, P. D. Armitage, and M T 
irse. 

eshwater Biology, Vol. 14, No. 3, p 221-256 
ne, 1984. 4 Fig, 1 1 Tab, 47 Ref. 

»criptors: invertebrates, 'Biological communi- 
s, "England, "Scotland, "Wales, "Lotic environ- 
;nt. Rivers, Aquatic environment, TWINSPAN 
trended correspondence analysis. Multiple dis- 
nunant analysis. 

icro-invertebrate species lists were obtained for 
i sites on forty-one river systems throughout 
eat Bntain by qualitative sampling in spring 
nmer and autumn. Information on twenty-eight 
'ironmental variables was also collated for elch 
:. Ihe sites were ordinated on the basis of their 
cies content usmg detrended correspondence 
Jysis (DCA) and classified by two-way indica- 
species analysis (TWINSPAN). Correlation co- 
cients between ordination scores and single en- 
)nniental variables indicated that Axis 1 distin- 
ihed between types of rivers and Axis 2 reflect- 
vanation along the length of rivers. A prelimi- 
i classification of sites into sixteen groups has 
n proposed, together with a key which allows 
' sites to be classified. Information on the spe- 

and environmental features which characterize 
' ^■''°"/?A^i^° presented. Multiple discriminant 
ysis (MDA) was employed to predict the 
ip membership of the 268 sites using the 
tity-eight environmental variables. 76 1% of 

were classified correctly. An independent as- 
Ta ^/.Pfedictive ability using forty test sites 
led a 50% success rate. Predictive ability was 
ler tor the classification presented in this paper 

in fifteen additional classifications produced 
S data from single seasons and/or different 
nomic treatments. TWINSPAN and MDA 
: tound to be useful approaches to the classifi- 
•n ot runmng-water sites by their macro-inver- 
ite fauna and the prediction of community 

(as indicated by the occurrence of species in 
^tes comprising the group) using environmen- 
anables Extension of the scope of the classifi- 
n, coupled with the use of additional environ- 
al vanables to increase predictive ability is 
in progress. (Author's abstract) 
■00293 



Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept of Zool- 
ogy and Entomology. 

S. P. Canton, L. D. Cline, R. A. Short, and J. V 
Ward. 

Freshwater Biology, Vol. 14, No. 3, p 311-316 
June, 1984. 1 Fig, 4 Tab, 23 Ref • P ■"' J'", 

Descriptors: "Stream biota, "Invertebrates, "Fish 
"Low flow, "Trout Creek, "Colorado, Flow dis- 
charge Drought, Trout, Sucker, Mayflies, Odon- 
ata, tphemeroptera. Species composition. 

Severe fluctuations in flow can have adverse ef- 
fects on the biota of normally permanently flowine 
streams. During a 2-year study of the fish and 
macroinvertebrates of Trout Creek, a third-order 
montane stream, a severe drought in the first year 
resulted in a temporary cessation of surface flow 
How was continuous during the second year' 
During the study, 72 invertebrate taxa were col- 
lected m the study area; only 20 were common 
^ome taxa (e.g. Ophiogomphus severus) exhibited 
higher density during the drought year, others 
declined in abundance during low flow (e.g Baetis 
spp.) whereas a few (e.g. Tricorythodes minutus) 
appeared unaffected. Total macroin vertebrate den- 
sity decreased by 50% during the low flow year 
compared to the normal flow year. Mayflies were 
most severely affected, but also exhibited the most 
dramatic recovery. The collector-gatherer func- 
tional feeding group was abundant only during the 
normal flow year, whereas shredders and preda- 
tors exhibited increased relative abundance during 
ow flow. Three fish species were collected during 
the study: brook trout, longnosed sucker and white 
sucker. Fish populations were severely reduced in 
the low flow year. Fishes rapidly invaded the area 
tollowmg resumption of normal flow. Regenerated 
scales, which often indicate environmental stress 
were found on many fish in 1979, after the drought 
year of 1978. (Moore-IVI) ^ 

W85-00295 



Lakes — Group 2H 



eluding sulfate reduction in the water column of 
the deeper layer at a very high rate of 6.6 micro 
mol/L/day. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00297 



^OINVERTEBRATES AND FISH OF A 
ORADO STREAM DURING A PERIOD OF 
CTUATING DISCHARGE, '^«'"" "*• 



HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY OF BIG SODA 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA. 

,\; ^•,'S?^''^''^' S- "^ Robinson, L. M. Law, and 
W. W. Carothers. 

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol 48 No 
4, p 823-835, April, 1984. 9 Fig, 5 Tab," 54* Ref 

Descriptors: "Big Soda Lake, "Nevada, "Chemical 
analysis "Saline lakes, "Desert lakes. Alkaline 
water. Anaerobic conditions. Geochemistry, Mero- 
mictic lakes. Meteoric water. Minerals. 

Big Soda Lake, located near Fallon, Nevada, occu- 
pies an explosion crater rimmed by basaltic debris- 
m^"" activity apparently ceased within the least 
10,000 years. This lake has been selected for a 
detailed multidisciplinary study that will ultimately 
cover the organic and inorganic hydrogeoche- 
mistry of water and sediments because the time at 
which chemical stratification was initiated is 
known (about 1920) and chemical analyses are 
available for a period of more than 100 years 
Detailed chemical analyses of the waters show that 
the lake IS at present alkaline (pH = 9.7), chemical- 
ly stratified (meromictic) and is extremely anoxic 
(total reduced sulfur - 410 mg/L as H2S) below a 
depth of about 35 m. The average concentrations 
/ Sf^V^ ° ^^' ^' ^^' ^^ NH3, H2S, alkalinity 
(as HC03), CI, S04, and dissolved organics (as C) 

^'Im ^^^' i^°' ^■°' < °-'' < 0-5. 4,100, 7,100, 
rl :u ?^'^ ^P. respectively; in the deeper layer 
(depth 37 to 64 m) they are 27,000, 1,200, 5 6 8 
45 410, 24,00, 27,500, 6,800, and 60 respectively' 
Chemical and stable isotope analyses of the waters, 
delta C-13 and Delta C-14 values of dissolved total 
carbonate from this lake and surface and ground 
waters in the area .ogether with mineral-water 
equilibrium computations indicate that the waters 
in the lake are primarily meteoric in origin with 
the present chemical composition resulting from 
the following geochemical processes: (1) evapora- 
tion and exchange with atmosphere, the dominant 
processes, (2) mineral-water interactions, including 
dissolution, precipitation and ion exchange (3) 
inflow and outflow of ground water and (4) bio- 
logical activity of macro- and microorganisms in- 



FACTORS CONTROLLING PRIMARY PRO- 

?^^^^ ^N A HYPERTROPHIC LAl^ 
(HARTBEESPORT DAM, SOUTH AFRICA) 

National Inst, for Water Research, Pretoria (South 

R. D. Robarts. 

i05T984.7Fi?3Tre''f"""'' "'°'- '' ""^ '' ^ "■ 

Descriptors: "Hartbeespoort Dam, "South Africa 
Pnmary productivity, Monomictic lakes Reser- 
voirs, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Microcystis, Wind 
Water temperature. Photosynthesis, Buoyancy 
Solar radiation. Chlorophyll a. 

Hartbeespoort Dam is a hypertrophic, warm, mon- 
omictic lake which lies near the cities of Pretoria 
and Johannesburg in South Africa. The very high 
nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the lake from the 
northern suburbs of Johannesburg ensure an over- 
abundance of algal growth nutrients throughout 
the year. This study was done at a permanently 
buoyed station in the main basin. Weekly measure- 
ments were made at the surface, 5 12 3 4 5 6 
8, 10 and 15 m depths. The surface c'hlorophyl'l a 
concentration ranged from 2.7 mg/cu m (following 

hJr7os'V^'"T'^P"' '^^'^ *° "»° '»g/<=" " (Decem- 
ber 1981). The maximum rate of photosynthesis in 
the depth profile (Amax) ranged between 12.4 mg 
C /cu m/h in April 1981 and 5916 mg C/cu m/h in 
tfl^i'." '^^'- ^'■^^' ""^'es varied between 46.9 
and 3381 mg c/sq m/h. The factors permitting and 
controlling production were subjectively separated 
into two categones. In category 1, nutrients (N + 
n, which were in overabundance, permitted large 
f^l^^ '"■°P^ of Microcystis aeruinosa to develop 
(> 1000 micro g chl a/1). Wind patterns deter- 
rnined the dramatic spatial and temporal changes in 
algal standing crop which could drop to 2.7 micro 
^rr l\ '" category 2 were the factors which 
atfected the rate processes. The buoyancy mecha- 
msm of Microcystis usually kept the alga in the 
euphotic zone. The attenuation of light with in- 
creasing chlorophyll concentration was moderated 
in Hartbeespoort Dam because of the ability of 
microcystis to form large chlorophyll packages 
Variations in solar radiation had a significant effect 
on the integrated daily production. The saturation 
parameter and photosynthetic capacity were tem- 
perature dependent. There is a significant correla- 
tion between water column stability and integral 

FaT^''^,,'?^?'^"''''^" '" *h's hypertrophic ifke. 
(Moore-IVI) 

W85-00384 



DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERNS AND HABITAT 

CHARACTERISTICS OF AMPHIPODA (CRUS- 

J^J^J'J ^^ ^"E INLAND WATERS OF 
ISRAEL AND SINAI, 

Hebrew Univ., Herusalem (Israel). Dept. of Zoolo- 

G. N. Herbst, and C. Dimentman. 

"y^^obiologia Vol. 98, No. 1, p 17-24, January. 

1983. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 29 Ref 

Descriptors: "Amphipods, "Crustaceans, "Distri- 
bution, "Aquatic habitats, "Israel, "Sinai, Biologi- 
cal oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand. 
Dissolved oxygen, Chlorides, Flow velocities Sa- 
linity. 

Nine amphipod species from six genera were col- 
lected from approximately 140 inland water sites in 
Israel and the Sinai. Included were museum speci- 
mens collected over 40 years ago from habitats 
now greatly modified. Water samples were taken 
tor analysis during specimen collection. Nine spe- 
cies from SIX genera were identified: Gammarus 
synacus G. pseudosyriacus, Echinogammarus n. 
sp., t. toxi, E. veneris, Corophium orientalis, Or- 
chestia cavimana, O. platensis, and Metacrangonyx 
n. sp. I he nine species display two principal distri- 
bution patterns. A north-south pattern is typical of 
freshwater fauna in the Levant and is probably 
controlled by climatic factors; the distribution of 



up 

< 
Q. 

< 

u 
I 

SI 



It 

:3 



:s"::# 



19 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2H — Lakes 

the genus Gammarus is characteristic of this pat- 
tern. This pattern is distinguished from that dis- 
played by species of marine origin that penetrated 
into inland waters; the distribution of the genus 
Echinogammarus is similar to this pattern. Within 
their ranges the common Gammarus and Echino- 
gammarus species display differences in preference 
for current velocities, salinities and habitat types. 
Both Gammarus species collected require high dis- 
solved oxygen content (DO), low biological 
oxygen demand (BOD), and low chemical oxygen 
demand (COD); they are never found at chlorini- 
ties greater than 170 ppm. The three Echinogam- 
marus taxa are all found under a wide range of 
environmental parameters, particularly chlorinity 
which varies from 21 ppm Cl(-) to more than 3500 
ppm Cl(-). The relationships of chemical and phys- 
ical parameters to amphipod distribution may have 
important management and conservation implica- 
tions. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00395 



The lakes can be divided into two groups: the low 
conductivity slightly alkaline lakes Naivasha, Oloi- 
dien and the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria; and the 
high conductivity, highly alkaline-saline lakes 
Nakuru, Elmenteita and Bogoria. The former three 
show a qualitatively rich, typical warmwater ro- 
tifer association dominated by Brachionids and Fi- 
linia. The saline soda lakes are dominated by sever- 
al populations of Brachionus dimidiatus, which can 
reach enormous numbers. The taxonomy and bi- 
ometry of this species was subjected to statistical 
analysis. Some interesting and rare species are de- 
scribed: Anuraeopsis coelata, Lepadella triptera f 
deconincki, Trichocerca gracilis and T. mus. The 
chemical limnology of the lakes is discussed and 
compared with other soda lakes in Central Africa, 
Europe and North America. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00398 



TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC CARBON IN THE 
ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA, 

Office of Radiation Programs-Las Vegas Facility, 

NV. 

V. W. Lambou, and S. C. Hern. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 1, p 25-34, January, 

1983. 2 Fig, 5 Tab, 30 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Atchafalaya River Basin, *Lousiana, 
♦Organic carbon, *Solute transport, Dissolved 
solids. Particulate matter, Cycling nutrients, Nutri- 
ent removal. Sedimentation, Flooding. 

The Atchafalaya Basin comprises an 8345 sq km 
lowland area within Louisiana. Annual organic 
carbon fluxes were determined for the 2129 sq km 
Atchafalaya Basin Floodway, which is subject to 
frequent and prolonged natural flooding, and for 
subunits within the Floodway. During the period 
of July 1976 to June 1977, 36 pairs of samples were 
collected at approximately monthly intervals from 
an inlet and from outlets of the Atchafalaya Basin. 
Samples were also collected from 1 1 stations locat- 
ed at all inlets and outlets to three hydrologic 
subunits. Samples were analyzed for dissolved or- 
ganic carbon (DOC), total organic carbon (TOC), 
and particulate organic carbon (POC). Net change 
in water volume representing storage changes as a 
result of inflow, outflow, or a combination of the 
two was calculated. Carbon fluxes were deter- 
mined by multiplying carbon concentrations times 
flow volumes at each major opening of the various 
hydrological subunits. Comparisons are made with 
an area not subject to extensive overflow due to its 
isolation from the Atchafalaya River by manmade 
levees. The three overflow subunits were found to 
have a large areal net export of DOC; values were 
10,000, and 10,600, and 11,600 kg/sq km. The non- 
overflow subunit had a low net DOC export of 
1100 kg/sq km. Areal export of POC was high in 
the non-overflow subunit (8400 kg/sq km) while 
the overflow subunits acted as sinks for particulate 
organic carbon. The Atchafalaya Basin Floodway, 
as a whole, acted as a major sink for TOC through 
the sedimentation of POC. Prolonged overbank 
flooding, with the annual inundation of additional 
land areas and the decomposition of herbaceous 
materials and forest litter, renews the supply of 
organic carbon. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00396 



INVERTEBRATE DRIFT, DISCHARGE, AND 
SEDIMENT RELATIONS IN A SOUTHERN 
APPALACHIAN HEADWATER STREAM, 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Entomology. 

J. O'Hop, and J. B. Wallace. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98 No. 1, p 71-84, January, 

1983. 8 Fig, 8 Tab, 40 Ref NSF grant 77-05234- 

AOl. 

Descriptors: *Aquatic drift, 'Suspended sediments, 
♦Invertebrates, *North Carolina, *Hugh White 
Creek, Stream discharge, Seston, Detritus, Aquatic 
insects, Caddisflies, Plecoptera. 

Drift, the downstream transport of invertebrates in 
the water column, is an integral part of the food 
web of running waters since drifting organisms are 
utilized by some stream fish and by filter-feeding 
insect larvae. Drifting invertebrates and suspended 
sediments were collected at monthly intervals, 
from June 1977 to May 1978, from Hugh White 
Creek, a small second order mountain headwater 
stream in Macon County, North Carolina. Non- 
storm export and concentrations of detritus and 
inorganic sediments were lowest in early summer 
after several weeks of calm weather and a slowly 
descending hydrograph. Coarse detritus concentra- 
tion also decreased in December. The numbers and 
biomass of drifting organisms reflected the seasonal 
cycles of aquatic insects. Some aquatic organisms 
showed behavioral drift either during a sample day 
or during some portion of their life cycle. Parap- 
syche cardis and Diplectrona modesta dispersed as 
first instar larvae; few later instars of these two 
net-spinning caddisflies drifted. The drift of 
nymphal Peltoperla maria was apparently related 
more to detritus transport than to benthic densities 
or discharge alone. The general level of stream 
invertebrate drift appears to be related to detritus 
transport; drift during storms is also related to 
detritus transport. During storms, terrestrial inver- 
tebrate drift was related to rainfall intensity, 
canopy washing, and channel expansion. Drift den- 
sity of aquatic invertebrates in Hugh White Creek 
was within the range of previously reported values 
for other streams, but the estimate of yearly export 
(aquatic invertebrates = 134 g/y; terrestrial inver- 
tebrates = 23 g/y) is lower reflecting the smaller 
size of Hugh White Creek in comparison with 
those other streams. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00400 



SUCCESSION OF PLANKTONIC ROTIFER 
POPULATIONS IN SOME LAKES OF THE 
EASTERN RIFT VALLEY, KENYA, 

Concordia Univ., Loyola Campus, Montreal 

(Quebec). 

T. Nogrady. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 1, p 45-54, January, 

1983. 7 Fig, 5 Tab, 21 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Rotifers, •Succession, *Plankton, 
•Eastern Rift Valley, 'Kenya, Lake Naivasha, 
Lake Oloidien, Lake Victoria, Lake Nakuru, Lake 
Elmenteita, Lake Bogoria, Conductivity, Alkalini- 
ty, Saline lakes. Alkaline lakes, Biomass. 

The quantitative succession of the spring and 
summer rotifer plankton and its biomass in six lakes 
of the Eastern Rift Valley of Kenya is discussed. 



AQUATIC CRYPTOGRAMS OF NATURAL 
ACID SPRINGS ENRICHED WITH HEAVY 
METALS: THE KOOTENAY PAINT POTS, 
BRITISH COLUMBIA, 

Durham Univ. (England). Dept. of Botany. 
J. D. Wehr, and B. A. Whitton. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98 No. 2, p 97-105, January, 
1983. 3 Fig, 7 Tab, 28 Ref. Department of Envi- 
ronment grant DGR/480/571. 

Descriptors: 'British Columbia, *Kootenay Paint 
Pots, *Acid springs, *Heavy metals, Paint pots. 
Algae, Mosses, Liverworts, Anaerobic conditions, 
Chlamydomonas, Acid mine drainage. 

An account is given of the chemistry and aquatic 
cryptograms of the Kootenay Paint Pots, British 
Columbia. The waters fell in the pH range 3.2 to 
4.0, were mostly anaerobic, and had high levels of 
Fe and Zn. Fourteen species of algae, one liver- 



wort (Cephalozia bicuspidata) and one moss (Di- 
cranella heleromalla) were found in the various 
springs and pools. The two dominant Chlamydo- 
mona.s species existed as palmelloid growths where 
they occurred among sediments, while Dicranella 
heteromalla occurred everywhere only as proton- 
ema. The flora is different in many respects from 
that of typical acid mine drainages, the Dicranella 
being the only one of eight common species in 
such drainages represented. Most of the photosyn- 
thetic organisms in the Paint Pols must tolerate 
anaerobic conditions for long periods and it is 
suggested that this may be a key factor explaining 
the floristic difference. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00402 



MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF 
LAKE ERIE AND LAKE ONTARIO SEDI- 
MENTS, 

National Water Research Inst., Buriington (Ontar- 
io). Analytical Methods Div. 
B. J. Dutka, and K. K. Kwan. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 2, p 135-145, January, 
1983. 6 Fig, 4 Tab, 24 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Lake Erie, •Lake Ontario, "Lake 
sediments, 'Bacterial analysis. Sediments, Oxida- 
tion-reduction potential. Bacteria, Hydrogen ion 
concentrations. Organic carbon. Heterotrophic 
bacteria. 

Diver collected cores of similar type sediments 
from within the Lower Great Lakes were found to 
have numerically similar microbial flora regardless 
of the site of collection; overlying water samples 
were also collected. Cores from three sites in Lake 
Erie (west of Cleveland, Eastern basin and near 
Buffalo) and one from Lake Ontario near the 
mouth of the Niagara River, were sectioned to 2C 
cm and examined for sulfur cycle and nitrogen 
cycle bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, insoluble or- 
ganic and inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria 
and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Eh, pH, nitro- 
gen, organic carbon and percentage moisture de- 
terminations were also made. There was a lack ol 
correlation between microbial populations, organic 
content. Eh, and oxygen consumption rates. Heter 
otrophic bacterial populations recorded in thi: 
study confirm the typical heterotrophic distribu 
tion patterns encountered in Lake Erie and Lak( 
Ontario sediments. The heterotrophic bacteria 
populations are a reflection of the number of heter 
otrophics capable of surviving by facultative am 
obligate mechanisms in an anaerobic environment 
(Collier-IVI) 
W85-00403 



STRATIFICATION OF MICROORGANISM! 
AND NUTRIENTS IN THE SURFACE MICRO 
LAYER OF SMALL FRESHWATER PONDS, 

Wisconsin Univ. -Milwaukee. Center for Grea 
Lakes Studies. 

S. C. Danos, J. S. Maki, and C. C. Remsen. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 3, p 193-202, Febni 
ary, 1983. 2 Fig, 6 Tab, 37 Ref 

Descriptors: •Microorganisms, 'Nutrients, 'Strati 
fication, 'Surface water, Ponds, Microlayers, Pig 
ments. Bacteria, Phototrophs, Epilimnetic water 

The location of the surface microlayer guarantee 
that both its physical and chemical compositio 
will be significantly different from the subsurfac 
waters. Stratification within the surface micrc 
layers of two small experimental ponds was exan 
ined and the distribution of nutrients, pigments an 
bacteria within upper epilimnetic waters was inve! 
tigated. The two ponds (at the University of Wi! 
consin-Milwaukee field station) were sampled 2 
times from June, 1978 through August, 1979. Usm 
two different surface microlayer sampling devicf 
(the Harvey and Burzell glass plate and the Garre 
screen), two microlayer fractions could be distil 
guished. The first was from to 50 micro m an 
the second was from 51 to 320 micro m. Signif 
cantly different (p < 0.05) concentrations of di: 
solved nutrients between the two microlayer fra( 
tions strongly suggests stratification within the su 
face microlayer. This apparent stratification is als 
examined for phototrophs, bacteria and other mi 



20 



■•■<•;/.' 



terial found within the surface microlayer. (Moore- 
W85-O04O7 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOSSTr nTATr»v* 
dSs'^^^^" ^''^ LIMNoScicrZ^S^ 

BroSlSce^"'^- ^' ^'^-"'^-"■e- Dept. of 
R. B. Brugam. 

Descriptors: 'Minnesota, ♦Diatoms. *Fossils 
•Limnology, Alkalinity, Sulfates, PhosDhom, 
JrT^^Tv''^'^^'" '^^P'h. Cluster anaS Eu 
om£rc 1£ °"^'^'^°P''- '^''«' Acid .aC'Afer. 

Fossil diatom assemblages from the sediment/ 

pared with measurements of alkalinity sulfate 
total phosphorus, transparency and water Hpn/hf; 
the sample site. Similar assembkges were placed 
ogether usmg cluster analysis and^ comparisons of 

rrrZr'" •^"""'"" ''^'^«^" diatom cTusers 
^ere made usmg an analysis of variance Totll 
kahnity and transparency showed the greases 
fference among clusters/Samples from fhanow 
utrophic pra.r^ lakes were dominated by mS 
ra granulata, Stephanodiscus niagarae and occa 
mnh ''•. l^ Stephanodiscus hantzsfhi, Deep o°Lo 
rophic lakes had modest percentages of Cyclotena 
ornta. Dilute acid lakes were dominated ehhebv 
lelosira d^tans and M, italica or by Tabenari^ 
^nes rata, Cyclotella stelligera, and income cas"s 

.erfS'^^d IvneH^"""''^^^ "*"^ Cyclo°dra g^! 
lerata and Synedra nava were found in naturallv 

low^H?" f '"''"• Stephanodiscus hanzschil 
■owed a preference for extremely eutrophic lakes 
he relationships between recently deposited 
atom assemblages and the lake environmental 
.nd.t,ons studied here can be used to eva™ the 

or"s atectr^'^~"^' '^''^"^^ '" '^'^" (^"- 
85-00409 



Michigan state Univ., Hickory Corners WK 
Kellogg Biological Station. ^"^ners. w.K. 

Hv?rV,K^',"°"' ^",'' <^- ^ Goldman. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. Ill, p 113.1,7, 1984. 2 Fig, 19 

Descriptors: *Castle Lake, *California *Ant, 
•Swarming, •Ammonium, *Subalpine lakes Nu"r ' 
ents, Pnmary productivity. Fish, PhytopLkton." 

^^n^^aLL-^S'^a^rSLS 

snLi"r '!!" '"""^'* ^y^'era^ include the rok "f 

(Moore-IVI) pnmary production. 

W85-00417 



SoN^'i^ ^l ^«<^SS PRIMARY PRO- 
ffiSlV^^fBEL^^^^r™"^ '^ ™E 

uxt pStior^'"'"^- ^^''' '^ ^-"-ent des 
Servais E. Debecker, and G. Billen 

: 2°Ttf3\er- '"• ^°- '■ P ^^-"' >^«^- ^ 

icriptors: 'Primary productivity, *Viroin 
■ation P^'"""' T^'^Pi^tion, Dissolved oxygen 
J^c^^S^^-i--- 

nt^Sthl dts%v:dT.,Srctte'n°t Vh^-^^^' 
.lated by the equilibrium among three process' 
exchange of oxygen with the atmosphere pro 
.on of oxygen by photosynthesis and consumo' 
of oxygen by respiration. Gross primary pT 
on community respiration and reaemion co 

vux)m IS a shallow tributary of the Meuse 
• t"^^^^ *^ P^-^y producers are doml! 

ation iLfficfem'"'^' Ranunculus fluitan . 
m 7T/i.f^ ■ ^"l remains remarkably con- 
t£^l"™^ ""^y^ *" ^Pite of discharge 

orto^?S P'"^"'^'*"" parallels the vari- 
r to 8^r^/^'^;f !°"' ^"'^ ^^"Ses from in 
ier resni^ri'l^ '^'^ "" '"'"'""• I" "pring and 
pr'oSon ?° variations parallel those of pn^ 



J&trf '^"P""'^" ^"'^- (J-P-)- Dept. of 
G. Matsumoto, T. Torii, and T. Hanya 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. Ill No 2 n 1 lo n,; a •, 
1984. 6 Fig 35 Ref ' P "^-'26, April 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Lakes — Group 2H 

STREAM METABOLISM AND NUTRIENT CY- 

Arizona' State Univ., Tempe. Dept. of Zoology 
N. B. Grimm, and S. G. Fisher. ""'ogy. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. Ill, No 219-27R iqsa i c- 
6 Tab, 45 Ref NSF grani SeB 80 04145 ' ^'^' 

Summertime stream metabolism was studied in a 

fece sediment metabolism and measured deeTseSI" 
ment respiration in isolated sediment cores Thl 

exceeds. ,„pi,.„„„ ofehhe, taSrfSe 2dta™ 

K?r=^;;nr,Sjrorrp^S^ 

W85-00422 



':.<-y^':-y-- 



vfnH"P'°^f *.Organic carbon, 'Antarctic 'Lake 

^roSbonT'LaT' ^T'^^'io"- Stratifica'on, Hy! 
Ph^n^i •i'^''i^^^'^""^"'s, Sterols, Fatty kcids 
Phenolic acids. Decomposition, Anaerobfc' co"d': 



Vertical distribution of organic constituents ie 
total organic carbon (TOO extraf^hu ' 

TOC EOr =,nH cf ?^ ■■ ''^ concentrations of 
atta^;,'prf thS ^"'l. sterols increased with depth and 
attained the maximum values of 25 and 1 5 me CA 

Hydrocarbons were only found in tK k 5 ^■ 
ayers ("60 4 pnH /;?q n j '" '"^ bottom 
TW r»c.t ^^-^ '"^ a"'' t-ottom sediment 

W85-00418 



COLONIZATION AND SUrrF«!«fr»M «-wr. 
SK^R"iLR'^vSr ^--'--^^^^^^^^ A 

b^uVT-i^^roTEtotx;"' '"" ""*- «'-'^^- 

W8''5-w'5r' "'"""g^^P'''^ ^"try see Field 6G. 

AMMAL COMMUNITY STRUCrilPF ac a 
FUNCTION OF STREAM SIZE ^^ ^ 

c'ronmik^j'^H''"^- """P^ °' A"™^' Ecology, 
and Rsrostroi ""™'""' ^ ^^''"'1^'^'' ^ Otfo, 

STS?"' ^°'- ''2' ^°- ^3-79, 1984. 3 Fig, 2 

Descriptors: *Stream size, •JnvertebratP. .r>ic. • 
bution, 'Bomholm, 'Denmark, wLtqualit^Nu" 
tnents. Insects, Aquatic animah, HabilaK ^' 

^f S^ f .abiotic factors affect the occurrence 
atnrsTdS"e%Trr-'„,^-^^^^^^^ 

for smp^^JrlX^trstre^r^s^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
to similar abiotic conditions, and between which 

tef ^' ^"^""W be high since most of^he inverte 
brates have wineeH sfaocc ti,= ■ ■ .'"^"^rie- 

carried out ,>^ 27 n^ ^k i ^'^c 'n^estigation was 
-fti 2 Bornholm (Denmark) stream.; 

JranhTth'/""'"' '■«'='''°"ship of the island boZ: 
brat''es^m*le^22^'t' '^"'""'f "'^ ''^^ macroinvene- 

blseH L^ d'spersal rates. A cluster analysis 
shTw'ed^th^a^sttrS^afoTprr ^^^^'"'''^^^^^^^^ 

species with area is probably aSteVrtf the 



.v.;o.s: 





■p^.|l 








B ' ■ y >Xv>><>;^ 




^K ;\ v''\vVc'v,V 




^K "'X'^A '•%'''•!-," 








^B.; 




■ '■'•";•'.■•.'•'.• 




^^^1 


at 


^^^^Kv'<'' 


b! 


^^^^^^^B^'' ' ' 






< 


^^^^^^^^^^v^ *• ** 


a. 


^BBqI^qBwv?*' *' 


S 


■"'iv?!??>;''< 


f. 


B ..;.•:'",• •;j:.':.'.;'>;5- 




^K-' ■''''■'.'*♦**'*-'■'*"■ 


■ 




- 




! 


^^■Ofj^-'%VJ-''/'^'-\ 


^t 




g; 


^^^v- ^\^'0'^''; 



Ki 

c;: 



it 



i.*H*> 



•J'l '.'vv:-; 



21 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2H— Lakes 



increase in the number of microhabitats. (Moore- 

IVI) 

W85-00426 

21. Water In Plants 

WATFR TRANSFER IN PLANTS; III. - SIMU- 
LATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF CANOPY 
pIramfTERS FOR DIURNAL DEVELOP- 
^^ OF LEAF WATER POTENTIAL 
?fSSsFERT HYDRIQUE DANS LE VEGE- 
?IV^in SIMULATION DE ^INFLUENCE 
DK pSlAMETRES DU COUVERT SUR L'E- 
VOLUTON DIURNE DU POTENTIEL HYDRI- 

Pn^Lt^N^fS'de la Recherche Agronon^icue, 
Versailles (France). Station de Biochmatolog.e. 
N Katerii, M. Hallaire, and R. Durand. 
Acto Oecologica: Series Oecologica P'an^rum 
Vol. 5, No. 2, p 107-117, 1984. 2 Fig, 2 Tab, 13 
Ref. 

Descriptors: *Leaves, 'Water potential, *Transpi- 
«?fon 'Stomatal transpiration. Plant water re- 
serves, Canopy, Plant tissue. 

A model for water transfer in plar.ls permits calcu- 
^ti^n of the evolution of leaf potential ps.-F 
during the course of the day. The calculations 
undertaken successively varied the parameters in 1 
to 2 and 1 to 4 proportions and allowed tor a 
regular variation in transpiration dunng the course 
of the day, excluding consequently the case of 
variable weather days as well as the Phenomenon 
of stomatal regulation. In the graphs of psi sub F as 
a function of time and in the times at which ps. sub 
F reaches a given value, one can appreciate the 
respective influences of the four parameters (R, V/ 
rto r psi sub PC) characteristic of a plant canopy^ 
On; finds, of course, the Prevously under med 
preponderant influence of resistance R. Bu the 
novelty is the almost equivalent influence (under 
certain conditions) of the V/rho and PS-Pc param- 
eters which detennine the mobilization of plant 
water reserves. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00085 



live allocation of Plantago was not correlated w th 
water input, ahhough the ultimate reproductive 
Homasses were correlated with the summation of 
nlant moisture stress during reproduction. Thus 
fhe bar-day formulation is useful in estimating the 
relative sensitivity of reproduction to drought fo 
native annual species growing m s™''ar "abita s 
with varying levels of moisture stress. (Baker-ivi; 
W85-(X)089 

PLANT RESPONSES TO FLOODING OF SOIL, 

Wisconsin Univ.-Madison. Coll. of Agncultural 
and Life Sciences. 

Ucfe^rvol. 34, NO. 3, p 162-167, March, 
1984. 5 Fig, 54 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Plant growth, *^^°°<^^^-JX°'ll- 
thesis. Minerals, Absorption. Hormones. Plant pa- 
thology. Oxygen, Flood tolerance. 

Flooding of soil rapidly depletes soil oxygen and 
alters pltnt metabolism, thereby inhibiting growth. 
Reduced growth is preceded by stomata closure, 
reduced photosynthesis, carbohydrate trans oca- 
[fon and mineral absorption; as well as altered 
hormone balance. Flood tolerance vanes widely 
amo^g plant species, cultivars, and ecotypes and is 
^ociat^ with both morphological and phys.olog- 
^iradaptations. Mineral uptake of Hooded plants 
is complicated and variously influenced by soil 
type Tp^ecific mineral ions absorbed effects of an^ 
aerobiosis on mechanisms of ion absorption and 
flood tolerance of different species of plants^ 
Flooding of soil for more than a bnef penod 
adver ely affects growth of most plants by inhibit- 
fng seed germinatton, leaf initiation and expansion 
infernode elongation, cambial growth, and root 
growth Prolonged flooding is often fatal to higher 
panK Flood-tolerant plants adapt to anaerobic 
enviromnems by various mechanisms, dependrng 
on the species and environmental conditions. Irn- 
portant morphological adaptations include forma- 
don of aerenchyma. hypertrophy of lenticels. and 
regeneration of new roots. Others depend on the r 
ability to transport air from leaves to roots. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00126 



Mr»t«TirRF STRESS EFFECTS ON BIOMASS 
P^tS^SmNG In T^O SONORAN DESERT 

Sl^S^te Univ.. Tempe. Dept. of Botany and 

Microbiology. . d t-, p,„n 

S. R. Szarek. S. D. Smith, and R.D. Ryan. 

American Midland Naturalist Vol. 108 No- 2^ P 
338-345. October, 1982. 1 Fig, 5 Tab, 11 Ret. 

Descriptors: *Soil water. 'Waster stresS;^ 'Plant 
erowth, 'Deserts, Moisture deficiency. Drought, 
Plant reproduction, Biomass partitioning. And 
lands, Plantago, Schismus. 

The relative biomass accumulation rate and alloca- 
iSn to reproduction were quantified for Plantago 
insularis and Schismus barbatus. growing under 
four different levels of moisture stress. As the 
growing season progressed and ambient tempera- 
fures rose, the incremental irngations increased the 
whole plant growth rates progressively for both 
species. Plants of Plantago from control low, and 
medium irrigation treatments reached their peak 
seasonal biomass on the 7 April sampling date 
whereas plants of the high irrigation treatment did 
not reach their peak seasonal biomass until 21 
April Peak seasonal biomass values were 23.J 
(control), 28.4 (low irrigation), 38.2 (medium irri- 
gation) and 40.9 (high irrigation) "ig dry weight/ 
Slant. All plants of Schismus reached their peak 
Uasonal biomass at the last sampling time. These 
vS^ues were 14.4 (control), 18.0 (low irrigation) 
24.5 (medium irrigation), and 49.5 (high irrigation) 
mg dry weight/plant. Irrigation also affected the 
survival of plants following initial germination and 
the occurrence of subsequent germination events 
both of which influenced the density of plants in 
Ae experimental plots. None of the water treat_ 
ments markedly altered the relative foliar growth 
Tate of either species. Schismus responded to wa er 
input by significantly increasing the biomass allo- 
S to reproduction, which increased relative 
reproductive allocation. The computed reproduc- 



RIPARIAN FORESTS AS NUTRIENT FILTERS 
Tn AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS 

Georgia Coastal Plain Expenment Station, Tifton. 
R. Lowrance, R. Todd, J. Fail, Jr., O. 
Hendrickson, Jr., and R. Leonard^ 
BioScience, Vol. 34, No. 6 p 374-377 June, 1984. 
2 Fig 1 Tab, 18 Ref. NSF grants DEB 78-10841 
and DEB 82-07210. 

Descriptors: 'Riparian vegetation, 'Agricultural 
watersheds, 'Nutrient removal, Sediment trans- 
port Path of pollutants. Forests, Sodium, Phos- 
phorus Potassium, Magnesium, Chlonde, Water 
pollution control. 

Riparian vegetation (streamside) may help control 
uansport of sediments and chemicals to stream 
channels. Studies of a coastal plam agricultural 
watershed showed that npana" forest ecosystenis 
are excellent nutrient sinks and buffer the nutrient 
discharge from surrounding agroecosy stems. Nu- 
trient uptake and removal by soil and vegetation in 
the riparian forest ecosystem prevented outputs 
from agricultural uplands from teaching the stream 
channel. The watershed studied is 1568 ha with 
30% riparian forest, 41% row crops. 13% pasture, 
and 16% roads, residences, fallow land, and other 
uses. Annual inputs of nutrients in ferti izer and 
lime to row crops and pastures in the uplands are 
high Inputs, outputs, and vegetation storages ot N, 
P K Ca Mg, and CI in the ripanan ecosystem 
were' measured from 1979 to 1981. Waterborne 
inputs exceeded streamflow outputs for all ele- 
ments. The riparian ecosystem can apparen ly 
serve as both a short- and long-term nutrient filter 
and sink if trees are harvested Periodically to 
ensure a net uptake of nutrients. Based on his 
study, good water quality for agricultural water- 
sheds depends largely on nutrient uptake and re- 
moval in the riparian ecosystem. Removal of the 
riparian forest, accompanied by "le drainage 
would tend to contribute to higher nutnent loads 



in streams and lower water qualify through los» of 
nutrient uptake and slrjrage by woody vegetation. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00127 

WATER BALANCE AND PATTERN OF ROOT 
WATER UPTAKE BY A QUERCUS COCCI- 
FERAL. EVERGREEN SCRUB, 

Centre National de la Recherche ^entifique, 
Montpelher (France). Centre d'Etudes Phytosocio- 
logiques et Ecologiques Louis-Emberger. 

OecoS:Vol.62,No, l,pl8-25,1984.6Fig,2 
Tab, 41 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Plant water balance 'Root water 
uptake; 'Oak. 'Scrub, 'France, Evapotranspira- 
tion. Soil water. Drainage. Seasonal vanation. 
Limestone. 

The Ouercus coccifera evergreen scrub (garrigue) 
covers more than 100,000 ha m the south of 
France The water balance of a Q. coccifera ever- 
green scrub was studied over 7 consecutive years. 
The study site is located 10 km north of Montpel- 
lier, at the top of a west-facing 15% slope. The 
karst fonnation is heterogenous and composed ol 
soft to hard limestone covered with a very shallow 
soil mantle. Soil water content was measured with 
a neutron meter; calibration curves were calculat- 
ed from the thermal neutron macroscopic cross- 
sections of soil (< 2-mm fraction) and rock sam- 
ples, and the profile of wet bulk density measured 
with a subsurface gamma-ray gauge. The annual 
and seasonal patterns of actual evapotranspiration 
and of deep drainage were calculated using fie d- 
measured drainage characteristics. The soil water 
content data were used to compute water uptake 
rates and pattern for the root zone over a 4-month 
drying period. The 906 mm of mean annual pre- 
cipitation yielded 603 mm of actual evapotranspira- 
SaET) and 296 mm of drainage. No drainage 
occurred with precipitation less than 578 i™- Jhe 
average AET values for the months from AprU to 
September were 57, 74, 89, 96, 70 and 42 nam 
respectively. Q. coccifera consumed considerable 
quTnt'ties of water from the soU-rock compkx^ 
Roots could extract 270 mm of water in the fu-st 
470 cm of soil. There was a gradual downward 
shift of the zone of maximum root water uptake as 
the soil dried. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00207 



FFFFCT OF DIFFERENT GROWING CONDI 
?ISnS ON WATER RELATIONS PARAM 
TtcRS of leaf EPIDERMAL CELLS Ol 
TRADESCANTIA VIRGINIANA L, 

Bayreuth Univ. (Germany, F.R.)^ 

E. Brinckmann, S. D. Tyennan, E. Steudle, and E, 

SecotS Vol. 62, No. 1, p 110-117, 1984. 7 Fig. 
Tab, 32 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Tradescantia, 'Plant water relation: 
'Solar radiation, *Air temperature, Hunudi^ 
'Nutrients, Turgor, Volumetnc elastic modulu 
Plant water potential, Penneability coefficien 
Leaves. 

Tradescantia virginiana L. plants were cultivaU 
under contrasting conditions of temperature, h 
miditv light quality and mtensity and nutnei 
S^us'in order to investigate the effect of grow 
conditions on the water relations Parameters of t 
leaf epidermal cells. Turgor pressure (P), volum 
ric elastic modulus (epsilon) half-time of wat 
potential equilibration (T 1/2), hydraulic condu 
fiv ty (Lp) were measured with the miniatunz, 
pre Lre probe in single cells of the upper J 
lower epidermis of leaves. Turgor differed (ra^ 
1 bar to 7.2 bar) between treatments with low, 
values under warm and humid conditions and ad 
fional supply of fertilizer, and highest values un 
conditions of low air humidity and low nutru 
Supply. The volumetric elastic -odu'- chang 
by 2 orders of magnitude (range: 3.0 bar to 350 b 
158 cells), but epsilon was only afiected by ( 
treatments, in as much as it was dependent 
turgor. The turgor dependence of epsilon, me 
ured on intact leaves of T. virginiana, was s.m, 



22 



to that for cells of the isolated (peeled) lower 
spidermis, where epsilon as a function of turgor 
tvas linear over the whole range of turgors. This 
result has implications for the discussion of pres- 
iure/volume curves as measured by the pressure 
)omb where changes in 'bulk leaf epsilon' are 
requently discussed as 'adaptations' to certain 
reatments. The measurements of the hydraulic 
conductivity indicate that this parameter varies 
letween treatments (range of means: 0.0000024 
m/s/bar to 0.0000134 cm/s/bar). There was a 
egative correlation for Lp in cells of intact leaves 
s a function of turgor which was altered by the 
rowing conditions. However, a correlation with 
irgor could not be found for cells from isolated 
piderrais or cells from a uniform population of 
lants. The large variation in Lp from cell to cell 
bserved in the present and in previous studies was 
xounted for in a study of 100 cells from a uni- 
•rm population of plants by the propagation of 
easurement errors in calculating Lp, The results 
iggest that in T. virginiana cellular water rela- 
pns are changed mainly by the turgor dependence 
epsilon. (Author's abstract) 
'85-00208 



A mathematical model, based on the water flow 
equations to simulate water uptake, was dev^loned 
incorporating soil, root-soil contact, and radial and 
axial resistances to water flow in soybean Param- 
eters for the model were developed from field 
experiments conducted during the 1979 growing 
season on Ida silt loam, a loess soil, at Castana 

frn'l^nT^^ T^^'fn "^u" "P'^''^ ""^'e decreased 
from 0.23 to 1 x 10 to the -4 cu cm H20/cm root/ 
day as the soil water became depleted in a particu- 
lar layer The average conductivity of the soil-root 
system decreased linearly with age of plant The 
axial resistance estimated from the Poiseuille- 
Hagen equation was 0.00085 (bar-sec-mm to the - 
«xk .tMT^^'^n potential decrease along the vertical 
axis at the 20-cm depth was 0.0615 bar/cm when 
the transpiration rate was 1 cm/day. A simulation 
of water uptake, based on a solution of the water 
Ph°7,fi'"f' °" .^"*' a ^'"}^ term and performed with 
the aid of a differential equation solver DGEAR 
tracks the seasonal withdrawal of water in a rea- 
sonably accurate manner. (Moore-IVD 
W85-0O218 ' 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Erosion and Sedimentation— Group 2J 



??J^*^"^.T^™^^S AND THE DEMISE OF 
-ACTA ALBIDA ALONG THE LOWER 

i^^Ll^YB^JF^^^^ NAMIB DESER-^ 
lELIMINARY nNDINGS, 

ital Univ., Durban (South Africa). Dept of 
itany. k • "■ 

S^s'ora ?5^ bibliographic entry see Field 2B. 



ica)'' '''"®*"°" J^esearch Inst., Pretoria (South 
M. Oosterhuis. 

ith African Journal of Science, Vol. 79 No 1 1 
■59-465, November/December, 1983. 155 Ref 

scriptors; »Soil-water-plant relationships, *Root 
stance, -Plant resistance, *Soil resistance. Soil 
er, Plant water flow. 

istances along the pathway of water movement 
n the soil through the plant to the atmosphere 
of fundamental importance in soil-plant-water 
tions. The largest resistance to water flow in 
soil-plant-atmosphere continuum is the diffu- 
resistance encountered in the vapor phase. In 
liquid phase, the plant initially presents a great- 
isistance to water movement than does the soil 
le soil does out. The main plant resistance is 
irently m the roots. Root resistance is parti- 
■lJ"t-?,u I '«^'^ta"'=e to water flow across 
oot to the xylem, and axial resistance to longi- 
lal water movement up the root in the xylem 
al resistance is usually substantial relative to 

resistance. Uncertainty exists as to the main 
^ay of radial flow, and also the exact locaTon 
s stance, with the endodermis considered the 

likely site. Furthermore, root resistance is 
St m menstematic regions and lowest in a 
ot maximum absorption between the meriste- 
; and subensed regions. Many chemical, phys- 
>nd biologicd factors influence root resistance 
ater flow. Furthermore, root resistance has 
shown to change with different flow rates 

resistance is thus dynamic in nature and 
need by environmental conditions. There is a 
te need to standardize the units used to ex- 

resistance values. The SI system using 
«,^seconds and pascals is suggested. (Author'1 

30216 



Duke Univ., Durham, NC. Dept. of Botany 

K. M. Peterson, and W. D. Billings 

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, p 189- 

194, August, 1982. 2 Tab, 20 Ref ^ 

Descriptors: *Drought resistance, -Alpine plants, 
•Plant growth, Snowmelt, Water stress, Alpine 
regions. Habitats. '^■pmc 

Plants of 1 1 alpine species (5 from the Rocky 
Mountains and 6 from the Sierra Nevada) were 
grown from seed under contrasting watering fre- 
quencies m controlled phytotron environments. 
Differences in the growth of these plants between 
reatments were compared to the presence or ab- 
sence of meltwater in their respective habitats. In 
general plants characteristic of habitats receiving 
meltwater from permanent or long-lasting snow- 
banks showed a greater reduction in growth under 
drought stress than plants from habitats with little 
meltwater moisture. Relative growth rate, net as- 
similation rate leaf area duration and root-shoot 
ratios were calculated for each species. Plant dry 
weights were statistically greater in the daily water 
forToTtVi' n """'■' the weekly water application 
tor 7 of the 11 species. Total dry weight in Silene 
acauhs did not vary significantly between the two 
treatments but its net assimilation rate was signifi- 
cantly higher under drought even though its leaf 
area duration was significantly lower. Drought had 
f^^T?^'^^^ f?'^'."" Deschampsia caefj tosa 
W85-00235 ^''^''' ^'^"'^°'''' abstract) 



ERENCES IN WATER UPTAKE RATES 

;^d^depS°^' assoctated wi?^ 

tZZ r^^c^^.?"' .*'^ater uptake, *Mathe- 
1 models. Soil resistance, 'Root resistance 
resistance, Axial resistance. Soil water 
vater potential. Transpiration. 



pSRE^'A^'I^JiX^^J^^TF RELATIONS OF 
rHKEATOPHYTES IN THE SONORAM 
DESERT OF CALIFORNIA, !»ONORAN 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., Blacks- 
burg. Dept. of Biology. 
E. T. Nilsen, M. R. Sharifi, and P. W. Rundel 

f^h Tr f°Mcl' ^°- ^' P ^^'■^^«' 1984. 10 Fig, 2 
Tab, 39 Ref NSF grant 79-21971. 

Descriptors: *Phreatophytes, -Drought resistance 
•Sonoran Desert, -California, Shrubi, Plant water 
potential. Deciduous plants. Seasonal ;ariado^ Di- 
urnal variation^ Water stress. Plant physiology 
Desert plants. Osmotic pressure. >»'"'"Sy. 

The seasonal and diurnal water relations were 
compared among six desert phreatophytes, two 
evergreen shrubs, and one deciduous shrub All 
species were located in one wash woodland in the 
Sonoran Desert of southern California. There Trl 
several mechanisms by which these phreatophytes 
have adapted to the desert environment One 
f«?<? °l ^'"ter-deciduous phreatophytes (Olneya 
tesota, Prosopis glandulosa, and Acacia greggin 

befow'Tn Mp""^t: '"''^^^y '^^f ^ater potential 
of nhv^n.?> ?• ^^?^ phreatophytes had a series 
of physological mechanisms for tolerating summer 
water stress, including seasonal and diurnal osmot- 
ic adjustment and the maintenance of high leaf 
conductance at low leaf water potential. Osmodc 
adjustment of these three phreatophytes was sirn^ 



lar to or greater than that of two evergreen species 
(Larrea tridentata and Simmondsia chinensis) 
Dalea spinosa, a stem-photosynthetic phreato- 
phye, avoided water stress by maintaining a very 
sma 1 leaf area. The summer-deciduous phreato- 
phytes (Hyptis emoryi, and Chilopsis linearis) dem- 
onstrated mechanisms of drought avoidance such 
as change in leaf biomass and low summer leaf 
conductance. Little osmotic adjustment occurred 
in the summer-deciduous phreatophytes The 
phreatophytic species studied in this investigation 
have evolved adaptations to water stress thlt are 
similar to those of deciduous and evergreen shrubs 
of the Sonoran Desert. Desert phreatophytes are a 
complex group of species with varied adaptive 
rnechamsms to tolerate or avoid drought and 
should not be considered simply as group of spe 
cies that avoid desert water stress by utilizbg deep 
ground water unavailable to other desert species of 
stracf) ""'^ avoidance. (Author's ab- 

W85-0O256 

I^^™'^^ ^^^ S02 STRESS INTERACTION 

seeK^s^. p^^'^Ra and b. ^ihnl 

sources '^"'''" ^''''"'^' ^^' ^^^^ °^ ^^tural Re- 
R. J. Norby, and T. T. Kozlowski. 

StTab,TReT.°' ''' ''°- ^' " '''■''°' '^"- ^ 

Descriptors: -Flooding, -Sulfur dioxide, -Birch 
r^nH^ r^"' A-r pollution. Plant growth, Stomatai 
conductance. Chlorosis, Stomatai closure, Flood- 
ing stress. 

li^i/?-^'''' °J u°°'^*"S of soil for 5 weeks and 
fumigation of shoots with 0.35 ppm S02 for 30 
hours alone and in combination, were studied on 
Betula papyrifera Marsh, (paper birch) and Betula 

?^ZJ ^""^^ ^'""^^ '^''''^''"g^- B- papyrifera, an 
upland species, was adversely affected by flooding 

Wnt^''"'^'/n*'^" ^ "'S^^' ^ l°^'and species 
Symptoms of flooding injury in both species in- 
cluded stomatai closure, chlorosis, deterioration of 

^,?l,f^ "Sf' ^!l'^ g'^^t'y "^'l""'! dry matter accu- 
mulation. Flooding induced formation of hypertro- 
phied lenticels and adventitious roots in B nigra 
but not B. papyrifera seedlings. Seedlings of both 
species recovered 1 to 2 wk after flooding ended 
and continued growing at a faster rate than un- 
flooded seedlings, thereby partially or completely 
compensating for the growth-inhibiting effects of 
Hoodmg. Fumigation with S02 at the end of the 
Hooding penod induced partial stomatai closure 
injury to leaves, and reductions in mean relative 
growth rates in both species. Stomatai conduct- 
^"i^ ^^^J^^ "Ptake in B. nigra seedlings were 
reduced 40 and 45% by flooding, respectively, and 
consequently S02 caused less visible injury (17 vs. 
44% of leaf area) and less growth inhibition (0 vs 
26% in mean relative root growth rate) in flooded 
InH"Qor °°,'^^'* seedlings. Stomatai conductance 
and S02 uptake were reduced even more in flood- 
ed B. papyrifera (75 and 77%, respectively), yet 
flooded and unflooded seedlings were similarly 
affected by S02. Flooding stress apparently affect- 
ed mechanisms of pollution avoidance and pollu- 
lon tolerance differently in the two species. (Au- 
thor s abstract) ^ 
W85-00292 

2J. Erosion and Sedimentation 

ACCELERATED SOIL EROSION IN A KARST 
AREA: THE BURREN, WESTERN IRElInD^ 

Tnnity Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept, of Geogra- 

D. P. Drew. 

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 113-124 

February, 1983. 9 Fig, 1 Tab, 8 Ref 



Descriptors: -Karst hydrology * 
-Burren -Ireland, Soil properties, 
Rocks, Glacial drift. Erosion 



Soil erosion, 
, Vegetation, 



; <;>.;V,;.;-; 



■':>\<i 





^^^B7.<:^ «•.•■■'.'. 




H •;•'■:•. '.■"S.v- ,'• 


z. 




c» 


^lfl^v.-.':< 


ma 




< 


^^^^K'-' ',<.-. 


fi. 


^BHIP;- .•;•.'■■■.'•>. • 


S: 


■^"■'"^'•.V^v'','' 


< 


^^KKK-y.-. '.■':•.'.■ 


X 


^IHK' '■':•'.•'.■''.'- 


u 


^^^K .,:,'•'■-'''■- 




^^^^Bfifi^ ' . • '. 


«: 








t.i 


^^^^^^^^^^Hi -.' 


< 


^^^^^^^HV! ■' <' 


El 


^^^B::;:; 









C''<'* 






^r^l^^H i! ■" ap'ateau karst on the west coast of 
Ireland It is characterized by thin soils, patchy 
vegetation and large areas of bare rock, supposedly 



:%^v;;::. 



mt:V: 


'*'"'.'■ 


^Rv'''' 


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B55v>.. 




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'.'. '■.'v'-; 



23 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 



a legacy of glacial erosion. Archaeological and 
palynological evidence suggest that the area was 
well populated and forested in prehistoric times, 
though now it is a marginal area agriculturally. 
Investigation of palesols and of karren forms on 
ancient structures support the idea of an extensive 
cover of mineral soil, removed by forest clearance 
initiated erosion over a relatively short period ot 
time In the context of the Burren it seems improb- 
able that the original forest could disappear sutti- 
ciently rapidly under natural conditions to allow 
unprotected soil to be washed underground m 
large quantities. Therefore the present day karst 
landscape of the Burren may represent an example 
of man induced destabilization of a sensitive envi- 
ronment. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00007 

HISTORICAL AND PROJECTED SHORELINE 
CHANGES, OCEAN CITY AND NORTH ASSA- 
TEAGUE ISLAND, MARYLAND, 

Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Geogra- 
phy. 

S. P. Leatherman. „,,,<■ 

Available from the National Technical Inforination 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161, as PB84 180206, 
Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microliche. 
Maryland Water Resources Research Center Pub- 
lication No. 79, August 1983. 39 P; 20 Fig 2 Tab, 
22 Ref OWRT Project No. A-065-MD (1), Con- 
tract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2122. 

Descriptors: 'Recession, Beaches, Coasts, *Beach 
erosion. Beach profiles, •Littoral drift, *Jetties, 
Breakwaters, Silting, Storm surges, Assateague 
Island, Ocean City, 'Maryland. 

Quantitative analysis of historical shorelines from 
1850 to 1980 indicates a prevailing trend of reces- 
sion along the Maryland Atlantic Coast, which has 
averaged 1.9 feet per year. The rate of shoreline 
retreat along the northern end of Assateague 
Island, MD, has been greatly accelerated by inter- 
ruption of the net southerly littoral drift since 
construction of the Ocean City Inlet jetties m 1934- 
5 The barrier island has responded to this sedi- 
ment deficiency by forming a concaval shoreline 
configuration and has migrated very rapidly land- 
ward along the northern end. At the present rate 
of migration (averaging 36 feet per year), the bar- 
rier will reach the mainland bayshore near the 
Ocean City airport location by the year 2000. In 
addition to the dissolution of the northern end of 
Assateague Island, Ocean City will expenence in- 
creased storm surge flooding and inlet/bay silta- 
tion problems if some action is not taken to miti- 
gate the effects of jetty emplacment and downdnft 
sediment starvation. 
W85-00074 

BOX-JENKINS TRANSFER FUNCTION 
MODELS APPLIED TO SUSPENDED SEDI- 
MENT CONCENTRATION-DISCHARGE RE- 
LATIONSHIPS IN A PROGLACIAL STREAM, 

Southampton Univ. (England). Dept. of Geogra- 
phy. 

A. M. Gurnell, and C. R. Fenn. 
Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, p 93- 
106, February, 1984. 7 Fig, 5 Tab, 24 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Suspended sediment, 'Model studies, 
'Glacial streams, 'de Tsidjiore Nouve, 'Switzer- 
land, Linear regression analysis. Glacial sediments. 
Sediment load. 

Suspended sediment rating curves have provided a 
simple method for the interpolation and extrapola- 
tion of suspended sediment concentration and load 
in proglacial streams. The usefulness of suspended 
sediment rating curves is explored using observa- 
tions of suspended sediment concentration and dis- 
charge from the proglacial stream of the glacier de 
Tsidjiore Nouve, Valais, Switzerland. A logarith- 
mic transformation of both suspended sediment 
concentration and discharge was suitable for esti- 
mating suspended sediment rating curves by linear 
regression analysis, but in spite of lagging, differ- 
encing, and weighting the variables, a consistently 
good method of predicting suspended sediment 
concentration from discharge was not found. A 
major problem was serial autocorrelation in the 



residuals from the sediment rating curves, and so a 
method placing central attention on the autocorre- 
lation in the data series was adopted A transfer 
function between the discharge and suspended 
sediment series was estimated. The transfer func- 
tion gave by far the best forecasts of suspended 
sediment concentration of all the models investi- 
gated, even when it was applied to a different 
ablation season from that for which it was estimat- 
ed In addition, the transfer function and associated 
univariate time series models also provided infor- 
mation about the character of the suspended sedi- 
ment and discharge series, which could be used to 
interpret the hydrology of the proglacial zone and 
the lower part of the glacier de Tsidjiore Nouve. 
The findings indicate that transfer functions are so 
superior to ordinary rating curves that they should 
be used whenever possible to predict suspended 
sediment load in proglacial streams. In the absence 
of a sufficiently good data base, the ordinary rating 
curve seems to be the second best approach of the 
methods investigated, but the resulting load esti- 
mates are likely to be highly erroneous. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00112 

CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND REMEDIES 
OF SOIL EROSION IN KENYA, 

Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm 

(Sweden). Beijerinstitutet. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4U. 

W85-00129 

HUDSON BAY RIVER SEDIMENTS AND RE- 
GIONAL GLACIATION: I. IRON AND CAR- 
BONATE DISPERSAL TRAINS SOUTHWEST 
OF HUDSON AND JAMES BAY, 

Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Ontano). 

Terrain Sciences Div. 

J. D. Adshead. 

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 

2, p 290-304, February, 1983. 5 Fig, 2 Tab, 53 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'River sediments, 'Hudson Bay, 
'James Bay, 'Glaciation, 'Iron, 'Carbonates, 
Severn River, Winisk River, Attawapiskat River, 
Churchill River, Nelson River, Moose River, 
Albany River, Glacial drift. Fluvial sediments. Silt, 
Sand. 



The composition of sands deposited from seven 
major rivers that flow into western Hudson and 
James Bays are described. An attempt is made to 
infer regional drift dispersal limits based on region- 
al patterns of fluvial sand composition and on 
watershed patterns of rivers with sediment of char- 
acteristic composition. The effects of water sorting 
during the transition from drift to fluvial sediment 
are indicated by a higher content of total iron and 
carbonate minerals in the fine-grained silty sand 
and sandy silt samples. However, companson of 
sediments of similar particle size characten^ics 
demonstrates that there are no systematic differ- 
ences in total iron content or carbonate mineralogy 
within localities, regardless of sampling location m 
river channels or off the mouths of overs in 
Hudson or James Bays. Sands of the Severn, 
Winisk, and Attawapiskat Rivers are charactenzed 
by significantly higher calcite/dolomite ratios than 
the sands of the Churchill and Nelson Rivers north 
of Cape Henrietta Maria and the Albany and 
Moose Rivers south of it. Calcite enrichments indi- 
cate that a distinctive carbonate dispersal train 
extends southwest of Cape Henrietta Mana, sug- 
gesting a dominant pattern of southwesterly ice 
flow in this region. Total iron oxide contents are 
highest for sands from rivers in the Cape Henrietta 
Maria area, where local averages are 2.2 to 2.7% 
as compared with 1.4% for the Churchill and 
Nelson Rivers, and 1.9% for the Moose River, 
north and south of the cape, respectively. The 
pattern suggests that a broad train of dnft with 
higher iron content extends southwest of Cape 
Henrietta Maria, roughly delineated by the water- 
shed of the Severn, Winisk, Attawapiskat, and 
Albany Rivers. The dispersal train inferred from 
calcite/dolomite ratios overprints part, but not all 
of the dispersal train inferred from the iron con- 
tent. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00145 



HUDSON BAY RIVER SEDIMENTS AND RE- 
GIONAL GLACIATION: II. COMPARISON OF 
CARBONATE MINKRAWXiV OF SIZE FRAC- 
TIONS FOR ICE MOVEMENT INFERENCE, ' 

Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario), j 
Terrain Sciences Div. 

J. D. Adshead , 

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 
2, p 305-312, February, 1983. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 14 Ref. , 

Descriptors: 'Fluvial sedimenu, 'Glaciation, ^ 
'Rivers, 'Hudson Bay, 'James Bay, Carbonates, ^ 
Mineralogy, Ice movement, Sand, Silt, Clay, River j 
sediments, Limestone, Glacial drift. , 

To study the effects of differential abrasion on 
fluvial sediments in the Hudson Bay area, the 
mineralogy of the silt and clay fractions of river 
muds from the west side of Hudson and James 
Bays is compared with the mineralogy of river 
sands from the same area. Regional calcite/dolo- 
mite patterns for coarse silt, fine silt, and coarse 
clay fractions parallel the regional pattern for 
sands, further indicating the presence of a train of 
drift with distinctive carbonate composition ex- 
tending southwest of Cape Henrietta Maria. Miner- 
alogical results emphasize the role of common 
underlying factors such as source bedrock and ice 
dispersal patterns in influencing the distribution of 
carbonate minerals in glacial denvative sediments. 
Conversely, carbonates in river sediment of the i 
Hudson Bay region are useful indicators of region- 
al drift dispersal and ice-flow patterns. The abun- 
dance of dolomite over calcite in coarse silt and 
the enrichment of calcite in fme sUt may be ex- 
plained by a greater resistance to abrasion of grains 
of dolomite than grains of calcite after particles 
have been reduced to sizes lying in the coarse silt 
range. Clay-size particles of calcite and dolomite 
are among the most susceptible of sediment com- 
ponents to acid dissolution, but constitute 10-20% 
of the 0.2-2 micro m fraction of muds from the 
Nelson, Severn, and Attawapiskat localities. The 
widespread use of silt or combined silt and clay 
fractions for calcite and dolomite determmations in 
drift provenance studies is not upheld by the re- 
sults of this study. Use of the sand particle size 
grade is advocated for studies of the carbonate 
mineralogy of tills or galcial derivative sediments. 
It is clear from the carbonate mineralogy of rivet 
sediments from the lowlands that sands reflect the 
composition of carbonate source rocks m the 
region much better than silts. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00146 



DEPOSITION OF FINE AND COARSE SANE 
IN AN OPEN-WORK GRAVEL BED, 

Freshwater Biological Association, AmblesitU 

(England). 

P. A. Carting. . . 

Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc 

es. Vol. 41, No. 2, p 263-270, Febrtiary, 1984. ( 

Fig, 2 Tab, 41 Ref, 1 Append. 

Descriptors: 'Sand, 'Streambeds, 'Siltation, *Sedi 
mentation, Water pollution eff'ects. Stream fisher 
ies. Stream degradation, Gravel, Bed load, Sus 
pended sediments. Deposition. 

Low silt content in stream bed sediments is genei 
ally regarded as important to the survival of th 
young stages of salmonids. Knowledge of process 
es rates, and downstream extent of siltation woul 
be invaluable when evaluating pollution impact c 
gravel restoration programs. The siltation of sma 
shallow upland streams with well-graded grave 
was modeled using an experimental gravel bed in 
flume with three grades of sands moving in suspet 
sion and as bedload. For low suspended concentri 
tions « 300 mg/L) the mean deposition rate wj 
1 34% of the initial gravel volume filled per hou 
Deposition rates for sands 0.15-1.4 mm m diamet< 
with suspended sediment concentrations of 38-91 1 
mg/L and Froude numbers in the range 0.008- l.i 
were constant with respect to Froude number. K 
all concentrations the deposition rate was strong, 
linearly correlated with the suspended sedimei 
concentration. The downstream decrease in silt 
tion rate fiom a point source was a negative exp 
nential function of distance from that source, lu 
bulent resuspension of sediment prevented depo! 



24 



mssm^ 



Hon in a surface layer of gravel of thickness ap- 
proximately equal to the mean grain size of the 
gravel. Hydraulic parameters, velocity, and depth 
in particular, act to control the downstream distri- 
bution of the sediment load rather than the overall 
magnitude of deposition. Mean flow data, especial- 
ly where denved from velocity profile data meas- 
ured in the outer boundary layer, have limited 
value for siltation investigations concerned with 
processes occurnng very close to the bed Open- 
work gravels will rapidly become silted in flows 
with low concentrations of suspended solids With- 
out natural disturbance of gravels by high flows 
mechamcal cleansing of spawning beds has limited 
i'alue where sediment pollution is likely to be a 
recurrent problem. (CoUier-IVI) 
(V85-00148 



:OARSE SEDIMENT YIELDS FROM THE 
UNG? "^^^^^"^^ «I^R BASIN, RrAHINE 

^inistry' of Works and Development. Napier 

New Zealand). Water and Soil Div 

'. J. Grant. 

oumal of Hydrology (New Zealand), Vol 21 No 

, P 81-97, 1982. 6 Fig, 5 Tab, 12 Ref, 1 Append 

descriptors: 'Waipawa River, *New Zealand 
Sediment yield, 'Tukituki River, Erosion rates, 
oods. Cyclones, Middle Stream, Smith Stream 
langataura Stream, Flood control. Rock, Scree! 

^f^"', aggradation of the channels of Waipawa 
Id Tukitukj Rivers in the Ruataniwha Plains area 

North Island, New Zealand, has seriously re- 
iced the protection now given by the Upper 
ikjtuki Flood Control Scheme. Throughout the 
jahine Range, the source region of Waipawa and 
ikituki Rivers, the current trend of change ap- 
ars to be one of increased erosion and sediment 
uisport. The Hoods resulting during cyclone 
ison, March 1975, from North Branch, in the 
>per Waipawa River basin, having a sediment 
pply area of 0.354 sq km and a drainage area of 
' sq km, transported more than 44,400 cu m of 
irse sediment; this represents a specific yield of 
000 cu m/sq km. A three year period prior to 
Lson was suitable for the accumulation of a large 
>ply of loose rock waste and, as well as trans- 
rtmg this, Alison floodwater eroded much bed- 
■k and some old scree material. The flood level 
iduced by cyclone Alison on the Upner 
jpawa River has an estimated recurrence inter- 
ot about 7.5 years leading to a minimum aver- 

aimual sediment yield of 3700 cu m/sq km/a 
m this storm alone. When other floods are taken 

it yield of North Branch is estimated to be 4500 
m/sq km/a, but this also is conservative. From 
specific yield other approximate specific yields 
.! 0^^ ^°'' **"* headwater areas of: Middle 
jam, 2100 cu m/sq km/a; Smith Stream, 3200 
n/sq km/a; and Mangataura Stream, 1400 cu 
q km/a. Compared with available values of 
ual erosion rate and sediment yield for geologi- 
y and physiographically similar regions in New 
land, the coarse sediment yield from the Upper 
^rof />f "k^'^I °^ ^, ^^°° '^^ ™/^q l^/a may 

f^VSiSvt' ■' "°' "^^ '^'^^^^*' '" ^- 
i-00178 



cyclones. The application of a Lagrangian formu- 
lation to experimental situations both in pulverized 
coal burners and the case of particle-laden cold 
flow to validate the physical modelling is de- 
scribed. In the Lagrangian approach a representa- 
tive number of mdividual particle trajectories are 
calculated within the Eulerian gas flow field 
which IS obtained either experimentally or through 
the solution of the governing equations of the gas 
^^Ti S?/nP'eniented by a suitable turbulence 
model The results of the large number of particle 
trajectory calculations are ensemble averaged to 
give the particle concentration distribution defined 
in the Eulenan sense. (Baker-IVn 
W85-00197 



BRAIDED-STREAM DEPOSmON IN THF 

MPEMBENI RIVER, ZULULAND 

h.?."i^/l™ fiF^T "^'"'"g ^"'' Development. Rand- 
burg (South Afnca). 

O. R. Dix. 

South African Journal of Science, Vol. 80, No 1 d 
41-42, January, 1984. 5 Fig, 5 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Braided streams, 'Deposition 
•Mpembeni River, *Zululand, 'South Africa, Bed- 
forms, Sandwaves, Dunes, Flooding, Velocity. 
Water depth. Erosion, hannel morphology. 

The Mpembeni River is a perennial stream which 
runs east of Babanago in Zululand. It has a catch- 
nient area of 260 sq km above the reach investigat- 
hZA I. ^ ^^"^ proportion of granitic and arkosic 
bedrock. Investigations of the area suggest the 
following sequence of events occurs during flood- 
mg First, at high water, all sand and some gravel 
in the braided reach is transported downstream 
leaving a lag of only the larger clasts. When the 
flow IS waning, smaller clasts and sand-size sedi- 
ment are deposited on the lag. Bedforms such as 
sandwaves and dunes probably form, depending on 
fectors such as flow velocity and water depth 
Transition from high to intermediate flow results 
in braiding. High-flow bedforms such as sand- 

wfrL^'"^^^ ^""^ "^ "° '°"g«'' *" equilibrium 
with flow. Complex patterns of erosion and deposi- 
tion ensue, and the bedforms are dissected to form 
a senes of compound bars. With further decline in 
discharge, water flow concentrates in a single 
channel with high depth to width ratio. This con- 
centration of flow and reduced sediment input 
trom upstream results in greater competency Deg- 
radation ensues, progressing upstream from the 
weir, which acts as a local base level. The effect of 
degradation is to reduce gradient and cause the 
channel to meander. These changes involve the 
concepts of geomorphic thresholds and complex 
response. (Baker-IVI) ^ 

W85-00217 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Chemical Processes— Group 2K 

occurs early in the flood tide in tidal creeks with 
slow currents. This resuspension does not increase 
with tidal amplitude, suggesting that it is not 
"^T.i ^V^^^ currents. Stirring by wind or fish, 
and the lifting of particles in surface films, cause 
resuspension in muddy areas with slow tidal cur- 
rents This resuspension results in a significant 
input of particles into the marsh water column, one 

lif ^A^^y^ fi'^'if '^^ '"P"' of particles with the 
tide. (Collier-IVI) 

W85-00405 

2K. Chemical Processes 

HYDROLOGY AND HYDROCh^MISTRY OF 
J}^^^^^^^ BRANCH KARST, BEUZE, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept of Ge- 
ography. ^ 

W85-OOO06^ •'•biographic entry see Field 2F. 



TRACE-ELEMENT PARTITION COFFPT 
CIENTS IN THE CALCITE-WATER SYST^' 
AND THEIR PALEOClWaTIC SIGNm 
CANCE IN CAVE STUDIES, ^'^^'NIFI. 

^^Master Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Ge- 

W85Sf8^ bibliographic entry see Field 2F. 



EFFECTS OF GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SFA 

SONALITY ON THE CHEMISTRY 6f cIr-' 

BONATE GROUNDWATER, 

McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept of Ge- 
ography. K • VJV, 

WSS^OOofg^ bibliographic entry see Field 2F. 



VAR^T,A^^«™fx?^ ^^° HYDROCHEMICAL 
VARIATIONS IN SPRING WATFRS nv 
SOUTHERN INDIANA, U.S a!, "^^^^^^ ^^ 

Indiana Univ. at Bloomington. Dept. of Geology 
W85^00022^ bibliographic entry see Field 2F. 



VJ'A^?^.^^ DISPERSION OF HEAVY 
■TTCLES IN CONFINED TURBULENT 

^'^]^ Umv^ (England). Dept. of Chemical En- 

:nng and Fuel Technology 

'eber, F. Boysan, W. H. Ayers. and J. 

henbank. 

^^F^g!"iftef°'' ^°' ^°- ^' p ^^°''^^^' "^^y- 

".s^''i ,.*S«'l™ent transport, 'Turbulent 

simulation, Lagrangian method, Mathemat- 

equations. Computer models. Particulate 

turbulent dispersion of particles is of major 
^nce in such diverse applications as liquid 
nd coal combustion, reaction quenching, sedi- 
transport in nvers and gas-solid separation in 



^^^'^VT^'^^O^ AND RESUSPENSION IN A 
NEW ENGLAND SALT MARSH 

Smithsonian Institution, Edgewater, MD. Chesa- 
peake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. 
1 . h. Jordan, and I. Valiela 

K^'StiaMslf " '■ " '''-'''• •'^""->'- 

?Gre^fs''' /Sedimentation. 'Resuspension. 
Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, 'Massachusetts 
Salt marshes. Particulate matter. Particle size. Ni- 
trogen, Sediment transport. Tidal effects. Mussels. 

Particulate matter in a salt marsh can undergo 
repeated sedimentation and resuspension. Sedimen- 
tation in Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, Massachu- 
setts, was compared to other fluxes of particulate 
matter. Resuspension was calculated using meas- 
ured rates of filtration and biodeposition by mus- 
sels, tidal exchange of particulate matter, and sedi- 
mentation. Sedimentation measured with sediment 
traps, increases with tidal amplitude in areas with 
fast tidal current, but is unaffected by tidal ampli- 
tude in areas with slow currents. The total sedi- 
nientation of particulate nitrogen in areas with 
slow tidal currents is three times as large as the 
gross tidal exchanges of particulate nitrogen be- 
tween the marsh and coastal waters. Nit tidal 
export of particles by the marsh suggests that 
sedimentation is more than offset by reluspension. 
Resuspension of fine (4-40 micro m) particles 



QUALITY OF GROUND WATER IN SOUTH 
ERN BUCHANAN COUNTY, VIRGINIA 

Geological Survey, Richmond, VA Water Re- 
sources Div. 

S. M. Rogers, and J. D. Powell 
Available from the OFSS, USGS. Box 25425. Fed 
Ctr., Denver. CO 80225. USGS Water Resources 
Investigations Report 82-4022. 1983. 36 p 24 Fig 1 
Tab, 7 Ref °' 

Descriptors: 'Coal hydrology, 'Groundwater 
quality. Water quality, Groundwater contamina- 
tion, Buchanan County, 'Virginia. 

In seven small contiguous stream basins in the coal 
area of southwest Virginia, ground water is pre- 
dominantly bicarbonate in anion composition, with 
calcium as the major cation in the ridges and 
sodium the major cation in the lower altitudes 
sulfate IS the major anion in water associated with 
coal seams and in stream waters draining areas 
extensively disturbed by mining activities Water 
found along a major linear feature in the Big Prater 
Creek valley and water from deep wells in Levisa 
Fork basin contain chloride as the predominant 
anion. Hydrogen ion activities (pH) in the ground 

^^h ' '^ri^°" ^-2 'o 8-4- Iron concentrations as 
high as 14,000 micrograms per liter are present in 
domestic wells. The chemical composition of most 
streams changes with diminishing discharge and at 
baseflow is similar to the composition of local 
ground water. At high flows, streams draining 
W85 0(»2?' ^'^ enriched with sulfate. (USGS) 



HYDROGEOLOGIC AND WATER-OUALITY 
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IRONTON 
GALESVILLE AQUIFER, SOUTHEAsTmN- 

Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN. Water Re- 
sources Div. 




r, 
c.t 

■ta 

< 

a. 

Ss 

<: 

a: 

u 

I 
< 

s 

tfl 



i' iC 



<K 

IX 

IS 



25 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2K— Chemical Processes 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W85-00028 

CHEMISTRY OF MONTANA SNOW PRECIPI- 

Ml,m?na's?al^'Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Chemis- 
try. ^ ^ 

Av^lab?lf"oZhe Nat>onal Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190123, 
Price codes: A04 m paper copy, AOl m m.crofiche. 
Montana Water Resources Research Report No_ 
136, Bozeman, June l^SS- 26 P 2 Fjg 5 Tab^ 13 
Ref OWRT Project No. A-138-MONT (1), Con 
tract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2128. 

Descriptors: *Chemistry of precipitation, 'Snow- 
felT Acuity, Chemical analyses, Water quality. 
Acid streams 'Montana, Sampling * Acid precipe 
tation *Acid snow, Contammant transport, Acid 
precipitation effects. Pollutant identification. 

This project investigated t^^ chemistry of precipi- 
tation in the western mountain ^^&'°\°[^°"f^^^ 
Of particular concern was the acid content of the 
snowfall. Seventy-seven snow samples were col- 
lected during the winter of 1982 and analyzed for 
chemicar constituents. Several of the samples indi- 
cated the presence of acid precipitation; however 
fn general the study areas were not being subjected 
to acid precipitation. Surface water samples were 
collected from twenty-eight lakes and streams_ 
Chemical analyses of these water samples indicated 
That many of the lakes could be classified as moder- 
atelv or extremely sensitive to acid precipitation, 
based on their respective calcium saturation index. 
W85-00072 

OYVr.FN CONSUMPTION IN THE BOTTOM 
W ATFR REiTtED WITH THE PRODUCTION 
OF luLODEt IN THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS, 

Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Fisheries. 
A. Kawai, and H. Maeda^ 

Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fish- 
eries, Vol. 50, No. 1, p 119-124, January, 1984. 6 
Fig, 4 Tab, 19 Ref 

Descriptors: *Lake sediments, 'Dissolved oxygen, 
♦Lake Biwa, *Japan, 'Sulfides, Lake sediments. 
Regression analysis. Seasonal variation. 

The actual distribution and seasonal variation of 
the dissolved oxygen in the water as well as he 
sulfide concentration in the bottom sediment ot the 
north and south basins of Lake Biwa were exam- 
ined. Dissolved oxygen consumption due to the 
bottom sediment was estimated from the dissolved 
oxygen uptake in the core tube. Chemical oxygen 
uptake in the bottom sediment core was measured 
separately from total uptake by supplementation ot 
foLalin or mercury chloride. Total dissolved 
oxygen consumption rates in the north and south 
basins averaged 0.4 g of oxygen/sq m/day and 0.02 
g oxygen/sq m/day, respectively^ Chemical 
oxygen uptake accounted for about 80% and 17% 
of the total oxygen uptake in the north and south 
basins The sulfide accumulation was much higher 
in the north basin than in the south. In both basins 
the concentration of sulfide in the bottom sediment 
was correlated with chemical dissolved oxygen 
consumption in the overlying water Regression 
analysis suggests that the rate of chemical dis- 
solved oxygen consumption in the overlying water 
in both basins depends mainly on the amount ot 
sulfides in the bottom sediment. (Baker-IVl) 
W85-0O139 



Valley in the Dry Valleys region of Antarctica. To 
clarify the calcite formation process a study was 
made of the crystal form of calcium carbonate 
precipitation from calcium rich solution containing 
magnesium ions and the transformation of arago- 
^te to calcite in calcium chloride type brine. The 
study indicates that calcite was formed in calc um- 
rch solution in spite of the presence of magnes urn 
ions, and that aragonite was not transformed into 
calcite in calcium chloride rich solution containing 
magnesium ions. These findings suggest that calcite 
has been formed from the Don {"an Pond water 
through inorganic processes and that the past pond 
water contained a large amount of calcium chlo- 
ride and a rather small amount °f "iag"esium ions 
as seen in the present pond water. (Baker-lVl) 
W85-00185 

BEHAVIOUR OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE 
?AKAHASHI RIVER ESTUARY, JAPAN, 

Okayama Univ., Kurashiki (Japan). Inst, for Agri- 
cultural and Biological Sciences. 
H. Teraoka, and M. Ogawa. „,_^ , . 
Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol. 45, No. 1, p 6- 
12; January, 1984. 2 Fig, 4 Tab, 18 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Adsorption, 'Trace elements, 'Taka- 
hashi River Estuary, 'Estuanne environment, 
'Japan, Lead, Copper, Zinc, Nickel, Manganese 
Chromium, Cobalt, Phosphorus, Organic matter. 

The concentrations and the enrichment factors for 
iron, manganese and organic matter in suspended 
solids were slightly higher in estuanne water than 
in rivers, suggesting adsorption of these trace ele- 
ments on particles. In addu.on concentrations of 
trace elements such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co 
and P in suspended solids in water columns and m 
the sieved sediments were positively correlated 
with the amount of organic matter at p - U.l /c^ 
As to trace elements dissolved m the water, the 
concentrations of Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr in estua- 
rine surface waters were slightly lower than in 
river waters, but Mn, Ag and Zn showed the 
reverse tendencies. The companson of concentra- 
tions of trace elements in the mterstitial wa er 
obtained from estuarine sediments with the overly- 
ing water indicates a characteristic increase of Mn 
and Co by factors of 620 and 37, respectively, and 
a 7 3-15 fold increase of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb Ag, Fe, 
and Ni. Almost all trace elements and organic 
matter that had been adsorbed is released again in 
the reducing environment of sediment. Owing to 
the positive conelation between trace elemen s 
and organic matter in the various sized sediments 
and the abundance of organic matter in interstitial 
water, organic matter may be most important tor 
postdepositional migration of trace elements. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00186 



CALaTE FORMATION IN CALCIUM CHLO- 
RIDE RICH WATER, 

Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Water Research Inst. 

C. Tomiyama, and Y. Kitano. 

Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol. 45, No. 1, p 

1-5, January, 1984. 2 Fig, 4 Tab, 13 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Calcite, 'Chemical reactions, 'Calci- 
um chloride, 'Dry Valleys, 'Antarctica, 'Don 
Juan Basin, Sediments, Carbonates, Calcium car- 
bonate. Magnesium, Aragonite. 

Calcium carbonate is contained in the sedirnent of 
the Don Juan basin, the south fork of the Wright 



WATFR OUALITY AND ROCK WEATHERING 
^''tSe UPPER ReIcHES OF THE TENRVU 
RIVER IN CONNECTION WITH LANDSLIDE 
DISASTERS, ^ ^ . 

Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engmeenng. 
S Nakamura, M. Takemura, and Y. Kitano. 
Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol.45, No. 1, p 
13-25, January, 1984. 8 Fig, 3 Tab, 6 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Landslides, 'Weathering, 'Water 
quality, 'Tenryu River, 'Japan, Chemical reac- 
tions, Bicarbonates, Calcium, Natural waters. Geo- 
chemistry. 

Natural waters in the upper reaches of the Tenryu 
River were analyzed in connection with landslide 
disasters. Landslides occurred in the limestone 
areas and metamorphic rock plus limestone areas 
where the concentrations of bicarbonate and calci- 
um in natural waters were more than 40 mg/1 arid 
13 mg/1, respectively. Landslides occurred in 
metamorphic rock plus granite areas where the 
concentrations of bicarbonate and calcium were 
more than about 25 mg/1 and 8 mg/1, respectively. 
Landslides occurred in the granite areas where the 
concentrations of bicarbonate and calcium are 
more than about 20 mg/1 and 7 mg/1, respectively. 
These geochemical considerations and discussion 
are helpful for the understanding of the chemical 



weathering of rocky materials and also the occur- 
rence of landslides. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00187 

SHORT STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF A 
VALLEY ON THE COMPOSITION OF RAIN- 
WATER 

Central Electricity Generating B<»rd, Ratcliffe-on- 
Soar (England). Scientific Services Dept. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5B. 
W85-00238 

PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY PROBABILITY 
- THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME, 

Pack (Donald H), McLean, VA. 

D. H. Pack. 

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 16, No. 5, p 1145- 

1157, 1982. 8 Fig, 6 Tab, 14 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chemistry of precipitation, 'Proba- 
bility 'Ions, Hydrogen ion concentration. Sulfates, 
Nitrates, Chloride, Ammonia, Calcium, Magnesi- 
um, Potassium, Temporal distribution. 

Cumulative frequency distributions, presented in 
probability terms, were determined for the five 
major ions (H( + ), S04(2-), N03(-) CK-), NH4( + ) 
at five MAP3S sites and Ca(2-1-), Mg(2-^) and 
K( + ) for two of these locations). The sites used 
are: Pennsylvania State University PA; Ithaca, 
NY- University of Virginia, VA; Whiteface Moun- 
tain' NY and Champaign/Urbana, IL. Curvihnear 
regressions were fitted to these data. The majority 
of the distributions are exponential (81%) witu 
excellent correspondence with the observations (r 
sq = 90 or larger for 89% of the distnbutions). 
The remaining 19% of the data was best fitted by a 
power law distribution. In no case did a logarith- 
mic or linear regression fit the data best. These 
equations are directly and conveniently applicable 
to the design of simulated rain exposures to repro- 
duce the natural probability of an ecosystem re- 
ceiving a specified ion concentration. The analysis 
produSed a median little affected by outliers, either 
real or artifacts, and so is a better statistic for use m 
trend analysis. If combined with flux orndit analy- 
sis approaches the entire concentration distribution 
can be examined for temporal changes with much 
more opportunity for detecting subtle shifts m the 
chemistry. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00239 

MAP3S/RAINE PRECIPITATION OffiMIS 
TRY NETWORK: STATISTICAL OVERVIEW 
FOR THE PERIOD 1976-1980. 

Atmospheric Environmental, Vol. 16, No. 7, j 
lwTl631, 1982. 5 Fig, 11 Tab, 16 Ref, 2 Append 

Descriptors: 'Chemistry of precipitation, 'Meteor 
logical data collections, 'Statistical analyse 
Sulfur Sulfur dioxide, Hydrogen ion concentra 
tion. Ammonia, Nitrates, Seasonal vanation. 



The MAPS3S/RAINE precipitation chemistr 

network was initiated in 1976 with the objective c 

creating a long-tenn, h.gh-quality data b^e fo A 

development of regional transport and deposito 

models A basic statistical summary is presen e 

for the the initial 3 1/2 year operating penod of tl 

MAP3S/RAINE network. The overview consic 

ers statistical features of the Precip.tation eva 

data base, including temporal and vanable-pair b 

havior and spatial (site-to-site) relationship^^ 

sonal vanations in concentrations of the spec^ 

total sulfur, S02, free hydrogen ion and NH4(H 

are easily identifiable from both event and monm 

average time trend analyses. Spec.es-pair corre 

tions Ire generally strong and positive among t 

m^lr ionk: species total S nitrate, free hydrog 

and ammonium; variations from this trend at m 

vidual sites can be related to geographical locati 

Though reasonable coherency is exhibited in su 

to-site correlation analyses, the questions of prop 

averaging time and network density make mterp 

tat^n of spatial statistics difficult. Significant f. 

tures of the data set include seasonal cycling 

or^e species, variability of the data, and interre 

tionships between pollutants. There is very ht 



26 



trend to the data, over the approximately three- 
year penod of record. (Moore-I VI) 
W85-0O24O ' 

FACTORS INFLUENCING TRACE MFTAI 
SULFATE AND HYDROGEN IbNCONCEN 
TRATIONS IN RAIN, «-UINCJiN- 

M^es'oif ^^*'°"^ ^''^■' ™. Environmental Sci- 

S. E. Lindberg. 

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 16, No 7 n 170) 

Oescriptors: Trace metals, *Sulfates, 'HydroKen 
on concentration, 'Chemistry of precioitation 
Tennessee, Lead, Manganese, Zinc, A^r pXt on' 
«asonal variation. Rainfall, Wet deposition. 

'recipitation collected as wetfall-only and primari- 
i on an event basis at a site in the Ten™e 

■^cL^^r^'f .'^'^"'1'"'^""'= ^"^ ^o'"*'°" contain^ 
ace metals whose concentrations exhibit loe 

?S?9 ^ pk"^^"'- '^^ concentrations of H(+) 
04(2-), Pb, Mn, and Zn exhibit maxima in Ae 
armer months in response to synoptic meteoro- 
gic conditions. These conditions result in elevat- 

au- concentrations during air stagnation and in 
snera^ly lower ramfall amounts per event and 
nee less dilution of the scavenged material. Dilu 
Lffic/en/f h'^ ^^ significant negative correlation 
fo^ tJfe r, VI?" concentrations and rainfall 

in^n^n ^" parameter exerting the strong- 

H,fvM °° concentrations. Concentrations are 
S ^to"'"i"''"^ ^'"^ '"*"f^" duration and 
pen L ?^^" ^^^"'- The relationship be- 

scnbed by a negative exponential, while that 

TZIT '^n''r*''°" ^"'^ ^^*"f^" amount is ap- 
)ximately a 0.6-power relationship. Calculated 

Ti^.*J^"°' «'"",'^'y increase with increas 
atmospheric particle mass-median diameter of 

Shor^'JSSctr ' ""' '°°° '''' "^ ''"' ^"' 
5-00241 



extent of acid neutralization was the least and wa-s 
W8T5)J43"" '° """'^^^ ^''^">- (Moore-\vi) '' 

ATMOSPHERIC TRACE METALS IN thu 

C Boutron. 

^A"?°,lP]!f"'^ Environment, Vol. 16 No 10 n 

2451-2459, 1982. 3 Fig, 4 Tab, 35 Ref ' ^ 

?Soutt%'ole'^"r' •^?/^';'=''c. 'Trace metals, 
Q^S »?^' '^"' pollution. Polar regions 

Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium^Iron 
ZiLTsTer.'^^"^^' L^^'^' Cadm,um."co;per: 

iwl^^n r" ^"C'^essive dated snow samples, cover- 

ind 1977'^w^"h ""t°"' '""" f^''"^""^ ^«^ween 1928 
ana iy77 with a time resolution of approximate! v 
one sample per year, have been collected usfne 
stringent contaniination-free techniques from a "o 
^n.^ftfPpPi" '"a ^^^ '^'^^" ^^cto^ ^« the geographic 
forN/M^'.^"A^''=^'^- '^^^y have been anZed 
for Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu Zn and 

abfo'.^t^n'".fr" '=°"'*"'°"^ "'y flamefessltomic 
absorption after preconcentration. For all the ele- 
ments the concentrations observed in he most 
tS v"nlH '"^"^'i ^'^ '^^'"P^^ble to the oneTfn 
the 50 y old snow layers, except for Pb, for which 
an increase (x 4) is observed after 1960 approxi^ 
ence of ifnh'..'*'l' "'"f^°^" '=°"fi™ 'hat the'^nflu. 
st"u nellii^t *,T°'P''""= P°""''°" *^ probably 
still negligible m the remote areas of the southern 
hemisphere for the 12 measured elements excen^ 
possibly for Pb after 1960. For thisXst elemem 
however, an alternative explanation of the S 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Chemical Processes — Group 2K 

s^tf "fe *^''^™'''y of precipitation, 'Minne- 
frif^e "y.'l'^^S^". 'on concentration. Sulfates, Ni- 
trates, Ammonium ion. Calcium, Magnesium 
Sodium, Powerplants, Air pollution. S"esium, 

Individual rain event samples were collected at 

me7s"ofr97r,9^fo"'"' ^'""^^°'^ during'thf sum^* 
mers ot 1977-1980 using automate, sequential ore- 

Sr-n,'""?"'' P'^=^'^ 3.75'm\bove'^he 
ground. The sites were clustered with 40 km of 
each other in a rural area in the vicinity o^a coal- 
buming power station. The samples were analyzed 
for pH; anions (ion chromatography), metalHc ca 
tions (inductively coupled plasma pe^metry) 
and the ammonium ion (colorimetry)'^ SpadTl and 
oS^rT^^'r 'h^.^oncentrat.ons'^and dep 
osition of chemical species in the precioitation 

tradon°'oTt'h'- ""^ '^'"""'^ ''''"'' in'heTonc°n" 
trations of the ionic components with time or 
location could be identified over the study period 

fn^lh'roni""'"'",^"" »he predominant El- 
and through correlation and regression analyses 
they appeared to be associated more with metalhc 
cations (calcium, magnesium and sodium) Tnd he 

cTnTr™o?V^" "*''' '''^ hydrogenln^'c^l! 
centrations of the major ionic components eeneral- 

ius'Ster^i" m ?'"' '"""^ ^^•" -cuts. N^'obvl- 
ous pattern in lomc concentrations between the 
sites was observed which could be related to thi 
point source. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00246 






PACT OF LAND-USE ON THE ACID AND 
^CE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF pSe 
TTATION IN THE NORTH CTI^JTRAL U I' 

S^trinr""'"'" ""'''■ °'°^" ^"^' 
'• Thornton, and S. J. Eisenreich 

M98f 8 fH^^'^T^^sX?'.'^' No. 8. p 1945- 
)2-77-lv04f27' '^'''' '' ^''- °°^ «'-' ^^E- 

'"i-S r^r'^.r- 'Chemistry of precipita- 
Acid ram, 'Trace elements, 'Minnesota 
v. Ram, Metals, Sulfates, Nitrates, Ammon^' 
rogen ion concentration. Prairies Cult^vat^d 
i, Forests, Soils, Neutralization. '-"'"^^tea 

frn'^^'^l'^^ precipitation and snow core sam- 

ided a m/^"T ^"°'' "°"hem Minnesota 

ui on th ' '^°' "^mning the influence of 

^sls fnci ,Hph''°'"^°'"'°" °f ^^* deposition, 
yses mcluded major cations (Al, Ca Me Fe 

major anions (S04, N03), trace m^tals^'cCu; 

o, V-r, iNi, Zn), ammonia and pH. Soil from 
SnTf"""""' ""''' greatly influences ,h" 

for tLl'^'^^'P"^"""- "^^ ^'■f^'^t ^as most 
in the nrT ■'°' ""^'T "^hich had concentra- 

n he praine-agncultural area up to 5 times 

^i s'in°?h?'' ''■'"',• °"f '° the influence of 
soils in the agricultural area, soil sources 

NO? "^''. ^"thropogenic contribution for 
N03, and the trace metals in those areas. In 

^otf amh"rn "'*"'' "'""^ °^ northeaste^ 
«ota^amhropogenic sources were more im- 

lo^ amhrn *°^ '"'' ""P°^^'l' ^^^'^'ble soil; 
local anthropogemc emissions; and closer 
ty to the industrial Midwest. Soil source 

e-^eSt"ed'°' "'' "^J^^ '=^'*°"^- ^^^^Z 
^ TnH vo',/"?^t" concentrations of H(+), 
■), and N03(-), between 64 and 91% of the 

he extlToTf.'""'"''- \" 'he agricultural 

ne extent of the neutralization of rainfall 

was greatest and included NH4(+) (84%) 

'1 minerals (16%). In the forested area the 



ACIDITY OF RAIN IN EUROPE 

Central Electricity Generating Board Leather 
head (England). Central Elfctricity ' Resea/ch 

M. V. ^S.^- ^ "^ "^^^^h. J. H. Pickles, and 

n'4"?S?i^'AE''^*i?"J"e"t. Vol. 17, No. 1, p 127- 
137, 1981. 6 Fig, 5 Tab, 1 1 Ref. . P '^' 

Descriptors: 'Acid rain, 'Europe, Hydrogen ion 
concentration. Statistical analysis Trends 

A detailed statistical evaluation has been made of 
the precipitation acidity data from the EuroDean 

?erd''f9T6'l976''"*^*^^ ^^'^•^^'^ f- 'he K 
penod 1956-1976 m an attempt to establish what 
trends are apparent. Out of 120 sites wkh 5 or 
more years data, 29 show a significant rend of 
ZZT'^i """""J "^^^^ee predpitation acidify 
dur ng the penod and five a decrease. For these 
sites substantially the same result arises for the 
hydrogen ion concentration calculated from ionic 
balance based on detailed chemical analysis of the 
precipitation samples. The data showed hat the 

ncreased number of intennittent high monthly 
values after about 1964 rather than a su1tain™d high 

evel of acidity with some months contmuinglo 
show low values similar to those seen pre-1964 
This gives nse to an apparent step-increase in 
annual average precipitation acidity for several of 
Siacent's' ""h 'l™"' Comparison of data from four 
adjacent Swedish sites showed that they were not 
well correlated suggesting that the major pan of 
the variance was explained by local rather than 
W85°-TO24"5 '^''- (^"'hor's abstract) '" 

ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL PROPFRTiuc 
OF RAIN IN MINNESOTA PROPERTIES 

Mmnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Plant Patholo- 

a C. Pratt, M. Coscio, D. W. Gardner, B I 
Chevone, and S. V. Krupa. 

^c']"?^?^^"*^ Environment, Vol. 17, No 2 n ^47 
355, 1983. 3 Fig, 10 Tab, 16 Ref ' ^ 



27 



INVESTIGATION OF ACID PRFrTPlTATTriM 
IN QINGHAI PROVINCE OTINa"'^"^'^ 

lu^HI^^'* Environment and Policy Inst., Honolu- 
Ws'sS^ '''''""^'■^Phic entry see Field 5B. 

COMPLEXATION OF TRACE MFTAI« nv 
ADSORBED NATURAL 'S^SnJ^'^Ma''™ 

Geological Survey, Miami, FL. Water Resources' 

W85S96'' '''''"°^'^Ph''= ^ntry see Field 5B. 

DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN ION roM 
CENTRATION IN SOFTWATER LAKFS Iisivn" 
CARBON DIOXIDE EQUILIBRIA ^ 

s^adTs!"rS°*""^ Geological Observatory, Pali- 
A. L. Herczeg, and R. H. Hesslein 
4 T8i?s''A^'*Cos'nochimica Acta, Vol. 48, No 
4, p 837-845, Apnl, 1984. 5 Fig, 4 Tab, 24 Ref 

?rh^;^?^°['^ 'Hydrogen ion concentration. 

Chemical analysis, 'Carbon dioxide, 'Experimen 

tal Lakes Area, 'Ontario, Inorganic carbon Or- 

ganu: carbon. Alkalinity, Carbonates, Surface 

tntTfflh°' '!«'«™i"i"g 'he hydrogen ion con- 
tent of fresh waters is proposed that involves total 

tTcni '"°:??''^ '^^'''°" (I^IC or Sigma CO2 
rathef fhL^nH"'. ^?''^'' ^^^02) measurement^ 
rather than pH electrode measurements. This rec- 
ommendation deri^^es from discrepancies between 
pH and carbon dioxide equilibria measurements 
made on several softwater lakes at the Experimen- 
tal Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario The dH 
calculated from DIC, PC02, and the first dissoda 
ion constant of carbonic acid (Kl) data was con- 
sis ten ly higher than that directly measured whh a 
pH electrode. Similarly, calculation of PC02 of 
surface waters from pH, DIC, and Kl data gave 
de dteTeneatrn'"' 'hat of atmospheric saturft^on 
PC07 I^h ! equilibrations with atmospheric 
the^Lh Hk?n? °y expenments demonstrated that 
"^e high dissolved organic carbon content of these 
waters appears to alter the electrode responsi 
yielding pH values lower than the true values 
Furthennore, the uptake of protons by weak add 
anions appear to be the cause of th'^ Measured 

(DS:""dfssolveTrn,'f 1 i°^"") ^"'l -rhonate 
l^r,,, .'^'^^olved C02) alkalinity. Therefore bicar- 
bonate ion concentration must be calculated from 
he difference between the total dissolved inorga™ 

content" Th«''"' '"^. ""^''"^^^^ dissolved ^02 
content. These procedures should provide more 



it 

< 
0. 

Si 
< 

u 
I 
■3; 

s: 
<: 

Kl 



i 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



Group 2K — Chemical Processes 

accurate and consistent results in the pH trend in 
surface waters and hence yield a solid baseline 
against which the effects of acid precipitation can 
be assessed. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00298 



COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR A TRILINEAR 
DIAGRAM PLOT AND ANALYSIS OF WATER 
MIXING SYSTEMS, 

Kent State Univ., OH. Dept. of Geology^ 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5A. 
W85-00360 

FATE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN MOUN- 
TAIN STREAMS IN THE MARMOT BASIN: A 
PROCESS REACTOR MODEL, 

Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Kananaskis Centre tor 
Environmental Research. 
S. A. Telang, and G. W. Hodgson 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 2, p 185-191, January, 
1983. 2 Fig, 1 Tab, 10 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Organic compounds, 'Mountain 
streams, 'Degradation, 'Marmot Basin, Humic 
acids, Fulvic acids, Tannins, Lignins, Hydrocar- 
bons. 

Clear cold mountain streams of the Marmot Creek 
drainage basin are surprisingly active in the con- 
version of organic matter. A conceptual process 
reactor model with input/output functions was 
developed for the Marmot basin to evaluate the 
stream as a reactor and to quantify many of the 
processes within the process reactor of the strearn. 
The flow of refractory organic compounds 
through a 2 km reach of the Marmot Creek basin 
showed no conversion, just simple transport from 
input to output, for humic and fulvic acids. Tan- 
nins and lignins, which are commonly regarded as 
less refractory, showed conversions. Mass balance 
data for the input/output flow of more labile sub- 
stances-amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids and 
phenols-confirmed the processes of degradation. 
Further, they showed a great deal of dynamic 
activity in the stream that resulted in some cases in 
net generation of labile compounds such as hydro- 
carbons, i.e, where processes of generation domir 
nated those of degradation. (Author's abstract) 
W85-(X)406 

DRY WEIGHT LOSS AND CHANGES IN 
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PINE (PINUS 
KESIYA ROYLE) NEEDLES AND TEAK (TEC- 
TONA GRANDIS L.) LEAVES DURING PROC- 
ESSING IN A FRESHWATER LAKE, 
North-Eastern Hill Univ., Shillong (India). Dept. 
of Botany. 

B. K. Tiwari, and R. R. Mishra. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 3, p 249-256, Febru- 
ary, 1983. 3 Fig, 1 Tab, 31 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Decomposition, 'Litter, 'Pine, 
•Teak, 'Wards Lake, 'Shillong, 'India, Cellulose, 
Hemicellulose, Lignin, Sugars, Amino acids. 

The dry weight loss and chemical changes during 
the process of decomposition of two types of litters 
viz.; pine (Pinus kesiya Royle) needles and teak 
(Tectona grandis L.) leaves have been studied in a 
small freshwater lake (Wards Lake, Shillong, 
India) using plastic net (1 mm pore size) bags. The 
results reveal that type of litter and depth of water 
were the most important factors regulating the rate 
of decomposition. The percentage composition of 
cellulose and hemicellulose showed little variation 
and only a minor fall was noted in their values 
towards the end of the study period. The Ugnin 
percentage increased steadily at all the stations 
except the deepest station. The sugar and amino 
acid concentration dropped appreciably during the 
initial phase and stabilized during later periods. 
The general trend of change in nitrogen percent- 
age was initial fall-increase-fall-stabilization at a 
near original value. The rate of decomposition was 
faster when compared with similar studies in 
Canada and Europe. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00411 

LEAF LITTER PROCESSING IN AQUATIC 
SYSTEMS: A TWO VARIABLE MODEL, 



Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Dept. of Zool- 

a J. Hanson, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Barnes, and 

Hydrobiologia. Vol. Ill, No. 1, P 21-29, 1984_ 2 
Fig, 4 Tab, 30 Ref DOE contract DE AT06 79EV 
10004. 



Descriptors: 'Litter, 'Mathematical models. De- 
composition, 'Aquatic environment, Time, Tem- 
perature effects. Detritus. 

A negative exponential model with one independ- 
ent variable, days or accumulated time, was exam- 
ined for adequacy as a descriptive equation for 
aquatic leaf litter processing. The effect of adding 
a second independent variable, degree days or 
accumulated temperature, to the model was also 
examined. The two variable negative exponential 
model was shown to have two advantages over the 
single variable model. The expanded model pro- 
vided an adequate fit of litter processing data for 
more cases than the single variable model. Also, 
the two variable model allowed determination of 
rate coefficients corresponding to each tempera- 
ture level of the experiment rather than assuming a 
single, constant rate coefficient as with the one 
variable model. The trends of the temperature 
dependent rate coefficients were useful for examin- 
ing processing differences between experiments for 
different sites and seasons. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00412 

WATER CHEMISTRY OF THE RIVER KWAI, 

THAILAND, ,. . .^ c 

Tasmania Univ., Hobart (Australia). Dept. ot 

Botany. 

P A Tyler 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. Ill, No. 1, p 65-73, 1984. 9 

Fig, 3 Tab, 8 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'River Kwai, 
'Thailand, Bicarbonates, Limestone, Hydrogen ion 
concentration. Calcium. 

The River Kwai (Thailand) has two branches, the 
large Mae Nam Kwai Yai and the smaller Mae 
Nam Kwai Noi. The water chemistry of the River 
Kwai Noi, its tributaries, and the neighboring 
Kawi Yai is shown to be dominated heavily by 
calcium bicarbonate. Local rainwater is relatively 
dilute and unbuffered with a pH close to that of 
distilled water in equilibrium with air. Even during 
months of high rainfall, river waters are heavily 
dominated by alkaline earth bicarbonates, and have 
a consequently high pH. Dominance by calcium 
rather than calcium plus magnesium is to be ex- 
pected since limestone predominates in the catch- 
ment. The river is turbid but well oxygenated. It 
will soon be impounded by a new dam, the Khao 
Laem project. The dam will Pood much of the 
upper Kwai Noi valley below Bangkhlaburi. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00414 

2L. Estuaries 

DEMOGRAPHY AND FLORA OF THE OUSE 
WASHES, ENGLAND, 

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy 

(England). 

G. J. Thomas, D. A. Allen, and M. P. B. Grose. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 21, No. 3, p 197-229, 

1981. 11 Fig, 8 Tab, 21 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Ouse Washes, 'England, 'Demogra- 
phy, 'Vegetation, East Anglia, Marshes, Fenland, 
Floods, Wetlands, Peat, Drainage, Grazing, Gly- 
ceria. Aquatic plants, Aquatic weeds. Habitats. 

The Ouse Washes remain as the last, large, exten- 
sively flooded washland in the fenland region of 
East Anglia. They mainly comprise high marsh 
and grassland with minority areas of low marsh 
and open water. Their principal function remains 
as a storage site for excess winter flood water 
which restricts the agricultural use to seasonal 
grazing and mowing. Drainage developments have 
allowed about three quarters of the remammg area 
of washland to be converted into arable land. The 



flora of the washes seems typical of fenland peat 
except where clay and limesUjne have kx;al influ- 
ences in promoting diversity. Phalaris arundinacca 
and Glyceria maxima predominate in the fields and 
the latter is the dominant emergent in the aquatic 
habitats. The main biotic factors diversifying the 
habitats and flora are pool creation, ditch clearance 
and cattle grazing. Although no quantitative stud- 
ies were made on the response of ditch plants to 
different grazing pressures, the impression gained 
was that to check Glyceria maxima growth suffi- 
ciently the grazing densities need to be quite high. 
Certain infrequent species such as Potamogeton 
berchtoldii and P. trichoides only occurred at 
heavily grazed sites. This is of benefit to the breed- 
ing and wintering waterbirds. The removal of Gly- 
ceria maxima during the dredging of ditches pro- 
duces a habitat suitable for a range of colonizing 
species. In addition, plant propagules which liave 
been dormant in the mud may be brought to the 
surface where suitable conditions for growth may 
be more likely. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00116 

TROPHIC IMPORTANCE OF SPARTINA AL- 
TERNIFLORA PRODUCTION AND DECOM- 
POSITION TO THE MARCH-ESTUARINE 
ECOSYSTEM, 

New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, New 

Brunswick. 

A. C. Marinucci. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 22, No. 1, p 35-58 

January, 1982. 2 Tab, 142 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Estuarine environment, 'Plan 
growth, 'Marshes, 'Spartina, 'Decomposition 
Gulf Coast, Coastal waters, Wetlands, Detritus 
Salt marshes. Productivity, Nutrients, Tidal ef 
fects. 

Current estimates of the aerial production of Spai 
tina alterniflora on the East and Gulf Coasts of th 
United States and Canada range from 550 g/sq in 
year in Nova Scotia to 2,000 g/sq m /year in th 
Southern United States. Though production ma 
vary greatly between marshes in the same gee 
graphic areas, production is higher in the lo> 
marsh where plants exist exclusively because of 
variety of morphological and physiological adapt! 
tions. Application of the first order decay functio 
to S. alterniflora decay data has shown that deca 
rates from litter bag studies increase as one mov« 
southward, indicating principally the effect of m 
crobial activity on the process. Decay rates dete 
mined by the harvest plot technique are more rapi 
than the litter bag results for the same area, likel 
reflecting the influence of tidal transport of litK 
on the observed decay rate. In many estuanes, t 
nutrient or energy exchanges from the marsh l 
adjacent estuarine waters occur, thus ehmmatu 
the salt marsh as the cause of the high overs 
production in the adjacent estuary. In such est 
aries an interaction between tide and water densi 
differences recirculates nutrients and detritus ba( 
into the estuary from coastal waters, and may th- 
be responsible for the high estuarine productivit 
Processes in salt marshes are threatened by bo 
wholesale destructive practices and subtle poll 
tion. Good economic and political decisions bas- 
on the integrated nature of the salt marsh wi 
other ecosystems is needed to preserve the amou 
and quality of marshlands. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00117 

AVIAN UTILISATION ON SIX SAl 
MARSHES IN NEW JERSEY, 

Rutgers - The State Univ., New Brunswick, ^ 
Center for Coastal and Environmental Studies. 
J. Burger, J. Shisler, and F. H. Lesser. 
Biological Conservation, Vol. 23, , No. 3, p 1! 
212, July, 1982. 9 Fig, 9 Tab, 38 Ref 



Descriptors: 'Species diversity, 'Birds, S 
marshes, 'New Jersey, Biomass, Marsh manaj 
ment. Gulls, Terns, Waterfowl, Waders, Marsh 
Conservation, Habitats. 

Use of six salt marshes by birds was measured 
New Jersey from 18 April to 18 July 1972. In all 
impoundments, 2 ditched marshes, and 2 natu 



28 



4 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 



salt marshes were studied in terms of species diver- 
sity, numbers of individuals and biomass. Seventy- 
eight species of birds were noted in all six marshes, 
but not every species occurred in each marsh 
Species diversity was highest on the impound- 
ments, intermediate on the ditched marshes, and 
lowest in the natural marshes. Species diversity 
and the number of individuals were directly related 
to the amount of open surface area. The traditional 
species typical of salt marshes on the East Coast of 
North America occurred primarily in the natural 
salt marshes and were absent from the impound- 
ments. Red winged blackbirds and swallows were 
the most numerous species, followed by gulls and 
terns. The impoundments had over five times as 
many individuals as the natural marshes. Water- 
fowl, gulls, terns and waders accounted for over 
90% of the cumulative biomass in the six marshes, 
with waterfowl contributing over 50%. Impound- 
nients clearly support the largest biomass, number 
of species and individuals, and are used extensively 
by migrant waterfowl and shorebirds. Impound- 
ments can be created where open water areas have 
disappeared, creating habitats for migrants. It is 
equally important to preserve natural salt marshes 
so that the species which nest exclusively in these 
habitats can continue to do so. The importance of 
the natural salt marsh ecosystem and its attendant 
species should not be under valued because of the 
higher numbers which impoundments, stop-ditch 
marshes and other managed areas can support. 
Bird species using managed areas can use a wider 
vanety of habitats while the typical salt marsh 
species are limited to large expanses of relatively 
undisturbed salt marshes. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00120 ' 



Estuaries — Group 2L 



ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF STANDING 
WATERS IN NORTH WEST AFRICA: I. RAPID 
SURVEY AND CLASSIFICATION, 

N. C. Morgan, and V. Boy. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 24, No 1 p 5-44 

September, 1982. 8 Fig, 5 Tab, 34 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Natural habitats, 'Standing waters, 
•Classification, 'Algeria, 'Morocco, 'Tunisia 
Wetlands, Mediterranean, Macrophytes, Inverte- 
brates, Waterfowl, Physical properties, Zooplank- 
ton, Conservation. 

A simple survey technique was used for covering a 
broad range of taxa to obtain a rapid assessment of 
the conservation value of wetlands and open 
waters around the Mediterranean. The method was 
employed m Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco and the 
possibility of using the data to construct a classifi- 
cation of North African standing waters was inves- 
tigated. It was divided into four sets of data (physi- 
cal, macrophytes, invertebrates and winter counts 
ot waterflow) and cluster analyses were carried 
out on these. An analysis of the levels of relation- 
ship between all sites, obtained from the different 
cluster analyses, was then performed to combine 
the results and to construct natural classes The 
existence of these classes was confirmed by ordina- 
tion analyses. Whereas physical and botanical data 
alone can be used to construct a simple hierarchi- 
cal classification of sites, the classification becomes 
more realistic m terms of the overall conservation 
value if faunal data are included. Zooplankton are 
especially valuable as indicators of habitat condi- 
tions but other invertebrate groups can be of value 
particularly in relation to sites with varying salini- 
ty. A classification constructed in this way related 
to all features of the sites is useful for obtaining an 
overall assessment of the conservation value of the 
waterbody. The classification aids the process at 
the local, national, and international levels when 
selecting sites to be used as natural reserves. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00121 



VEGETATION CHANGES AND WATER 
CATCHMENT IN A DUTCH COASTAL DUNE 

Dune Water Works of The Hague (Netherlands). 
F. van der Meulen. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 24, No 4 p 305-316 
December, 1982. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 51 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Dunes, 'Vegetation, 'Netherlands, 
Catchment areas, 'Water table, Infiltration, Nu- 



trients, Catchment areas. Artificial recharge 
Groundwater recharge. Water management. Plan- 
ning, Decision making, Eutrophication. 

Studies on vegetation and landscape changes re- 
sulting from water catchment in Dutch coastal 
dunes are briefly reviewed and discussed with spe- 
cial reference to Meijendel, an important catch- 
ment area near the city of The Hague. The water 
works mainly concerns the extraction and artificial 
replenishment of groundwater. The main ecologi- 
cal impacts involve lowering of the groundwater 
table after extraction and, after replenishment, the 
establishment of an unnatural groundwater table 
and eutrophication. Main vegetation changes in- 
clude drying out of the dune wetlands, and, after 
replenishment, increased nitrophilous herb cover 
associated with a decrease in plant species diversi- 
ty and life form diversity. Options for management 
of the area are aimed largely at reducing the nutri- 
ent load caused by the infiltration water and at a 
regeneration of dune slack communities. This 
could be achieved by cropping the vegetation 
improving the quality of infiltration water, estab- 
lishing natural fluctuations of the water table and 
also be reducing the area of surface infiltration 
Long-term observation of permanent plots are cen- 
tral to all these needs. The use of air photos is an 
important aid for the study of vegetation changes 
under similar conditions. (Baker-IVD 
W85-00124 ' 



DEVELOPMENT OF LIQUID AND SOLID 
DISCHARGES OF A SUB-BOREAL ESTUARY- 
THE ST-JEAN RIVER, QUEBEC (NORTH 
COAST OF THE GULF OF ST-LAWRENCE) 
(EVOLUTION DU DEBIT LIQUIDE ET DE LA 
CHARGE SOLIDE D'UN ESTUARIE SUB- 
BOREAL: RIVERE ST-JEAN, QUEBEC (COTE 
NORD DU GOLFE DU ST-LAURENT)), 
Quebec Univ., Rimouski. Dept. of Oceanography 
D. Catahotti-Valdina, and B. F. Long. ^ ^ ^ 

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol 20 No 
2, p 184-194, February, 1983. 9 Fig, 1 Tab, 20 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Hydrodynamics, 'St. Jean River 
'Quebec, 'Estuaries, 'Suspended solids. Flow dis- 
charge. Fluvial sediments, Subboreal estuaries 
Flood flow. Low How, Saline water intrusion. 

An evaluation was made of the hydrodynamics of 
the St. Jean River estuary. Particular attention was 
paid to the flow dynamics and the mixing mecha- 
nisms which were studied for fluvial water-marine 
water. Two series of measurements were made on 
the solid and liquid discharges. The first took place 
during the spring flood of May 1980; the second in 

?n?n''4?."^ °'" '°^^^* '^''^' sP"ng tide in August 
1980. The average stream discharge is 1035 cu m/s 
during floods and 85 cu m/s at periods of lowest 
water level. When the stream discharges exceed 
160 cu m/s, the wedge of salt water is pushed out 
of the estuary and no reversed currents are present 
There is only a reduction of current velocity at the 
mouth of the river. Solid particles in suspension 
may vary in amount from 96 mg/L during floods 
to 4.6 mg/L for lowest water levels. In the former 
case about 65-95% of the solid suspension is miner- 
al matter, and in the latter about 58% is mineral 
matter. The general behavior of the St. Jean River 
estuary suggests a new type of environment, the 
subboreal estuary. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00144 



HUDSON BAY RIVER SEDIMENTS AND RE- 
GIONAL GLACIATION: II. COMPARISON OF 
CARBONATE MINERALOGY OF SIZE FRAC- 
TIONS FOR ICE MOVEMENT INFERENCE 

Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario) 

Terrain Sciences Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2J. 

W85-00146 



FLUCTUATION OF THE GROUNDWATER 
LEVEL AND FRESH-SALT WATER INTER- 
FACE IN RESPONSE TO THE TIDE (IN JAPA- 

Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). Dept. of Ap- 
plied Physics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2F. 
W85-00I92 



MISSISSIPPI DELTAIC WETLAND SURVIV- 
AL: SEDIMENTATION VERSUS COASTAL 
SUBMERGENCE, 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Center for 
Energy Studies. 

R. H. Baumann, J. W. Day, Jr., and C. A. Miller 
Science, Vol. 224, No. 4658, p 1093-1095, June 
1984. 2 Tab, 21 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Mississippi, 'Wetlands, 'Deltas, 
Sedimentation, 'Submergence, Batarataria Bay 
Fourleague Bay, Marshes, Storms, Floods, Accre- 
tion, Sea level. Aggradation. 

The Mississippi deltaic plain is a complex mosaic of 
delta lobes in various stages of a progradation- 
deterioration cycle, with most lobes presently re- 
flecting some stage of deterioration. A study of 
sedimentation was conducted in the marshes sur- 
rounding Barataria Bay and Fourleague Bay: Ba- 
taratana Bay is an interdistributary basin, and 
Fourleague Bay is an estuary dominated by the 
Atchafalaya River, an active Mississippi River dis- 
tributory. Seasonal sedimentation, measured with 
the aid of artificial marker horizons, was markedly 
different in deteriorating as compared with stable 
marshes m the Mississippi River deltaic plain. De- 
teriorating marshes receive most sediment during 
storm events, whereas stable marshes receive sub- 
stantial amounts of sediments during the spring 
nver flood. The deteriorating marshes are accret- 
ing at a faster rate (1.5 cm/yr at streamside, 9 
cm/yr at inland areas) than the stable marshes (1 3 
cm/yr at streamside, 0.6 cm/yr at inland areas). 
Relative to local apparent sea-level rise as meas- 
ured by tide gauges in each area, the deteriorating 
marshes are not maintaining their intertidal eleva- 
tion as well as the stable marshes. It is important to 
consider accretion relative to submergence. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00221 



RESPONSE OF PLANT SPECIES TO BURIAL 
IN THREE TYPES OF ALASKAN WETLANDS, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Botany. 

A. G. van der Valk, S. D. Swanson, and R F 

Nuss. 

Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 61, No 4 n 

1150-1164, April, 1983. 3 Fig, 7 Tab, 14 Ref 1 

Append. EPA grant R8058370IO. 

Descriptors: 'Wetlands, 'Burial, 'Plants, 'Alaska, 
Flooding, Plant growth, Carex, Equisetum 
Alpine zone. Coastal region. Lowlands, Species 
composition. Sediments, Seasonal flooding. 

At 15 freshwater lowland, 7 coastal, and 6 alpine 
sites, a burial experiment was set up with four 
treatments (0, 5, 10, or 15 cm of sediment). Species 
in alpine wetlands were damaged most by burial 
and their average shoot density in the 5-, 10-, and 
15-cm treatments was reduced 35, 72, and 93% in 

1979 and 28, 54, and 81% in 1980, respectively. In 
coastal wetlands, the average shoot density was 33 
65, and 76% lower in 1979 and 21, 37, and 53% in 

1980 in the 5-, 10-, and 15-cm treatments. Species 
in freshwater lowland wetlands were the least 
damaged by burial: average shoot density was 17 
33, and 47% lower in 1979 and 10, 7, and 39% 
lower in 1980 in the 5-, 10-, and 15-cm treatments. 
The responses of three common species (Carex 
aquatihs, Carex lyngbyaei, and Equisetum fluvia- 
tile) to burial varied from site to site. For example, 
Equisetum fluviatile responded to burial with a 
significant increase in shoot density at two perma- 
nently flooded sites and with no change in shoot 
density or with a significant decrease in shoot 
density at sites flooded seasonally. Only eight spe- 
cies at five sites (mostly alpine sites) were eradicat- 
ed and only in the 10- and (or) 15-cm treatments at 
any site. In seed traps in 1979 an average of 2 7 
3.6, and 5.9 species became established at alpine! 
coastal, and freshwater lowland sites, respectively 
In 1980, there were 1.2, 4.1, and 7.3 species, on the 
average represented in the seed traps in these three 
types of wetlands. Average seedling density was 
lowest in the alpine seed traps (6/sq m in 1979 and 
7/sq m in 1980) and highest in coastal wetlands 
(362/sq m in 1979 and 270/sq m in 1980) In 
freshwater lowland wetlands those with permanent 
standing water averaged 2.2 and 3.0 species in their 



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Sf '•::;;-:::••, 


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29 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 



I 
I 



Group 2L — Estuaries 

seed traps in 1979 and 1980, respectively, while 
those only seasonally flooded averaged 8.8 species 
in 1979 and 9,0 in 1980. Permanently flooded fresh- 
Vk-ater lowland wetlands had 7 seedlings/sq m in 
1979 and 25 in 1980, while those flooded seasonally 
had 122 seedhngs/sq m in 1979 and 69 in 1980. On 
the average, slightly more than 40% of the taxa in 
the seed traps at a site in 1980 were taxa that had 
not been present in 1979, and slightly less than 
40% of the taxa present in 1979 were not present m 
the seed traps at the same site in 1980. Only a few 
individuals of four species present in the seed traps 
of coastal wetlands in 1979 were still present m 
1980. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00248 



STATIC AND DYNAMIC ASPECTS OF NITRO- 
GEN CYCLING IN THE SALT MARSH GRA- 
MINOID SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA, 

Georgia Univ., Sapelo Island. Marine Inst. 
C. S. Hopkinson, and J. P. Schubauer. 
Ecology, Vol. 65, No. 3, p 961-969, 1984. 4 Fig, 1 
Tab, 54 Ref. EPA contract R 806728020. 

Descriptors: •Cycling nutrients, 'Salt marshes, 
•Nitrogen, •Spartina, •Georgia, Primary produc- 
tivity. Seasonal variation. Plant growth. Leaching, 
Detritus, Limiting nutrients. Uptake, Transloca- 
tion. 

Processes of nitrogen cycling including root 
uptake, translocation, leaching, detrital incorpora- 
tion, and overwinter storage were determined for a 
medium-height form of Spartina altemiflora in 
Georgia, USA. Mean concentration of total N in 
live above- and belowground plant tissues was 
0.60% of dry mass. Aboveground concentrations 
(1.05%) were more than twice the belowground N 
concentrations. The seasonal patterns of nitrogen 
concentrations were similar for aerial and subaerial 
Spartina tissues with maxima observed between 
December and May. Concentrations were highest 
in short, young stems and decreased as plants 
matured, senesced, and died. Seasonal patterns of 
nitrogen accumulation were out of phase for aerial 
and subaerial tissues. Maximum accumulation was 
in midsummer for aboveground plant parts and in 
late winter for belowground tissue. During winter 
> 83% of total plant N was in roots and rhizomes. 
During spring, there was a large net transfer of N 
from belowground storage to aerial tissues; about 
70% of total nitrogen was in aboveground plant 
parts by May. A nitrogen budget for Spartina 
altemiflora was constructed by combining organic 
productivity rates with nitrogen concentrations in 
plant tissues. Total uptake of N by roots was 34.8 
g/sq m/yr. Of this, 43% was lost by death or 
leaching from aboveground plant parts, while the 
rest was lost by death of roots and rhizomes. Total 
transfer of N from below- to aboveground tissues 
was 33.0 g/sq m/yr, 46% of which was new 
nitrogen taken up from the soil. Of the N trans- 
ferred aboveground, 14.4 g was lost to detritus 
upon culm death, 0.7 g was leached from the living 
culm, and 17.9 g was translocated from senescing 
leaves to rhizomes for storage or immediate trans- 
fer to actively growing shoots. A large percentage 
of the total flux into and out of leaves occurred 
during the period of active growth. The high 
degree of N conservation in Spartina, low leacha- 
bility, and retraction from senescent tissue are con- 
sistent with the idea that primary productivity in 
salt marshes is nitrogen limited. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00257 



BEHAVIOUR OF IRON, MANGANESE, PHOS- 
PHATE AND HUMIC ACID DURING MIXING 
IN A DELAWARE SALT MARSH CREEK, 

Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Marine Studies. 
K. W. Eastman, and T. M. Church. 
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 18, No. 
4, p 447-458, April, 1984. 7 Fig, 3 Tab, 26 Ref. 
NSF grants OCE-7720770, 7920893, 8201056. 

Descriptors: 'Salt marshes, 'Delaware, 'Mixing, 
•Iron, •Phosphates, 'Humic acid, Salinity, Geo- 
chemistry, Sediments, Resuspension, Flocculation, 
Dissolved solids. 

The mixmg behavior of iron, manganese, phos- 
phate and humic acid in a Delaware salt marsh 



creek was studied using field data, laboratory 
mixing experiments, and geochemical mass balance 
equations. Property-salinity diagrams for field data 
indicated that the removal of iron is 56-70% in the 
0-10 0/00 salinity range. A proposed mechanism of 
removal is the flocculation of colloidal iron, per- 
haps with humic acid. Phosphate, however, under- 
goes 195% addition in the same low salinity 
region, which may be due to release of phosphate 
from resuspended sediments. Dissolved manganese 
is conserved, as is humic acid throughout the salt 
marsh mixing zone. Within the uncertainty of the 
data the maximum possible removal of humic acid 
is 23%. Laboratory mixing experiments that simu- 
lated salt marsh mixing along the same salinity 
gradient as observed in the field (5-25 0/00) 
showed only small-scale additions and removals 
compared to the field results. Such small-scale 
changes occurred largely at salinities > 10 0/00 in 
the laboratory experiments, whereas most remov- 
als and additions occurred at salinities < 10 0/00 
in the field. Mixing studies also showed little differ- 
ence between prefiltered and unfiltered mixes. The 
studies suggest that simple mixing of salt marsh 
waters, with or without suspended material, does 
not strongly influence the observed behavior of 
dissolved constituents in salt marshes, and that 
other processes (e.g. sediment or intertidal ex- 
change) must dominate their behavior. (Author's 
abstract) 
W85-00290 



EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STRUC- 
TURE OF A FRESHWATER-SALTWATER IN- 
TERFACIAL MIXING (ETUDE EXPERIMEN- 
TALE DU MELANGE A L'INTERFACE EAU- 
SAUMURE), 

Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford (Eng- 
land). 

H. O. Anwar, and J. A. Weller. 
Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 6, p 405-412, 1981. 9 
Fig, 3 Tab, 37 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Saline-freshwater interfaces, 
•Mixing, •Cooling water, Entrainment, Estuaries, 
Heated water. Thermal pollution. Saline water. 
Thermal discharge, Path of pollutants. Turbulence, 
Salinity. 

Freshwater was released experimentally from a 
wide channel onto the surface of stationary salt- 
water (density 1025 kg/cu m) in a wide deep 
flume. This type of flow can be observed when 
heated cooling water is discharged from a power 
station horizontally onto the surface of a lake or 
reservoir, or in an estuary where the outflow of 
freshwater mixes with underlying saltwater (a 
saline wedge). Experimental cases were studied in 
which the densimetric Froude number was low, 
varying between 0.5 and 2, and the depth of fresh- 
water was relatively large, varying between 0.08 m 
to 0.12 m. The features of the model are similar to 
a density zone model and consists of three zones: 
the entrainment zone, the roller region, and the 
zone of homogenous flow. Mean velocity profile 
measurements were made dimensionless by taking 
the maximum velocity occuring at the free surface 
as a velocity and the depth as a length scale. There 
was a general movement in the saltwater flume in 
the mean flow direction. A roller region appeared 
when Fr > 0.8 and it disappeared when Fr < 0.8; 
in this case, the flow of the surface layer behaved 
much like a flooded density jump. The turbulence 
intensity, being small in the major part of the 
surface layer, increased rapidly towards the inter- 
face behaving much like a two-dimensional chan- 
nel flow; the turbulence intensity increased as the 
Reynolds number decreased. There was a rise in 
water level immediately downstream from the 
freshwater inlet mainly due to an increase in poten- 
tial energy caused by the mixing process in the 
entrainment zone. The salinity measurements for 
all values of Fr showed that the salt concentration 
near the surface was very small. The measured 
coefficient of entrainment was related to the Rich- 
ardson number. (CoUier-IVI) 
W85-00387 



SEDIMENTATION AND RESUSPENSION IN A 
NEW ENGLAND SALT MARSH, 

Smithsonian Institution, Edgewater, MD. Chesa- 
peake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2J. 
W85-O04O5 



PLANT AND ANIMAL COMMUNITIES IN 
BRACKISH SUPRA-LITTORAL POOLS 
CDOBBEN') IN THE NORTHERN PART OF 
THE NETHERLANDS, 

Katholieke Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands). 
W. van Vierssen, and J. T. A. Verhoeven. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 3, p 203-221, Febru- 
ary, 1983. 9 Fig, 5 Tab, 20 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Brackish water, •Aquatic plants, 
•Aquatic animals, •Netherlands, Chlorinity, Water 
level fluctuations. Salt marshes. Vegetation. 

During summer 1977, 50 supra-littoral pools situat- 
ed on salt marshes outside the seawalls bordering 
the Waddenzee (Netherlands) were studied. Most 
of them were constructed at the turn of the centu- 
ry, to supply the cattle grazing the marshes with 
fresh (rain) water. When the salinity in a pool 
becomes elevated, the farmers empty that particu- 
lar reservoir and refill it. As a consequence, the 
environments are very dynamic and unstable. Only 
7 aquatic macrophyte species were present in the 
pools. The three most frequently occurring macro- 
phyles display distinct differences with respect to 
their chlorinity tolerances. Ranunculus baudotii is 
apparently not as salt tolerant as Potamogeton 
pectinatus and Zannichellia pedunculata. The 
growth of macrophytes in many pools may be 
suppressed by dense phytoplankton populations, 
probably due to high nutrient concentration in the 
water. The macrofauna was studied semi-quantita- 
tively. The aquatic Coleoptera had the greatest 
diversity (24 species). A distinct relationship be- 
tween the number of Coleoptera species and the 
percentage of macrophyte coverage was found. 
The distribution patterns of the most frequent spe- 
cies with respect to chlorinity categories are 
shown in histograms. Twelve species of aquatic 
Heteroptera were collected. Vegetation cover and 
chlorinity influence the distribution of the Heter- 
optera. Less important macrofaunal groups (the 
Crustacea, MoUusca and Odonata) occurred in low 
species numbers. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00408 

3. WATER SUPPLY 
AUGMENTATION 
AND CONSERVATION 

3A. Saline Water Conversion 



MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A MECHANI- 
CAL-VAPOR COMPRESSION EVAPORATOR. 
APPLICATION TO THE PRODUCnON OF 
FRESHWATER BY SEAWATER DESALINA- 
TION; PART II - NUMERICAL EXPLOTTA- 
TION, 

Institut de Genie Chimique de Toulouse (France). 
D. Aussenac, M. Enjalbert, and S. Domenech. 
Desalination, Vol. 49, No. 2, p 117-139, February, 
1984. 6 Fig. 

Descriptors: •Desalination, •Mathematical models. 
Vapor compression evaporator. Simulation, Sea- 
water, Mathematical equations. 

The performance simulation model of the vapor 
compression evaporator-condenser previously pre- 
sented involves an algebraic system of 265 un- 
knowns and 215 equations. This system has to be 
solved by an iterative numerical algorithm due to 
the non-linearity of some of the equations. Because 
these equations come from a modular simulation of 
the plant, the overall system of equations can be 
broken down into a number of subsystems, includ- 
ing a reduced number of equations describing the 
behavior of the module. These subsystems are 
unique in that they can be solved by a single- 
variable iteration method. Inside the loop, the 
system is solved sequentially. The general means of 
solution is simplified and represents a remarkabley 
convenient procedure. The model was tested using 
data from 27 experiments on a prototype plant. 
The study revealed three parameters of prime im- 



30 



m^^^ 



portance: the pressure inside the evaporator-con- 
denser, the seawater sprinkhng solution Howrate of 
the evaporator-bundle, and the seawater tempera- 
ture at the inlet of the evaporating cell. From 
information on the performance and the results of 
the experimental tests, an attempt was made to 
develop a complete model which best describes the 
plant. In spite of problems encountered during the 
model Identification due to the lack of some experi- 
mental data and to the spread of the experimental 
values, the model describes the overall prefor- 
mance of the plant in a reasonable way It was 
possible to use it in order to study the influence of 
Uie main parameters. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-0O250 

MICROPROCESSOR-BASED DATA MONI- 
TORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A 
CONTINUOUS ION EXCHANGE PLANT 

Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Chemi- 
cal Engineering. 
E. W. Randall. 

Desalination Vol. 49 No. 2, p 169-184, February, 
1984. 6 Fig, 1 Tab, 4Ref 

Descriptors: 'Desalination, *Continuous ion ex- 
change /Monitoring, 'Process control. Automa- 
tion, Microprocessors, Hydrogen ion concentra- 
tion, Conductivity, Water quality control. Costs. 

A microprocessor system was developed for data 
logging and control of product water quality in a 
continuous ion exchange desalination pilot plant 
I he format used for the program structure allows 
dynamic interaction with the system, via inter- 
rupts, and IS likely to be generally applicable to 
microprocessor control software. pH and conduc- 
tivity measurements were used in the calculation of 
column cycle times. Establishing of trends in the 
measured parameters, before initiating control 
action, resulted in a stable system. The control 
action ensures the minimum consumption of reeen- 
erant chemicals which is tl.e single most important 
nl^lf A" !u^ .running costs of an ion exchange 
plant. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00251 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL-Field 4 
Control Of Water On The Surface— Group 4A 



gous hydropower calculations can be useful in 
sttfonr(Zk:^^T)^ '"' "'''"''' of hydroelectric 
W85-0O485 

3C. Use Of Water Of Impaired 
Quality 

WATER QUALITY AND STOCKING DENSITY 
AS STRESSORS OF CHANNEL CATFISH Jfr 
TALURUSPUNCTATUSRAF) ^^^^^^ <^C- 

Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst, fuer Hy- 
drobiologie und Fischereiwissenschaft 
W85-Om37 '''''"°S''^P*'''= ^"'ry see Field 3F. 

3F. Conservation In Agriculture 

HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS IN THF 
WHEATLAND FLATS AREA PLATTE 
COUNTY, WYOMING, ' ^^^^^^ 

Geological Survey, Cheyenne, WY Water Re 
sources Div. '^^' 

W85^0M31^ ''■•'•'ographic entry see Field 4B. 



Analysis of discharge hydrographs for streamflow- 
gaging stations on the Nueces River at Cotulla 
iilden and Simmons indicate that significant 
water losses occur along the 108-mile reach from 
cotulla to Simmon during storm-runoff periods 

rS^'f^^xM^f^'/'""?! ^^^ ^^■•""^ ^e^'^h from 
Cotulla to Tilden for 15 storm periods range from 
i to 59 percent of the total runoff volume passing 
the Cotulla gage. For six storm periods that oc- 
curred while the gage at Simmons was in oper- 
ation, computed losses from Cotulla to Simmons 

fhf r^^ 11^ P^'^^S' °'" ^^^ ^'°™ ™noff passing 
the Cotulla gage. Estimates of total-annual losses 
r,L^l '"^.d^W'th the aid of a regres.sion model 
developed to relate monthly rainfall totals to 
edt^h ™"of!^ Total annual water losses, estimat- 
fin^^ ^"^ f '*!f --.egression model, ranged 
from 46,000 acre-feet during 1969 to 368,500 acre- 
feel &66'77\uSGSr''' "'°"' "''°°° ''''■ 
W85-00033 



WATER QUALITY AND STOCKING DENSITY 
AS STRESSORS OF CHANNEL CATnSHa?^ 
TALURUS PUNCTATUS RAF.), ^^^^^ "^■ 

Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R,). Inst, fuer Hv- 
drobiologie und Fischereiwissenschaft 
H. Klinger, H. Delventhal, and V Hilge 

f9rTTabr32''Ref'°' "^^ '■'' ' '''■'''' •'-"-V' 

Descriptors: 'Water quality, 'Catfish, 'Water 
ni"'^^ *Recirculated water. Stocking density 
Blood, Physiology, Fish, Stress, Aquaculture. 



ASSESSMENT OF TIME SERIES AS A MFTH 

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept of Civil 

Engineering. ^ 

M. E. Nicklin, and R. L. Brustkern 

Available from the National Technical Information 

Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190149 

Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche' 

Montana Water Resources Research Report No 

Ref OWrT P ^""^ I?"- ^° P' " F*g- 3 Tab, 5 
Ref OWRT Project No. A-136-MONT (1) Con- 
tract/Gram No. 14-34-0001-2128. ^'h'-ori 

Descriptors: 'Statistical methods, 'Time series 
analysis. Irrigation water. Return flow, Diversion 
loss return, 'Montana, 'Irngation return flows" 
BeTvrrhe"a7Riv\"r'"""^^'""' °^'^ -q-rements. 



3B. Water Yield Improvement 

WATER RESOURCES APPRAISAL OF TUV 
S? tSaT ™'^ ^I««^ Is?iJiD? AR™^ 

Caribbean Research Inst., St. Thomas, VI 
W85^0TO66^ bibliographic entry see Field 6B. 



OPTIMIZATION OF THE FILLING Avn 
DRAWDO\^^ REGIMES OF A RE^^LAnNG 
RESERVOIR OF THE KUBAN' CaIcADE, ^ 

A. F. Fedosyuk, I. L. Krasnik, and A B 
Kaganovich. 

?7n'^l?f''!;"'''^' Construction, Vol. 16, No. 8, p 
fro;, r-H^^Uf V^^^,- 2 Fig. 2 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 8 n 
50-53, August, 1982. ' ^ 

°kSV{ *°P'r*^^*i°n, 'Hydroelectric power, 
Kuban River, Powerplants, Efficiency, Reser- 

F^s^sr' ''"^'""°"' '^^^°"^' --'-". 

rhe efficiency of using the energy of the water 

Srofle^K^b"''^" ^'T ^ *'' hydroelectric 
tot ons of the Kuban cascade located on the route 
f the Great Stavropol Canal in many respects 
epends on the selection of the filling and draw 

he head of the canal and providing seasona 

otTm^."e7h ''^i*;''''"". "t "'^'h'd *^ intfoduced to 
ptimize the filling of the Great regulating reser- 

ien.:rnf'^^'"'''r ii P°^^*'^ '° increase the eff- 
ency of using the flood, which provides addition- 
LntJr'' «fgy production. Optimization of the 
^harges along the Great Stavropol Canal on the 
i^rJl^fl cntenon of minimum specific dis- 
?oxfml n *'y?[°s'^"o.ns of the cascade and ap- 
oximation of the regime of the hydrostations to 
^ e conditions additionally increase the eff-ective 
iss of using the stream. The conduction of analo- 



The influences of heated recirculated water and 

ZfLhT, ?" '^'^^ '*°'='^'"g ''^"^i'i^s °f channel 
catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Raf ) were compared, 
based on several physiological and hematological 
parameters. Controls were kept in well water only 
The leukocyte count of fish kept in well water 
generally decreased, and their thrombocyte lym- 
phocyte and granulocyte counts were lower at 
higher stocking densities. In addition, a slight 
hemoconcentration was observed. The fish kept in 
recirculated water showed a decrease only in 
thrombocyte count. Plasma Cortisol and blood glu- 
cose did not change and in all groups were at a 

H^^h''^?^'^?'"'; °^ '■^''*"g fish. In contrast, the 
blood lactate levels were always high. This mav 
have been caused by the anesthetization. The alter- 
ations tound are regarded as symptoms of the 
general adaptation syndrome' induced by the 
stocking rates. High lymphocyte and granulocyte 
counts among the fish in reused water are signs of 
loca adaptations to reduced water quality (Au- 
thor's abstract) ^ ^ ^ 
W85-00234 

4. WATER QUANTITY 
MANAGEMENT AND 
CONTROL 

4A. Control Of Water On The 
Surface 

CONVEYANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THF 
raXAf '''^^^' COTULLA TO SIMM ™S 

Geological Survey, Austin, TX. Water Resources 

B. C. Massey, and W. E. Reeves 
Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425 Fed- 
eral Ctr Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water Re- 
sources Investigations Report 83-4004, 1983 39 n 
21 Fig, 2 Tab, 9 Ref ^' 

Descriptors: 'Water conveyance, 'Water loss, 
Water management, 'Nueces River, Cotulla. Sim- 
mons, 'Texas. 



A mathematical technique known as time series 
analysis was tested as a potential method for return 
flow quantification. The time series approach for 
charactenzing irrigation return flows offers the 
advantage of reduced data requirements when 
compared to finite difference and finite element 
numerical procedures. Much of the data required 
for tme senes analysis is routinely collected 
btreamflow records, in particular, are available at 
numerous locations and constitute a generally reli- 
able network of time series observations. A reach 
of the Beaverhead River near Dillon, Montana 
was selected for this study. Groundwater return 
How IS the major component of return flow to the 
Beaverhead River during the irrigation season. 
Ihe time delay for particular diversions depends 
upon the application timing, point of application, 
ocal aquifer properties, ete. The mean aggregate 
time delay between diversion and return was cal- 
culated as 61 days for the years of 1966 through 
1975. Time series analysis was moderately success- 
ful as a tool for quantifying the irrigation return 
flows at the study site. Although the concept of 
time senes analysis is sound, effective application 
of the concept was hampered by the incomplete- 
skf diversion records at the Beaverhead 

W85-00071 



INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT TYPES ON THE 
SORPTION OF ENDOTHALL, ^''=' "'^ ^"*^ 

^orth Texas State Univ., Denton. Inst, of Applied 

K. H. Reinert, and J. H. Rodgers, Jr 

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 

^rs f/b,T8°R^?.' ''°- '• " '''-'''' ^p"'' •^«4- 

Descriptors: 'Sediments, 'Sorption, 'Endothall, 

t!!^"p^'.f"'*7^' ^.^^'^ L^"^^' 'Roselawn Ceme- 
tery Pond 'Texas, Aquatic weeds. Weed control. 
Carbon, Clay, Sand, Herbicides, Fate of pollutants! 

rlf^!^^P^ *^^ ^^^^ °^ chemicals using mathemati- 
cal models requires accurate data derived from 
aboratory measurements of rate coefficients for 
Ihl S°"''°"'ng. processes. Absorption protocol for 
the determination of sorption partition coefficients 



Li 
< 

< 
u 



■ryx 



31 



Field 4— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 



Group 4A — Control Of Water On The Surface 



I 
I 



was applied to two different water sediment sys- 
tems containing endothall. Endothall is a relatively 
soluble aquatic herbicide used for the control of 
numerous uubmerged aquatic weed species. Water 
was obtained from Pat Mayse Lake, a meso-oligo- 
trophic reservoir in northeast Texas. Sediments 
were obtained from Pat Mayse Lake and Roselawn 
Cemetery Pond, a small eutrophic pond in north 
central Texas. The Pat Mayse Lake sediment was 
predominantly sand with low percent organic 
carbon, while the Roselawn Cemetery Pond sedi- 
ment was predominantly clay with more than one 
percent organic carbon. Sorption of endothall in 
both systems was relatively low and can be consid- 
ered as a minor process in the fate assessment of 
endothall in aquatic systems. The relatively high 
concentration of endothall required for acute toxic- 
ity, a low sorption coefficient, and low environ- 
mental persistence combined to make endothall a 
candidate for the control of nuisance aquatic vege- 
tation. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00133 



COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF WETLAND 
DRAINAGE, 

Leeds Univ. (England). School of Economic Stud- 
ies. 

J. K. Bowers. 

Environment and Planning A, Vol. 15, No. 2, p 
227-235, February, 1983. 14 Ref. 

Descriptors: *England, 'Drainage, •Cost-benefit 
analysis, 'Wetlands, Conservation, Land use. 
Flood protection. Flood damage, Agriculture, Re- 
sources development. 

The wetland areas of England are under imminent 
threat of drainage for agricultural improvement. 
The immediate cause is the local drainage surveys 
produced under the Water Act 1973. Problems 
identified in these surveys are subjected to cost- 
benefit appraisal. Examination of a selection shows 
that these appraisals are technically defective and 
result in an overstatement of the benefits and in an 
overinvestment in land drainage. The main defects 
are: first, a failure to assess amenity and conserva- 
tion losses; second, use of prices that contain a 
substantial element of income transfer which is not 
netted out; third, a failure to properly calculate the 
rate of land conversion - a crucial variable; fourth, 
the project appraisal period is arbitrarily chosen or 
treated as a variable; fifth, the use of theoretical 
rather than expected agricultural yields; sixth, the 
level of flood protection aimed at is too high for 
the stated objective; and, last, anticipated flood 
losses are not deducted. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00278 



RIVERS: OUR VANISHING HERITAGE, 

National Audubon Society, Washington, DC. 
H. Babcock. 

Environmental Forum, Vol. 2, No. 10, p 38-41, 
February, 1984. 2 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Rivers, 'Water resources develop- 
ment. Conservation, Legislation, Regulations, Fed- 
eral jurisdiction. Wilderness areas, Water use, 
Competing use. Wildlife habitats, Dams. 

The basic problem with rivers is that everyone 
wants to use them in different and often mutually 
exclusive ways. More than 67% of all the water 
used in 1970 came from rivers. Currently, rivers in 
their wild state are losing the battle against the 
consumptive side of society. An increase has been 
noted lately in applications to dam free flowing 
rivers. One incentive for such dam building has 
been the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 
1978 which requires utilities to purchase power 
from small producers of electricity from renewable 
sources of energy, such as from falling water. 
While there are environmental benefits from hy- 
droelectric development as these facilities offer 
clean, safe and cheap energy, there are obvious 
costs in that dams and diversion projects drown 
valuable riparian habitats, change the natural tem- 
peratures of the waters, increase siltation, concen- 
trate pollutants and affect the amount of oxygen in 
the water. As long as there is no national water 
policy, rivers will continue to be at the mercy of 
random and haphazard development. Presently the 



only way to prevent federal diversion or impound- 
ment of outstanding rivers is to designate them 
under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. 
Lacking effective tools to protect rivers either 
legislatively or administratively, the conservation 
community will have to push for strengthening 
amendments to the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act or 
to a major overhaul of the Federal Energy Regula- 
tory Commission procedures to balance the scales 
more evenly between river conservation and river 
destruction. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00282 



AQUIFER MODELING WITH A HANDHELD 
CALCULATOR - AQMODL, 

Ministry of Planning, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). 
F. A. Rayner. 

Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 84-91, January- 
February, 1983. 2 Fig, 1 Tab, 8 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Aquifer characteristics, 'Model stud- 
ies, 'Computer models, Water level. Programma- 
ble calculators, Geohydrology. 

Groundwater resource personnel are often faced 
with the need to quickly determine what effects a 
particular aquifer development scheme will have 
on a geohydrologic regime. AQMODL is an ana- 
lytical mathematical aquifer modeling program for 
the HP-4IC handheld programmable calculator. 
No written instructions are required for its use. 
The operator is guided through the steps and 
errors generated by the operator are avoided. 
Anyone only basically familiar with the operation 
of the HP-41C calculator and with aquifer model- 
ing can use the instrument. No special key assign- 
ments exist and no special data preparation or 
storage operations or any other prior preparation is 
necessary before running AQMODL, simply XEQ 
AQMODL and follow the guidance supplied by 
the calculator. AQMODL can be used to model 
simple or complex single aquifer situations. It con- 
siders any regional change in water level not nec- 
essarily associated with the development being 
modeled. It also models the aquifer's water level 
gradient. For a 60 active well model the total 
calculator execution time with the printer attached 
would be about 6.9 minutes to determine the 
change in water level and elevation at one observa- 
tion point. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00362 



FRENCH AND EUROPEAN NAVIGABLE WA- 
TERWAY SYSTEMS (LES RESEAUX DES 
VOIES NAVIGABLES FRANCAIS ET EUROPE- 
ANS), 
R. Tenaud. 

Houille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 81-86, 1981. 2 Fig, 2 
Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Waterways, 
'France, 'Europe, Regulations, Navigable rivers. 
Hydraulic engineering. Reviews. 

The importance of past waterway engineering ac- 
complishments is highlighted in a brief review. 
The development of general river equipment and 
infrastructures is traced and present French classi- 
fication standards are given for navigable water- 
ways. The lengths and percentages in each major 
category of West European waterways are tabulat- 
ed with corresponding traffic figures for 1978 and 
1979. The more important developmental projects 
currently underway are described. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00368 



WATER SUPPLY METHODS FOR NAVIGA- 
BLE WATERWAYS; OPTIMIZATION OF A 
PROJECT WITH LOCKS; PUMP STATIONS 
(LES METHODES D'ALIMENTATION EN EAU 
DES VOIES NAVIGABLES; OPTIMISATION 
D'UN PROJET AVEC ECLUSES; LES STA- 
TIONS DE POMPAGE), 
Pommier, A. Terrier, Le Grand, and Olivier. 
Houille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 87-92, 1981. 4 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Hydraulic engi- 
neering, 'Gates, 'Locks, Navigation, Waterways, 
Saone-Rhine Canal, Canals, Gravity flow. Water 
supply, Pumps, Optimization, Systems analysis. 
Water reuse. 



Major problem* have always existed in the design- 
ing of water supply systems for waterway locks at 
sill crossings. Due to modern increases in the 
extent and height of the locks, the problems have 
magnified. A partial gravity supply system at the 
dividing reach is provided by the wide gauge 
Saone-Rhine canal link project. In addition, ar- 
rangements for economizing and recycling the 
water to make up for the deficiency in natural 
gravity supplies is also a part of this project. The 
efficiency and optimization of this overall system is 
analyzed and the advantages and limitations of 
each of its many components are demonstrated. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00369 



HOW THE MAIN-DANUBE LINK FAOLI- 
TATES NAVIGATION AND SAVES WATER 
(LA LIAISON MAIN-DANUBE FAVORISE LA 
NAVIGATION ET L'ECONOMIE DE L'EAU>, 

B. Rumelin. 

Houille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 93-98. 1981. 2 Fig, 4 

Tab, 4 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Locks, 'Main- 
Danube link, Waterways, Design criteria. Hydrau- 
lic engineering. Construction, Flood control, 
Water supply, Water resources development. 
Pumps. 

Locks will be provided for the Main-Danube link 
with a large differential level and lateral water 
saving basins designed to reduce their water needs. 
Water will have to be pumped from the Danube 
and Altmuhl to a reservoir near the dividing reach 
by pump stations connected with the locks in order 
to obtain a sufficient increase to the natural in- 
flows. All pump stations on the southern incline 
will feature three pumps operating in conjunction 
with a barrage in addition to the lock operating 
pumps. This system will improve low water flow 
in the Main and Regnitz rivers with a view to 
interregional hydraulic regulation. Flood flows of 
the river Altmuhl will be retained in a damping 
basin, from which they will be routed to a funher 
reservoir through a tunnel underneath the Danube- 
Rhine watershed, and finally into the Regnitz 
River. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00370 



HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT DESIGN AND ITS EF- 
FECTS ON THE CIVIL ENGINEERING FEA- 
TURES OF LOCKS (LA CONCEPTION DES 
CIRCUITS HYDRAULIQUES ET SES REPER- 
CUSSIONS SUR LE GENIE CIVIL DES 
ECLUSES), 
M. A. Petitjean. 
Houille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 99-102, 1981. 4 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Locks, Hydrau- 
lic engineering. Design criteria, France, Circuits, 
Construction, Waterways. 

The close dependence of a lock on the hydraulic 
function for which it is designed is reviewed. Hy- 
draulic circuits of French wide gauge waterways 
are invariably designed for a locking time which 
will not exceed 5 minutes. At the same time assur- 
ance is given that acceptable conditions for boats 
in the lock and canal reach will be maintained. A 
suitable filling and emptying system is chosen from 
the four available alternatives which is dependent 
on the differential level across the lock. The choice 
of system will in turn govern the general lock 
structure. A brief description is offered of the 
other lock design developments such as those con- 
cerning gates, general equipment and civil engi- 
neering features. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00371 



LOCKS ON THE WIDE-GAUGE RHONE WA- 
TERWAY (LES ECLUSES D'UNE VOIE A 
GRAND GABARIT: LE RHONE), 

R. Pinatel. 

Houille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 103-108, 1981. 8 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Waterways, 
'Locks, 'Rhone Waterway, Hydraulic engineer- 
ing. Construction, Design criteria. 



32 



Between Lyons and the Mediterranean Sea lies the 
wide gauge Rhone waterway. The waterway fea- 
tures twelve locks which are designed to handle 
European standard pusher units. The fall across the 
locks determines the type of hydraulic circuit de- 
signed into them. Filling and emptying of the locks 
is done through the bottom or cross culverts The 
effects of some of the aspects of the development 
of these supply systems on construction require- 
ments are described. The flow cutoff and safety 
equipment used in the system is also delineated. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00372 



WATER QUANTriY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL-Field 4 
Control Of Water On The Surface— Group 4A 



ranged hydrostations is determined as the sum of 
the discharges being released into the lower pool 
of the upstream hydrostation and local inflow from 
the drainage basin between the upstream hydrosta- 
tion and downstream hydrostation under consider- 
ation. The method of constructing the design hy- 
drograph of inflow to the upstream hydrostation 
or to the first hydrostation under construction is 
rather simple In order to establish the admissibility 
ot the method, the stochastic relation between the 
maximum flood discharge (freshet) and its volume 
was determined. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00479 






The computer controls also the fulfillment of the 
water use plan. Input of the characteristics of the 
hydraulic structures and planned assignments is 
accomplished m the form of polynomials obtained 
as a resu t of mathematical processing of the initial 
data. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00497 



WIND AND WAVE REGIMES OF THE KIEV 
PUMPED-STORAGE STATION RESERVOIR 

M. N. Rubanik, P. D. Gavrish, V. M. Kondrat'ev 
and V. F. Kanarskii. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 4 d 
199-203, April, 1982. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 4 Ref Transl'at 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 4 n 
12-14, April, 1982. ' ' ^ 

Descriptors: *Pumped storage reservoirs, *Wind 
^Tle«''o''^^''• P^Ped Storage Reservoir,' 
USSR, Reservoirs, Slope stability. Slope, Dikes, 
Windbreaks. 

The reservoirs of a pumped-storage station (PSS) 
operate m a regime of daily regulation of the 
volumes and levels of the water, giving rise to 
certain characteristics of the effect of the wind and 
wave regime on the dike slopes. The size of the 
i?<T'°'L^' the Kiev pumped storage station is 
1450 X 450 m, the length of the dike is 4.7 km 
depth at normal pool level is 8 m and at dead 
storage level is 2 m. The average wind speed in the 
summer is 3.6 m/sec. The most wave-hazardous 
directions of the winds are east and west The 
probabUity of a calculated wind speed in wave- 
hazardous directions is supposed to be taken on the 
basis of a relation obtained by analyzing by a 
numerical method the data of on-site observations 
of the operating regime and conditions of operat- 
ing the Kiev PSS. In the case of operating the PSS 
m two cycles the conditions of the wind and wave 
regime are alleviated, and the probability of occur- 
rence of a wave-hazardous situation decreases In 
the case of a well adjusted system of regulating the 
water levels in the reservoir it is expedient to 
considerably reduce the freeboard, confining one- 

tlTl '° 'f^ ^^'r °^ *^^ '^^^'8" freeboard and 
mstallation of an effective limiter of the uprush of 
waves on the slope. In this case the height of the 
dike and its cost are reduced. A still greater reduc- 
tion of the eff-ect of strong winds on the wave 
regime of the reservoir can be attained by creatine 
in wave hazardous directions, and, better still 
tfound the entire reservoir, forest belts analogous 

^aiMB^aSvt " ''™'"'' '"' ^'°"^ '''«''- 
IV85-00449 



EXPERIENCE IN THE OPERATION OF 
OVERFLOW BUTTRESS DAMS \^DER 
SEVERE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 

D. M. Yashkul', and V. V. Belov. ' 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16 No 8 n 
frntf^^H'^".^!;?,'' •u^^^- 3 Fig, 5 Ref. Translaled 
i-P?^ Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 8 d 
53-56, August, 1982. ^ 

Descriptors: *Buttress dams, *Dam construction. 
Reservoir operation, *Climate, Overflow Con- 
crete, Frost resistance. Spillways, Design criteria. 

A buttress design of overflow dams makes it possi- 
ble to substantially reduce the volume of concrete 
works compared to massive dams. Thin-walled 
structures require the use of high concrete grade 
with respect to strength and frost resistanci, in- 
creased reinforcement, more careful placement of 
the concrete mix, and high quality of sealing the 
expansion and honzontal joints, particularly at the 
pomts of their intersection. The downstream sur- 
face of the dams protects the upstream faces from 
freezing completely through without additional 
construction or operating measures. The exposed 
rock foundation on the hollows between the but- 
tresses not only reduces uplift but also provides 
tree outflow of seepage water and the possibility of 
more complete checking of the connection of the 
concrete structures with the foundation. The oper- 
ating expenses of overflow buttress dams are prac- 
tically the same as on dams without internal hol- 
low;s and their maintenance amounts mainly to 
penodic painting of the inside metal structures 
repair of individual sections of the concrete on the 
spillway surface, warming of the inlet and drainage 
H/of ^^Ji* regular inspection. (Baker-IVI) 



EXPERIENCE IN OPERATING THE STRUC- 
TURES OF THE MANSOUR EDDAHBI HY- 
DROPOWER DEVELOPMENT, 

I. F. Blinov, and O. V. Sitnin. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17 No 10 n 
512-518, October, 1983. 4 Fig, 3 Tab, 10 Ref 
Translated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo 
No. 10, p 25-30, October, 1983. 

bhTuE*°«/^'''='' '^^'"'' *Monitoring, *Mansour 
tddahbi, *Morocco, *Reservoir operation. Water 
resources development. Irrigation, Hydroelectric 
plants. Evaluation. 

The ten year experience of operating the structures 
SL/^u-'P.™™.* °'" ^^^ hydrostation at the Mansour 
tddahbi development has shown that the reservoir 
created by the arch dam provides streamflow regu- 
lation tor meeting the irrigation needs of 25,000 ha 
m the Dras River valley and the hydrostation 
provides the design production of electric energy 
The mspection data for the hydrostation indicates 
a satisfactory condition of the structures and equip- 
ment. The monitoring equipment installed in the 
dam permits operative monitoring of the safe oper- 
ation of the dam. About 90% of the installed 
equipment is operating satisfactorily after 10 years 
An analysis of long term observation data shows 
that at the design head the stresses, strains, dis- 
placements, and seepage stability of the dam foun- 
dation and bank abutments correspond to the 
design assumptions. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00502 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE FLOOD (FRESHET) 
HYDROGRAPH OF A GIVEN PROBABILITY 
™g^ONSmERATION OF ITS ^^AvS 

W85'o0489^ bibliographic entry see Field 2E. 



x?^?9? °^ DETERMINING THE MAXI- 
MUM FLOOD INFLOW TO THE MIDDLF 
NISEI HYDROELECTRIC STATION ^^^^^^ 

\ M '^!^™' B- S. Tseitlin, L. Ya. Dzheibo, and 
fl. N. L vova. 

lydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 8 p 

}id';^nf Ik Ti"'',,'^^^- ^ '^'^- Translated from 
ndrotekhnichkeskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 8 d 21-23 
lugust, 1982. • , P ii ij, 

)escriptors: *Flood control, •Prediction, 'Middle 
msei Hydroelectric Station, Runoff, Hydroelec- 
ic plants. Reservoirs, Flow. 

method of determining the maximum inflow to 
e cascade of hydrostations is described with an 
lustration of the quantitative calculation results 
T particular reservoirs. The runoff- of the Angara 

regulated by reservoirs of the Irkutsk, Bratskm, 
Id Ust -Ihm hydroelectric stations, and a fourth 
acn ot the Angara cascade, the Boguchany hy- 
oelectnc station is currently under construction, 
iie volume of stream-gauging data on the runoff 

the Angara with its relatively little variability 
ikes It possible to rather reliably establish the 
itistical parameters of the maximum discharges 
d di^arges of various probabilities at reference 
es. Ihe calculated inflow to the cascade-ar- 



}i^T^rQ^w^/J^*^.'^ ^'^■S^TE CHARACTER- 
ISTICS WHEN AUTOMATING WATER AC- 
COlWriNG AT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES 

1. t). Sarzhinskii, and Yu. K. Zhuskov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17 No 9 n 

^ H '^?l^^PV^™f'^'' '^^3- 2 Fig- Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 9 n 52-54 
September, 1983. ' 

Descriptors: *Water management, 'Computers, 
Automation, Water quantity. Water distribution. 
Hydraulic structures. Irrigation water. Mathemati- 
cal equations. 

Water accounting and distribution can be carried 
out quite accurately by means of calibrated orifices 
of the hydraulic structures. The use of on-site 
calibration characteristics with the use of a com- 
puter permits efficient regulation of discharges at 
hydraulic structures-regulators. The following 
system for controlling the operation of a water 
management system with the use of a computer is 
descnbed. In the center of a cluster of hydraulic 
structures or irngation systems a control center 
with a computer is created, which receives infor- 
mation from all hydraulic strucures and gauging 
stations: openings of gates, head, storage, etc On 
the basis of these data the computer calculates the 
values of the discharge for each structure, volume 
ot flow, and balance over the entire watercourse 



™?S?™2^^'* UTILIZATION SCHEME OF 
THE EUPHRATES RIVER IN SYRL\ 

V. A. Kozlov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17 No 10 n 
522-526, October, 1983. 1 Fig, 1 Tab, 12 Ref 
I ranslated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo 
No. 10, p 32-36, October, 1983. 

Descriptors: »Water resources development. 
Planning, /Hydroelectric plants, 'Euphrates 
River, *Syna, Evaluation, Decision making. Dam 
construction, Irrigation. 

Runoff of the Euphrates River is formed mainly 
from snowmelt in the high mountain part of the 
basin and by rams falling in the period from No- 
vember to May. The drainage area at the stream 
gauging station at Keban, located 10 km below the 
confluence of the Karasu and Murat, is about 
65,000 sq km and at the Turkey-Syria border 
reaching 1 10,000 sq km. The natural annual runoff 
ot the nver in the region of Tabqa during the 40 
year penod of observation varied from 10.4 to 41 5 
cu km, with a mean annual volume of 26.2 cu km 
Two variants for using the power potential of the 
Euphrates were examined: creation of a reservoir 
by means of a dam constructed at Tabqa with a 
normal pool level at elevation 320-325 m- or cre- 
ation of two reservoirs one by a dam constructed 
at Tabqa with a NPL at 300 m and the second 
reservoir created by a dam constructed at Yusef 
Pasha with a NPL at 320-325 m. The higher tech- 
nicoeconomic indices of the two step variant over 
the vanant of using the river in one step was 

^^t^Z^^, ^l '^^ P'^"' *'°^ ^ g^«^"y irrigation 
ot 100,000 ha by constructing a low head dam with 
a small hydroelectric station in the region of Hale- 
biyah-Zalyabiyah and scheme of irrigation in the 
basin of the al-Khabur River were drawn up. In 
1968 a project plan for irrigating 185,000 ha of the 
Bahkhy area was proposed. At present there are 
two vanants of expanding the power utilization of 
the Euphrates in the stretch from the boundary 
with Turkey to the site of the Euphrates project 
increase of the normal pool level of the reservoir 
ot the Euphrates project by 20 m to 320 m- or 



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Field 4— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 



Group 4A— Control Of Water On The Surface 



construction of the Tishrin hydrostation near 

Yusef Pasha. (Baker-IVI) 

W85-00504 

4B. Groundwater Management 

PROBLEMS OF RISING GROUND-WATER 
LEVELS IN URBAN AREAS WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO THE LOUISVILLE, KEN- 
TUCKY AREA, 

Geological Survey, Louisville, KY. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

D. V. Whitesides, R. J. Faust, and D. D. 
Zettwoch. 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed. 
Ctr., Lakewood, CO 80225, USGS Water-Re- 
sources Investigations Report 83-4233, 1983. 26 p, 
12 Fig, 1 Tab, 35 Ref. 

Descriptors; *Potentionietric level, 'Water table, 
Stream-ground water relations, 'Natural recharge, 
Hydrographs, Precipitation, 'Kentucky, Louis- 
ville, Jefferson County, 'Groundwater levels. 

Rising ground-water levels are a problem for cities 
such as San Bemadino, California; Greely and Fort 
Collins, Colorado; New York City boroughs of 
Brooklyn and Queens; and Louisville, Kentucky. 
Ground-water levels showed a steeply rising trend 
in the alluvial aquifer underlying Louisville during 
the early and middle 1970's in response to above 
average precipitation and a decrease in ground- 
water withdrawals. This rising trend flattened in 
1979 and the water levels are stabilizing at 25 to 45 
feet below land surface in the downtown area. 
Basements are generally 20 to 25 feet below land 
surface and some utility lines are as much as 40 feet 
below land surface in this area. Because of the 
shallow depth to water, any resumption of the 
upward trend would require preventive measures 
such as selective dewatering to avoid damage to 
some structures. (USGS) 
W85-00027 



HYDROGEOLOGIC AND WATER-QUALITY 
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IRONTON- 
GALESVILLE AQUIFER, SOUTHEAST MIN- 
NESOTA, 

Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

J. F. Ruhl, R. J. Wolf, and D. G. Adolphson. 
USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 82- 
4080, (1982). 2 Maps, 15 Fig, 2 Tab, 20 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Aquifer characteristics, 'Water qual- 
ity, 'Underground waste disposal, Hollandale em- 
bay ment, Ironton-Galesville aquifer, 'Minnesota, 
'Groundwater. 

The (Franconia)-Ironton-Galesville aquifer is part 
of a sequence of sedimentary bedrock units in 
southeast Minnesota. The aquifer was deposited 
from Paleozoic seas that occupied a shallow de- 
pression known as the Hollandale embayment. The 
surface of the Ironton-Galesville aquifer dips 
toward the interior of the embayment. The aquifer 
is as deep as 1,000 feet below land surface and as 
thick as 325 feet. The Ironton and Galesville Sand- 
stones are white and medium grained. They are the 
most productive units of the aquifer throughout 
the area. The Franconia Formation is a coarse 
grained sandstone and interbedded shale. The 
Franconia Formation is water bearing primarily in 
the northern and western parts of the area; where 
it is the uppermost bedrock aquifer, elsewhere it 
yields little water. Its water quality is generally 
acceptable for all types of use. Calcium magnesium 
bicarbonate type water is most common. Confining 
beds protect the aquifer from surface pollutants, 
but the water is degraded locally in some places. 
Dissolved solids are as high as 1,000 mg/L in the 
southwest because of highly mineralized recharge 
water from Cretaceous deposits. (USGS) 
W85-OO028 



SUBSURFACE STORAGE OF FRESHWATER 
IN SOUTH FLORIDA: A PROSPECTUS, 



Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

M. L. Merritt, F. W. Myer, W. H. Sonntag, and D. 
J. Fitzpatrick. 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed. 
Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources 
Investigations Report 83-4214, 1983. 69 p, 6 Fig, 8 
Tab, 75 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Injection wells, 'Underground stor- 
age, 'Feasibility studies, Water supply, 'Florida, 
'Cyclic injection. Freshwater injection. 

A method of increasing storage capacity for fresh- 
water in south Florida is to use brackish artesian 
aquifers as reservoirs. In this way, water deficien- 
cies occurring during the annual dry season can be 
offset by surplus water obtained during the wet 
season and injected underground. Most of south 
Florida is underlain by several deep, confined, 
carbonate waterbearing zones which might be suit- 
able for freshwater storage. These zones are in the 
Avon Park, Ocala, Suwannee, Tampa, and Haw- 
thorn Formations. Experimental freshwater injec- 
tion systems have been operated at five locations 
with promising, but not fully definitive, results. A 
determination of the feasibility of freshwater injec- 
tion at a selected site begins with an assessment of 
the local geologic suitability. Verification of feasi- 
bility, however, requires injection and recovery 
tests to be performed at the site. Recovery efficien- 
cy, a measure of the success of the operation, is the 
amount of potable water, expressed as a percentage 
of the volume injected, which can be recovered 
before its salinity, or the concentration of other 
chemical constituents present in the native aquifer 
water, increases to the point that the recovered 
water is no longer useable. (USGS) 
W85-00029 



WATER RESOURCES OF THE TULALIP 
INDIAN RESERVATION, WASHINGTON, 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 
B. W. Drost. 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed. 
Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources 
Investigations Open-File Report 82-648, 1983. 153 
p, 22 Fig, 17 Tab, 21 Ref. 

Descriptors; 'Hydrologic budget, 'Groundwater 
recharge, 'Aquifer characteristics, 'Saline water 
encroachment, Low flow, 'Tulalip Indian Reser- 
vation, 'Washington. 

An evaluation was made of the water resources of 
the Tulalip Indian Reservation to aid in decisions 
regarding future development of the area. Ground- 
water resources are sufficient to supply several 
times the 1978 population. Potential problems of 
salt-water encroachment in coastal areas and 
septic-tank contamination in shallow wells were 
identified. The general quality of surface water is 
adequate to allow for significant expansion of the 
Tribe's fisheries activities. Ground water is gener- 
ally suitable for domestic use without treatment, 
but a serious quality problem is the presence of 
coliform bacteria in some shallow wells. High 
values of turbidity and color and large concentra- 
tions of iron and manganese are common problems 
regarding the esthetic quality of the water. In a 
few places, large concentrations of chloride and 
dissolved solids indicate the possiblity of saltwater 
encroachment, but no ongoing trend has been iden- 
tified. Surface waters have been observed to con- 
tain undesirably high concentrations of total phos- 
phorus and total and fecal-coliform bacteria, and to 
have temperatures too high for fish-rearing. The 
concentration of nutrients appears to be related to 
flow conditions. Nitrate and total nitrogen are 
greater in wet-season runoff than during low-flow 
periods, and total phosphorus shows an inverse 
relationship. Total phosphorus and ammonia con- 
centrations are greatest in dry-season storm runoff 
Generally, surface-water quality is adequate for 
fish-rearing and (with treatment) for public supply. 
(USGS) 
W85-00030 



HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS IN THE 
WHEATLAND FLATS AREA, PLATTE 
COUNTY, WYOMING, 



Geological Survey, Cheyenne, WY. Water Re- 
sources Div. 
M. A. Crist. 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed. 
Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources 
Investigations Report 83-4047, 1983. 36 p, 11 Fig, 7 
Tab, 24 Ref. 

Descriptors; 'Computer models, Simulation, 'Irri- 
gation, Water levels, 'Aquifer, 'Base flow, Sur- 
face-groundwater relationship, Pumpage, 'Re- 
charge, Hydrographs, 'Wyoming, Platte County. 

The area includes about 260 square miles in central 
Platte County that consists of Wheatland Flats and 
a border region. Wheatland Flats is an area of 
about 100 square miles that is bounded by Chug- 
water Creek on the east, the Laramie River on the 
north, and Sybille Creek on the west. The southern 
boundary is approximately the southernmost limit 
of alluvial terrace deposits. Surface water diverted 
from the Laramie River along with ground water 
from wells is I'sed to irrigate about 57,000 acres 
most of which are on and adjacent to Wheatland 
Flats. More than 200 wells are used for irrigation, 
industrial, and municipal supplies. The wells are 
completed in an upper aquifer consisting primarily 
of shallow alluvial deposits of Quaternary age and 
a lower aquifer, the Arikaree Formation of early 
Miocene age. Net water-level decline after ap- 
proximately 20 years (1958-60 to 1979) generally is 
less than 10 feet in each aquifer, although declines 
of as much as 13 feet have occurred in the Air- 
karee Formation at specific locations. A digital 
model was used to simulate hydrologic conditions 
in the Wheatland Flats area. The model indicated 
that ground-water discharge to streams decreased 
by 10 percent from 1971 to 1978. Stream-discharge 
measurements are not available to verify the loss. 
However, it is reasonable to assume, on the basis of 
hydraulic-head decline in the aquifers, that there 
has been some ground-water contribution to the 
stream. (USGS) 
W85-00031 



HYDRAULIC CONDUCnVITY, SPEOFIC 
YIELD, AND PUMPAGE -- HIGH PLAINS AQ- 
UIFER SYSTEM, NEBRASKA, 

Geological Survey, Lincoln, NE. Water Resources 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 7C. 

W85-00032 

REGIONAL GEOHYDROLOGY OF THE 
NORTHERN LOUISIANA SALT-DOME 
BASIN, PART IV, HYDRAULIC CHARACTER- 
ISTICS OF THE WILCOX-CARRIZO AQUI- 
FER, 

Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 
G. N. Ryals. 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed- 
eral Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water Re- 
sources Investigations Report 83-4132, 1983. 9 p, 3 
Fig, 1 Tab, 27 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Hydraulic conductivity, Permeabil- 
ity, 'Aquifer characteristics, Storage coefficient, 
Northern Louisiana salt-dome basin, 'Louisiana, 
Vacherie salt dome, Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer. 

The Wilcox Group of Paleocene-Eocence age and 
the Carrizo Sand of Eocene age compose the 
Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer. Results of 25 aquifer tests 
and permeability determinations from 43 sidewall 
cores show that the hydraulic characteristics of the 
aquifer are variable. Studies of the Carrizo showed 
that hydraulic conductivity increased as sand-bed 
thickness increased. Hydraulic conductivity aver- 
aged 29 feet per day for sand beds 25 to 100 feet in 
thickness and 40 feet per day for sand beds 100 to 
200 feet in thickness. Based on the aquifer tests and 
sidewall core analyses, hydraulic conductivity 
does not increase with increased thickness for the 
Wilcox part of the aquifer. Permeabilities deter- 
mined from sidewall cores ranged from less than 1 
to more than 3,000 millidarcies (less than 0.002 to 
more than 7.3 feet per day). Values of hydraulic 



34 



conductivity determined from aquifer tests ranged 
from less than 1 to 35 feet per day. fUSGSI 
W85-00034 ^ 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL-Field 4 
Groundwater Management— Group 4B 



ASSESSMENT OF TIME SERIES AS A METH- 
ODOLOGY TO QUANTIFY IRRIGATION 
RETURN FLOWS, mKiOAllON 

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept of Civil 

Engineering. 

W85^71^ bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 

HYDROLOGY OF THE NEWBERRY VOLGA- 
NO CALDERA, OREGON, vulca- 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

S^o^P/J^^fy bibliographic entry see Field 2F. 



PUMPING TESTS IN PATCHY AQUIFERS 

Institute of Geological Sciences, London (Eng- 
land). Hydrogeology Unit. ^ 
J. A. Barker, and R. Herbert 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 150-155 March- 
Apnl, 1982. 4 Fig, 6 Ref, 1 Append. 

Descriptors: *Patchy aquifers, *Pumping tests, 
India, Mathematical equations, Simulation, Draw- 
down, Aquifers, Groundwater storage, Transmissi- 

A numerical simulation and analytical study of a 
constant-rate pumping test, for a well situated at 
the center of a disc of anomalous transmissivity 
Md storage coefficient, have been used to aid in 
the interpretation of tests performed in a 'patchy- 
aquifer in India. Equations describing the long- 
time behavior of drawdown show that Jacob's 
method can be employed to estimate the regional 
iransmissivity from drawdowns measured at any 
3omt m the aquifer or in the pumping well. How- 
;ver, the equations also show that an average 
itorage coefficient should be calculated from 
mt'^ rr' 'n^.f^ed outside the aquifer disconti- 

sis that the average transmissivity of a heteroee- 
leous aquifer can be calculated from rates of draw- 

SLrSbTractf " '°"^ ^^""'^^ °^ ""-P*"^- 
V85-00300 



Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 162-169 March- 
Apnl, 1982. 6 Fig, 2 Tab, 22 Ref 

Descriptors: •Glacial tills, *Alberta, »Permeability 
coefficient Irngation effects, Geohydrology, 
Drainage, Tntium, Geologic fractures. 

Soils underlain at shallow depths (less than 1 m, 3 
It) by glacial till are generally considered undesir- 
able for irrigation because of their unfavorable 
internal drainage characteristics. In some areas of 
southern Alberta, Canada, soils developed upon 
shallow tills have been irrigated successfully for 
over 60 years with no adverse effects on the soil 
An investigation was conducted to describe the 
hydrogeological properties of till under one of 
these areas and to assess the properties with regard 
to drainage. Study techniques consisted of detailed 
test drilling and sampling, excavation of test pits 
mstallation and monitoring of ground- water instru- 
mentation, field and laboratory hydraulic conduc- 
tivity testing and tntium analyses of ground-water 
samples Two fracture sets were found in this till. 
Both sets of fractures produce secondary permea- 
bilities which mask the low hydraulic conductivity 
of the till matrix (10 to the -10 m/s). Small-scale 
fractures which have a fracture spacing of approxi- 
mately 10 mm (0.4 in.) have an apparent^^^mean 
hydraulic conductivity of 5 x 10 to the -9 m/s 
whereas large-scale fractures which have fracture 
spacmgs from 20 mm (0.8 in.) to over 630 mm (2 ft) 
have an apparent mean hydraulic conductivity of 
approximately 2 x 10 to the -7 m/s. The high 
hydraulic conductivity of the large-scale fractures 
was corroborated by tritium analyses of ground- 
water samples. Tritium analyses also indicate the 
presence of recent water at depth in the till The 
large-scale fractures, which control the bulk hv- 

fhr^th''°KV'^r^ °^- ^^'' *"'- P^o^ide conduits 
hrough which infiltrating water can be transmit- 
Ir^ K°i ground-water regime. These fractures 
are believed to be the reason why this land has 
ab^ract) "'"^^'''^ ^°'' °''^'' ^ y^ars. (Author's 
W85-00302 



i^m 



gate the underlying Suwannee aquifer and deeper 
zones as possible sources of large quantities of 
brackish water. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00303 



RESoSrCE,^™^ ^"^^^^ ■ PROBLEM OR 

Louisville Univ., KY. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 
D. J. Hagerty, and K. Lippert. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 217-223 March- 
April, 1982. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 14 Ref 

Desciiptors: *Groundwater, *Water table, ♦Louis- 
ville, 'Kentucky, Urban areas. Pumping rates Pre- 
cipitation. ^ ' 

An accelerated rise of the groundwater table in in 
Louisville, Kentucky has caused concern to munic- 
ipal officials and building owners in the central 
urban area. An average rise of more than 1 1 m (35 
feet) occurred between 1969 and 1980. In central 
Louisville, nsmg ground water could create: slight 
but significant possibilities of structural settlement 
problems; high possibilities of damage to basement 
floors and walls; and very high possibilities for 
disruption of utility conduits. Historical data indi- 
cated that ground-water levels in a system undis- 
turbed by man could reach ground surface eleva- 
tions in central Louisville. There is a strong rela- 
tion between average ground-water levels and 
changes in pumping rates and incident precipita- 
tion. An extremely high correlation (R = 995) 

Tpfifi iQ«n ''^5'^^^" ^^^'^^^ ground-water levels in 
1966-1980 and cumulative departures in precipita- 
tion and pumping rates from 1950-1965 average 
precipitation and pumping rates. (Moore-IVI) 



'ROGRAMMABLE HAND CALCUT ATOR 

r L^t' '^^^.r.^"^^ TEST An'JlVseI 
y LEAST SQUARES' METHOD USTNr 
ACOB'S MODinCATION OF THeTs' EQUA 

ing Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) 
acuity of Earth Sciences. ' 

A. S. Sayed. 

round Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 156-161 March 
pnl, 1982. 1 Tab, 13 Ref, 3 Append 

escriptors: •Pumping tests, •Mathematical analy- 
I'vit ^" ^ ^''^' °''^^''°w"' Transmissivity, Stor- 

imping test analysis methods commonly used are 

i'c^'^^n !, ?"^'' ?*^''''''="' approaches and the 
ect computation of transmissivity and storativity 
the least squares' method have been made in 
isTo^Tv J-,"^*" programs are given for the 
\5lU hX-502 programmable calculator for 
ect computation of transmissivity and storativitv 
m time-drawdown and distance-drawdown 
a. These aquifer parameters are calculated from 
-Ob s modification of the Theis equation by the 
St squares method. The programs also calculate 
iwdowns at various times and distances using 
: computed transmissivity and storativity A 
nber of pumping tests were analyzed by these 
Sht"'^ the results were quite close to those 
I5-W301 ^''^P"^al methods. (Moore-IVI) 

x^ aSeTt^ "^^^'"^ °^ ^ «^^«^ 

gafi^n Div.^ Agriculture, Lethbridge (Alberta). 
J. Hendry. 



iTlanS,'K5r?dT ^^^'"^'^ °^ '^^^«^^ 

Law Engineering Testing Co., Marietta, GA 
L. H. Motz. 

S"fQ^^n''J°'; l\^°- 2' P '70-178, March- 
Apnl, 1982. 11 Fig, 2 Tab, 15 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Sanibel Island, 'Florida, •Hawthorn 
aquiter, 'Groundwater potential. Brackish water, 
water supply development. Dissolved solids 
Jransmissivity, Groundwater storage, Pumping 
tests, Geohydrology, Saline water intrusion. 

In 1977, the Island Water Association (IWA) on 
Sanibel Island, Florida, was concerned that the 
total dissolved solids concentrations in several 
wells in Its well field were increasing and might 
cause the blended raw water to exceed the design 
capacity of its electrodialysis plant. Test wells 
were drilled several miles west of the existing well 
tield, and two pumping tests, one at the site of the 
test wells and the other in the existing well field 
were run. Average values for the transmissivity 
(1), storage coefficient (S), and leakance (K'/b') of 
T ^ T-fon^'j;*^?^" aquifer were determined to be 
^.1. '^^P^3 ^*/'* (''^ ^q tn/d), S = 0.000027, and 
LZ.T 0^^747 (1/d). The results of the pCp 
ing tests and other findings indicated that pumpage 
froni the lower Hawthorn aquifer was being de- 
nved from artesian storage in the aquifer and from 
vertical leakage into the aquifer from adjacent 
formations. It was estimated that the IWA would 
be able to recover usable water from the lower 
Hawthorn aquifer for about 5 more years by drill- 
mg new wells in the vicinity of the test wells and 
in other nearby areas that might be determined to 
yield usable water. After this period of time, it 
Ukely would become increasingly difficult, if not 
impossible, to obtain large quantities of usable 
water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, unless 
significant quantities of water could be found in 
areas in A'hich few data were then available The 
principal recommendations, which subsequently 
were acted upon by the IWA, were to conduct 
drilling and testing in the lower Hawthorn aquifer 
several miles west of the test wells and to investi- 



SES^SMEN?!^°'*'^^^= ^ PRELIMINARY AS- 

Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Civil Enei- 
neering. ^"b' 

D. P. Lettenmaier, and S. J. Burges. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 3, p 278-288 Mav- 

June, 1982. 6 Fig, 2 Tab, 17 Ref ' ^ 

Descriptors: •Cyclic storage, •Groundwater stor- 
age Conjunctive use. Storage reservoirs. Flow 
buffering Aquifer management, Artificial re- 
charge. Model studies. Simulation, Cost analysis. 

Cyclic groundwater storage represents an alterna- 
tive which can reduce or eliminate the necessity 
for surface storage. Such a system may be operated 
m conjunction with a surface reservoir. The per- 
formance of a simplified water resource system 
consisting of a single surface reservoir and adja- 
cent aquifer storage operated as a coupled flow 
buffenng device is investigated on an annual scale 
to provide msight into the most important physical 
and climatic (streamflow) parameters governing 
cyclic storage performance. The hypothetical 
system is fully characterized by aquifer capacity 
pumping and recharge capacity, surface storage 
size, annual demand, and reservoir inflow statistics 
including annual mean, coefficient of variation 
skew coefficient, lag one correlation coefficient' 
and Hurst coefficient. System performance under a 
range of these parameters is reviewed via Monte 
Carlo simulation; for the cases considered system 
performance is almost always limited by total 
system storage (sum of surface and aquifer stor- 
age). The cost of providing flow buffering via 
development of subsurface storage is about an 
order of magnitude less than for surface storage in 
the cases considered. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00311 



SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN 

S^S^J? ^^TER FROM CLOGGING AND 
NONCLOGGING SHALLOW WELLS IN THF 
NETHERLANDS RIVER REGION, 

Keunngsinstituut voor Waterieidingkrtikelen, Rijs- 
wijk (Netherlands). ' ^ 

C. G. E. M. van Beek, and D. van der Kooij 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 3, p 298-302 Mav- 
June, 1982. 3 Fig, 3 Tab, 16 Ref. ^ 



35 



Field 4— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 



Group 4B — Groundwater Management 



I 



Descriptors: *Netherlands, *Clogging, 'Wells, 
•Sulfate reducing bacteria, *Groundwater, Bacte- 
ria, Anaerobic conditions, Iron sulfide. 

In the Netherlands, the majority of well fields in 
the river region, where anaerobic water is with- 
drawn from the shallow aquifer, have problems 
with well clogging. When this type of clogging 
occurs, usually all wells in a given field are in- 
volved. This indicates that the cause of clogging is 
connected with the geohydrochemical or geomi- 
crobiological characteristics of the aquifer. It has 
been suggested that well clogging may be due to 
iron sulfide formation induced by sulfate reducing 
bacteria. In order to test the supposition that sul- 
fate-reducing bacteria play a role in this clogging 
process, sulfate-reducing bacteria in water from 
wells in well fields with and without the occur- 
rence of clogging were enumerated. Numbers of 
sulfate-reducing bacteria were estimated by using 
the MPN technique. The sulfate-reducing bacteria 
count varied from less than 2/100 ml to 920/100 
ml. In water withdrawn from nonclogging wells, 
the MPN of sulfate-reducing bacteria averaged 5 
per 100 ml, whereas in wells subject to clogging, 
the number averaged 25 per 100 ml. A statistical 
analysis by Wilcoxon's order test confirmed that a 
significant difference exists between the numbers 
of sulfate-reducing bacteria in clogging and non- 
clogging wells. No causal relation has been proven 
to exist between this type of well clogging and the 
presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00313 

REPRESENTATION OF MULTIAQUIFER 
WELL EFFECTS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL 
GROUND- WATER FLOW SIMULATION, 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 
G. D. Bennett, A. L. Kontis, and S. P. Larson. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 3, p 334-341, May- 
June, 1982. 6 Fig, 11 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater movement, 'Simula- 
tion, 'Well effects, 'Multiaquifer wells. Multilayer 
wells. Mathematical models, Aquifers, Geohydro- 
logy, Well hydraulics. 

A problem exists with respect to the simulation of 
multiaquifer or multilayer wells (wells which pene- 
trate and are open to several different aquifers or 
layers). Such wells, whether or not they are 
pumped, can have a major effect on the hydraulics 
of the system. The presence of multiaquifer or 
multilayer wells changes the nature of the equa- 
tions which must be solved in a three-dimensional 
ground-water flow simulation and, in effect, alters 
the stencil of computation. A method has been 
devised which takes this changes into consider- 
ation by allowing simulation of the hydraulic ef- 
fects of a multiaquifer well on the aquifer system. 
It also allows for calculation of the water level and 
individual aquifer discharges in such a well. The 
method is satisfactory for the case of a single well 
located exactly at a node, in a model utilizing a 
square-mesh spacing, where radial symmetry is not 
disturbed by anisotropy, heterogeneity, or hydro- 
logic boundaries. Application of the method to 
other situations is more difficult to rationalize, and 
depends in part upon whether a meaningful esti- 
mate of r sub a can be obtained for those situations. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-C0316 



EVALUATING AND IMPROVING EXISTING 
GROUND-WATER SYSTEMS, 

California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

O. J. Helweg. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 402-409, July- 
August, 1982. 6 Fig, 7 Tab, 10 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Pump efficiency, 'Well efficiency, 
'Groundwater, Energy, Drawdown, Specific ca- 
pacity. Pumping tests. 

Considerable energy savings are available from 
improving well and pump efficiencies. One major 
problem is evaluating the well and pump inefficien- 
cies over prolonged periods of time, because these 
efficiencies are erratic unless normalized. A new 
well should be tested at different discharges to 



construct a relationship between specific capacity 
and drawdown. Future well efficiency tests should 
compare the specific capacity with the original 
curve at the test discharge. The departure from the 
original curve indicates the loss in well efficiency. 
Similarly, pump efficiency needs to be normalized, 
so that the tested efficiency may be compared with 
the original efficiency at the test discharge. (Au- 
thor's abstract) 
W85-00319 

ADVECTION-DISPERSION INTERPRETA- 

TION OF TRACER OBSERVATIONS IN AN 
AQUIFER, 

Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Applied Earth Sci- 

E. Hoehn, and P. V. Roberts. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 457-465, July- 
August, 1982. 4 Fig, 3 Tab, 25 Ref Swiss NSF 
grant 82.816.0.80, EPA grant R-804431, OWRT 
grant 14-35-0001-8824. 

Descriptors: 'Advection, 'Dispersion, 'Tracers, 
'Artificial recharge, 'California, Mathematical 
models. Simulation, Injection wells. Wastewater 
renovation. Aquifers, Tailing, Reclaimed water. 

An advanced wastewater treatment facility and a 
well field operated for artificial recharge in the 
Palo Alto Baylands (California) have been previ- 
ously used to evaluate whether direct injection of 
municipal effluents is a reliable and feasible strate- 
gy for producing reclaimed water. To complement 
this work, field experiments using conservative 
tracers have been carried out at the same site to 
evaluate the adequacy of an advection-dispersion 
model. A stimulus-response approach based on 
chemical reactor theory was applied. Two differ- 
ent pulse stimuli at an injection well resulted in 
responses in two observation wells located at dis- 
tances of 8 and 17 m, respectively from the injec- 
tion well. The wells are perforated over the entire 
aquifer thickness of 1-2 m. The behavior of the two 
conservative tracers agreed closely with each 
other. Breakthrough response curves revealed ex- 
tended trailing edges (tailing), especially at the 
nearer well. A two-domain model is employed to 
extend the simple advection-dispersion equation to 
account for the observed tailing. Response curves 
of concentrations were fitted with finite-difference 
simulations using the two-domain model. The sim- 
ulations using the two-domain model agreed well 
with the field observations. The responses at the 
more distant well were characterized by values of 
dispersivity equal to or slightly smaller than those 
at the nearer well. The amount of field data re- 
quired to simulate the observations was justified in 
the light of the overall purpose of gaining insight 
into the transport behavior of water and solutes 
during recharge operations. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00326 



between the different elevations and therefore pro- 
duces misleading results. Readings from open ob- 
servation wells should be used with caution. When 
a number of piezometers are provided on a vertical 
section, a detailed picture can be obtained of the 
vertical components of flow. Using a numerical 
model for pumping test analysis it is possible to 
reproduce the observed aquifer behavior both at 
the free surface and at depth within the aquifer. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00331 



UNRELIABILITY OF OPEN OBSERVATION 
BOREHOLES IN UNCONFINED AQUIFER 
PUMPING TESTS, 

Birmingham Univ. (England). Dept. of Civil Engi- 
neering. 

K. R. Rushton, and K. W. F. Howard. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 546-550, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 5 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water table aquifers, 'Pumping tests, 
'Observation wells, Aquifers, Boreholes, Mathe- 
matical models, Groundwater movement. Piezo- 
meters. 

The estimation of the transmissivity and storage 
coefficients in unconfined aquifers from pumping 
tests often proves to be difficult. For tests, an 
additional 200 mm diameter borehole was con- 
structed at 34.5 m from the main pumping well. 
Pumping tests were carried out initially using the 
new borehole as an observation well. The regional 
aquifer response over a long time period indicated 
a specific yield of 10% to 1 5% but pumping tests 
did not appear to support these estimates. When 
separate piezometers were installed along a verti- 
cal section, there were significant differences in 
groundwater head. These differences suggest that 
rather than providing an average groundwater 
head, the open borehole provides a means of flow 



HAND CALCULATOR PROGRAM FOR EVAL- 
UATING THEIS PARAMETERS FROM A 
PUMPING TEST, 

Electronic Associates, Inc., West Long Branch, 
NJ. 

J. Paschetto, and C. D. McElwee. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 551-555, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 2 Tab, 9 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pumping test, 'Computer programs, 
Transmissivity, Storativity, Drawdown, Theis 
equation. 

Automated techniques for analyzing pumping test 
data published recently usually require the services 
of a computer. With the advent of more sophisti- 
cated hand-held calculators, it is possible to imple- 
ment these techniques on calculators. The program 
TFIT, originally written in FORTRAN, was 
adapted for use on the HP-41C hand-held calcula- 
tor. With two memory modules, up to 44 draw- 
down-time pairs can be handled simultaneously. 
Given experimental pump test data, the program 
will yield approximations for aquifer transmissivity 
and storage coefficient, together with the rms error 
for drawdown. The complete Theis equation is 
used so there is no time or distance limitation. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00332 



ECONOMICS OF IMPROVING WELL AND 
PUMP EFFiaENCY, 

California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

O. J. Helweg. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 556-562, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 6 Fig, 4 Tab, 6 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Well efficiency, 'Pump efficiency, 
'Economic efficiency, Energy costs. Pump testing. 
Cost analysis. Drilling, Design criteria. 

Significant savings are frequently achieved from 
increasing well and pump efficiency by repair or 
replacement. The energy savings from rehabilitat- 
ing wells and pumps may be modest for systems 
that are only shghtly inefficient; the costs of the 
replacement analysis (cost of pump tests and time 
to analyze them) are usually even less. Groundwat- 
er users almost always realize greater savings froni 
conducting a replacement analysis than the cost of 
the analysis. If significant inefficiencies are discov- 
ered energy savings will be substantial. Pumping 
costs over tha life of a well are usually much 
greater than the well construction cost. When 
drilling a new well, the most economical design 
should be chosen instead of the cheapest, if it is 
financially feasible. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00333 



NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THERMAL 
ENERGY STORAGE EXPERIMENT CON- 
DUCTED BY AUBURN UNIVERSITY, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

J. F. Sykes, R. B. Lantz, S. B. Pahwa, and D. S. 
Ward. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 569-576, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 14 Fig, 2 Tab, 13 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Thermal energy storage, 'Mathe- 
matical models, 'Aquifers, 'Mobile, 'Alabama, 
Simulation, Water temperature. Thermal convec- 
tion, Anisotrophy, Thermal conduction. Isotherms, 
Injection wells. 



36 



A multidimensional, finite-difference model for 
ground-water flow and heat transport is used to 
analyze the thermal energy storage experiment 
conducted by Auburn University in Mobile, Ala- 
bama. The experiment consisted of three stages - 
namely, injection, storage and recovery occurring 
for 80, 51 and 41 days, respectively. This applica- 
tion demonstrates the validation evidence that the 
model adequately and accurately simulates the 
field experiment. The numerical model includes 
the effects of hydraulic anisotrophy, thermal con- 
vection and conduction, and heat loss to the adja- 
cent confining strata. Observed aquifer isotherms 
at the end of each stage are compared with pre- 
dicted values on a cylindrical grid situated about 
the well. The degree of vertical discretization used 
in the model is shown to impact the predicted 
temperature profiles at each stage, but has minimal 
effect on the recovery water temperature. (Au- 
thor's abstract) 
W85-00335 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL— Field 4 
Effects On Water Of Man's Non-Water Activities— Group 4C 



PREDICTION OF ECONOMIC POTENTIAL 
FOR IRRIGATION USING A GROUND- 
WATER MODEL, 

Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Dept. of Geolo- 
gy- 

D. C. Kent, J. W. Naney, and F. E. Witz. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 577-585, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 10 Fig, 5 Tab, 13 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Irrigation requirements, 'Economic 
evaluation, 'Groundwater depletion, 'Mathemati- 
cal models. Land use. Water potentials. Simulation, 
Cost-benefit analysis. Cotton, Alfalfa. 

The objective of this study is to demonstrate the 
application of a predictive ground-water potentio- 
metric-head model to estimate the profitability of 
irrigation in contrast to that of dry-land farming. 
Unit cost per acre-foot of water required for a 
variety of crops is used to determine the distribu- 
tive impact of predicted aquifer depletion at 5-year 
mtervals during 20 years of simulated pumping. A 
land-use planning scheme is proposed for identify- 
ing areas (one square mile or less) where various 
crop types can be irrigated based on benefit-cost 
criteria for two arbitrary pumping rates as well as 
on future energy and well development costs. 
Maps showing areas of profitable production are 
presented for cotton and alfalfa as examples of 
crops requiring as much as 1 and 2 ac-ft/ac/yr 
(0.30 and 0.60 ha-m/ha/yr), respectively. Irriga- 
tion-water needs and related profitability are pre- 
sented as examples for several crops by using the 
model. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00336 



PROSPECT RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED TO 
GROUND-WATER RESERVOIR EVALUA- 

noN, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6B 
iV85-00341 



^YDROGEOLOGIC CONTROL OF LOCAL- 
ZED IRON-ENRICHED GROUND WATER 
:.IMA, OHIO, 

>. I. Strausberg. 

jround Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 663-667, Novem- 

>er-December, 1982. 3 Fig, 7 Ref. 

Jescriptors: 'Groundwater, 'Iron, 'Lima, 'Ohio, 
Hydrogeology, Carbonate aquifers, Permeability,' 
jlacial aquifers, Cooling water. Hardness. 

Jroundwater pumped from a Silurian carbonate 
quifer m northwestern Ohio has been use for 
idustnal cooling at the Lima, Ohio plant of Vis- 
ron Corporation. Lateral flow from saturated gla- 
lal deposits in an entrenched buried valley under 
le southwestern part of the Vistron plant site 
auses localization of high iron concentrations in 
le groundwater pumped from the carbonate aqui- 
:r. The high iron concentrations combined with 
le hardness of the water have caused deposits on 
eat exchange surfaces leading to inefficient oper- 
tions. Pumpage in the Lima region has remained 
able from 1971 to 1981 at about 6.6 mgd. Produc- 
on wells are open to the carbonate aquifer, 
avmg higher permeability than glacial deposits. 



Pumping from Vistron's southwesterly operating 
wells has created a sink that apparently prevents 
the iron-enriched water, pulled from saturated gla- 
cial deposits, from moving towards pumping wells 
m the central and northern portions of the area. 
Iron concentrations in water from the southwest- 
em wells are about one order of magnitude higher 
than in the water from central wells. Iron concen- 
trations in the central and northern wells are not 
expected to increase as long as about 20% of the 
plant's groundwater is withdrawn from at least 
two of the southwestern wells. (Baker-I VD 
W85-00342 ' 



IMPACT OF LAKE MICHIGAN ALLOCA- 
TIONS ON THE CAMBRIAN-ORDOVICIAN 
AQUIFER SYSTEM, 

Illinois State Water Survey Div., Chamoaien 
A. P. Visocky. ^ ' 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 668-674, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 3 Fig, 3 Tab, 15 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water allocation, 'Lake Michigan, 
'Chicago, 'Illinois, 'Wisconsin, 'Cambrian-Ordo- 
vician Aquifer, 'Groundwater depletion. Water 
supply. Groundwater supply. Groundwater level. 
Water shortage. Water demand. Computer models. 

Overpumping of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer 
in the Chicago area has caused severe water level 
declines in portions of Cook, DuPage, Kane, and 
Will Counties. Recent changes in the accounting 
procedure for diversion of Lake Michigan water 
have released more water for public supplies. As 
communities which have been allocated Lake 
Michigan water shut off their deep wells, recovery 
of water levels will occur. The regional cone of 
depression will continue to spread outward, espe- 
cially to the west and south. Major cones of de- 
pression will shift to Joliet and to the Fox River 
Valley. At least six pumping centers will experi- 
ence critical water stages along with reduced 
pumping capacity during the 1980-2020 period. 
With the additional drawdowns anticipated from 
Wisconsin pumpages, superimposed on declines 
predicted by a computer model, it is possible that 
other areas, especially large pumping centers 
closer to the State line, might also experience 
reduced pumping capacity. Computer runs using 
withdrawals totaling 65 mgd tend to confirm the 
estimate that even with reduction in deep pumpage 
brought about through lake allocations, projected 
withdrawals will still exceed the sustained yield by 
43 mgd. Projected Illinois pumpages will cause as 
much as 130 feet of additional drawdown along the 
State line between 1980 and 2020. Wisconsin 
pumpage is expected to cause an additional 80 feet 
of decline at the State line over the same period 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00343 



METHODS OF FORECASTING AND MAP- 
PING OF GROUND-WATER TABLES IN THE 
USSR, 

Morton and Partners, Rexdale (Ontario). 
E. Zaltsberg. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 675-679, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 1 Fig, 2 Tab, 9 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Forecasting, 'Groundwater level, 
'Water table, 'Mapping, 'USSR, Water supply. 
Mathematical equations, Hydrogeology. 

A short description is offered of extensive USSR 
experience in the field of hydrogeological forecast- 
ing in large territories. The composition of the 
forecast consists of the following stages: collection 
and analysis of relevant info.mation; choice of 
predicted tables; calculations of the forecast equa- 
tions; and extrapolating the forecast in the terri- 
tory. Periodic hydrological forecasts began to be 
composed in the USSR about 10 years ago. During 
this period considerable experience was accumulat- 
ed in the field of application of various statistical 
methods of groundwater table forecast purposes, 
including mapping of existing and predicted re- 
gimes. This practice was approved and forecasts 
were applied by many construction, agricultural, 
forestry and hydrological organizations and of- 
fices. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00344 



NUMERICAL MODEL STUDY OF GROUND- 
WATER CONTAMINATION FROM PRICE'S 
LANDFILL, NEW JERSEY - II. SENSITIVITY 
ANALYSIS AND CONTAMINANT PLUME 
SIMULATION, 

Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Civil Engineering 
W. G. Gray, and J. L. Hoffman. 
Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 15-21, January- 
February, 1983. 10 Fig, 1 Tab, 2 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Sensitivity analysis, 'Groundwater 
pollution, 'Atlantic City, 'New Jersey, Landfills 
Price's Landfill, Plumes, Simulation, Model stud- 
ies. Mathematical models. Groundwater move- 
ment. 

A numerical model of flow and transport in the 
vicinity of Price's Landfill and the Atlantic City 
public water supply wells is used to estimate the 
extent of the existing contamination problem. 
Model parameters such as boundary conditions, 
pumping rates, permeability and dispersivity are 
vaned to demonstrate the sensitivity of the model 
to these quantities. A historical simulation of the 
past ten years of contamination is obtained and two 
schemes of remediation of the contamination prob- 
lem are compared. Besides providing some insight 
into the particulars of that specific problem, some 
of the adequacies and difficulties in applying a 
nurnerical simulator have been pointed out. The 
design of field studies in cooperation with numeri- 
cal studies will reduce many existing problems of 
simulation. Finally, the numerical models are not 
to be confused with tools to be used in place of 
field studies, but as complements to well designed 
data collection efforts. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00354 



APPLICATION OF A MICROCOMPUTER IN 
THE ANALYSIS OF PUMPING TEST DATA IN 
CONFINED AQUIFERS, 

Water Surveys (Nigeria) Ltd., Bauchi. 
J. P. Durable, and K. T. Cullen. 
Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 79-83, January- 
February, 1983. 5 Fig, 1 Tab, 7 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Drawdown, 'Computers, 'Confined 
aquifers, 'Pumping tests, Groundwater manage- 
ment. Pumping, Microcomputers, Transmissivity, 
Water storage. Storage capacity. 

By using microcomputers it is possible to rapidly 
generate the theoretical time drawdown data for a 
pumping test in a confined aquifer at constant or 
varying pumping rates for a variety of T (aquifer 
transmissivity) and S (aquifer storage coefficient) 
values and including boundary conditions. The 
ability to graphically display both field and theo- 
retical data on a monitor screen removes the need 
for manual curve matching, thereby improving the 
overall interpretation of the test. The capacity of 
the computer system to quickly treat data gives the 
hydrogeologist the capability to investigate a large 
number of possible field conditions, thereby afford- 
ing a greater insight into the limitations of a solu- 
tion. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00361 



LABORATORY EVALUATION OF GROUND 
WATER SAMPLING MECHANISMS, 

Illinois State Water Survey Div., Champaign. 

Aquatic Chemistry Section. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5A 

W85-00364 



4C. Effects On Water Of 
Man's Non- Water 
Activities 



EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ON PHYSICAL 
HABITAT FOR TROUT IN STREAMS, 

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Biology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6G 
W8 5-00070 



RIPARIAN FORESTS AS NUTRIENT nLTERS 
IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS, 



37 



<>K»iB»BHia^ii 



Field 4— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 
Group 4C— Effects On Water Of Man's Non-Water Activities 



Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 21. 
W85-00127 



HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF UNDIS- 
TURBED MIXED EVERGREEN FORESTS, 
SOUTH NELSON, NEW ZEALAND, 

New Zealand Forest Service, Rotorua. Forest Re- 
search Inst. 

A. J. Pearce, L. K. Rowe, and C. L. O'Loughln. 
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 21, No. 2, p 98-116, 
1982. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 21 Ref. 

Descriptors; *Forest hydrology, 'Hydrological 
regime, *New Zealand, 'Evergreen forests. Catch- 
ments, Forest watersheds. Runoff, Storm runoff, 
Hydrologic budget. Seasonal variation. Evapora- 
tion, Transpiration, Interception. 

The water balance, flow frequency, summer low 
flows, and storm runoff response of four small 
catchments covered with undisturbed Nothofagus 
spp.-podocarp-hardwood forest in south Nelson, 
New Zealand are described. Hard beech and red 
beech are the dominant forest species, with 
kamahi, miro, rimu and silver beech as subdomin- 
ant species. Rainfall gradients across the terrain 
underlain by Moutere Gravel are quite large. 
Under natural forested conditions, the dissected 
hill country is only moderately hydrologically re- 
sponsive compared with similar forested terrain in 
higher rainfall climates. The influence of the ever- 
green forest is most predominant in the evapora- 
tive components of the water balance, and then 
principally in the high losses by evaporation of 
intercepted rainfall. Neariy 30% of gross rainfall is 
evaporated from interception. Of the estimated 
1550 mm mean annual rainfall about 375 mm is 
cycled between only the exterior of the tree 
canopy and the atmosphere. Estimated annual tran- 
spiration forms only 40-45% of the total annual 
evaporation and is less than the annual net inter- 
ception loss. The thick, stratified regolith, which 
provides substantial catchment storage is important 
in apportioning net rainfall between quickflow and 
delayed flow and is probably the major factor in 
moderating the storm runoff response of the Big 
Bush catchments compared to that in other similar 
forests. Mechanisms for generating rapid-response 
runoff are important in small hydrographs and in 
the early parts of most large hydrograph responses, 
but such processes yield much less than half the 
annual quickflow from the Big Bush catchments 
and possibly as little as one quarter of the annual 
quickflow. Rapid response runoff mechanisms gen- 
erate small hydrographs, but much of the storm 
runoff in large events is generated by slower re- 
sponse mechanisms, so that much storm runoff 
delivered to the stream channels lags 6-24 hours 
after storm rainfall. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00179 



4D. Watershed Protection 



FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK. 

Flood Loss Reduction Associates, Palo Alto, CA. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6F. 
W85-00059 



CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND REMEDIES 
OF SOIL EROSION IN KENYA, 

Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm 

(Sweden). Beijerinstitutet. 

P. O'Keefe. 

Ambio, Vol. 12, No. 6, p 302-305, 1983. 2 Fig, 1 

Tab, 16 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Erosion control, 'Kenya, 'Soil ero- 
sion. Land management, Semiarid lands. Agricul- 
tural runoff, Top soil, Tillage, Farm management. 
Developing countries. 

Erosion problems in Kenya are aggravated by a 
semi-arid climate over much of the interior of the 
land, cutting of forests for fuelwood and charcoal- 
making, and poor land management and agricultur- 
al practices. In attempts to come to grips with 
mounting top soil losses, officials are introducing 
better crop management techniques, coupled to 



simple terracing in erosion-prone areas. Critical to 
the prevention of soil erosion are the protection of 
soil against direct rain impact and the maintenance 
of organic matter. In Kenya, subsistence farmers 
account for some 80% of the population. In most 
areas, over 50% of these peasants depend on off- 
farm income opportunities for the major part of 
their income. The absence of the men on the farms 
at certain critical times of the crop year has cre- 
ated labor hardships and reduced the number of 
individuals able to assist in making changes in 
agricultural practices. Much future hope is placed 
in the efforts of zero tillage agriculture. Untilled 
production reduced erosion by 98% in Nigeria and 
significantly reduced water runoff Zero tillage 
also requires less than 10% of the energy and labor 
input. Zero tillage, however, requires the develop- 
ment of two technologies. Appropriate herbicides 
and applicators for both pre and post-planting ap- 
plications are needed as well as punch or injector 
planters to penetrate the soil. The real issue is a 
political one: will African governments and donor 
agencies support these moves which, because they 
guarantee successful production, will also guaran- 
tee a more vociferous peasantry. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00129 

5. WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT AND 
PROTECTION 

5A. Identification Of Pollutants 



QUALITY OF GROUND WATER IN SOUTH- 
ERN BUCHANAN COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 

Geological Survey, Richmond, VA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2K. 
W85-00025 



WATER RESOURCES OF THE TULALIP 
INDIAN RESERVATION, WASHINGTON, 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W85-00030 



INVESTIGATION OF MERCURY-AMINO 
ACID COMPLEXES IN THE AQUEOUS ENVI- 
RONMENT, 

Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Chemis- 
try. 

C. Ponnamperuma. 

Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161, as PB84 190412, 
Price codes; A02 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
Maryland Water Resources Research Center, Col- 
lege Park, Publication No. 75, August, 1983. 13 p, 
3 Tab, 20 Ref. OWRT Project No. A-063-MD (1), 
Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2122. 

Descriptors; Mercury, Sulfhydryl groups. Cys- 
teine, 'Oysters, Fluorescence, Heavy metals, 
Amino acids. Water pollution effects. Toxicity, 
'Mercury cysteinate. Chromatography, 'Pollutant 
identification. 

Mercury is a toxic pollutant which can even at 
very low levels pose serious environmental prob- 
lems. Since mercury in solution is known to have a 
marked chemical affinity for sulfhydryl groups, we 
explored the possibility of mercury entering the 
biosphere as a mercury-cysteine complex. With the 
aid of a modified high-pressure-liquid chromatog- 
raphy system, using a fluorescing detection agent, 
we have established that mercury cysteinate is 
present in oysters. Most of the mercury was found 
in the form of mercury cysteinate. 
W85-00077 



NEW MEDIUM FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY 
OF COLIFORM BACTERIA FROM DRINKING 
WATER, 

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Microbi- 
ology. 

M. W. LeChevallier, S. C. Cameron, and G. A. 
McFeters. 



Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 
45, No. 2, p 484-492, February, 1983. 2 Fig, 4 Tab, 
45 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Coliforms, 'Drinking water, 'Mem- 
brane filter medium, Bacterial analysis, Filters, 
Membrane processes, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Ci- 
trobacter, Enterobacter. 

A new membrane filter medium was developed for 
the improved recovery of injured coliforms from 
drinking water. The new medium, termed m-T7, 
consists of 5.0 g of Difco Proteose Peptone no. 3, 
20 g of lactose, 3.0 g of yeast extract, 0.4 ml of 
Tergitol 7 (25% solution), 5.0 g of polyoxyethy- 
lene ether W-1, 0. 1 g of bromthymol blue, 0.1 g of 
bromcresol purple, and 15 g of agar per liter of 
distilled water. In laboratory studies, m-T7 agar 
recovered 86-99% more laboratory-injured coli- 
forms than did m-Endo agar. m-T7 agar also re- 
covered an average of 43% more verified coli- 
forms from 67 surface and drinking water samples 
than did the standard m-Endo membrane filter 
technique. From drinking water, m-T7 agar recov- 
ered nearly three times more coliforms than did m- 
Endo agar. Less than 0.5% of the colonies on m- 
T7 agar gave false-negative reactions, whereas 
over 70% of the typical yellow colonies from m- 
T7 agar produced gas in lauryl tryptose broth. 
Most of the verified coliforms isolated on m-T7 
agar belonged to one of the four common coliform 
genera: Escherichia, 17.6%; Klebsiella, 21.7%; Ci- 
trobacter, 17.3%; Enterobacter, 32.3%. The results 
demonstrate that m-T7 agar is superior to m-Endo 
agar, especially for the isolation of injured coli- 
forms from drinking water. There was no problem 
with excessive background colonies on m-T7 agar 
with the 44 drinking water samples examined. 
There was some crowding of colonies on the filters 
of both types of medium when surface water sam- 
ples containing sewage effluent were examined. 
The single step membrane filter technique may be 
used with m-T7 agar for analysis of coliforms in all 
waters, but anaerobic incubation may facilitate the 
recovery of coliforms from highly contaminated 
surface waters. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00103 



STATISTICAL VIEW OF HEAVY METAL POL- 
LUTION INDEX OF RTVER SEDIMENT, 

Nippon Inst, of Tech., Saitama. Dept. of Applied 

Statistics. 

H. Nishida, and S. Suzuki. 

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 

Toxicology, Vol. 32, No. 5, p 503-509, April, 1984. 

1 Fig, 4 Tab. 7 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Pollution index, 'Heavy metals, 
'Japan, 'River sediments. Sediments, Statistical 
methods, Pollutant identification. 

How to set up a standard method for judging as to 
whether or not river sediment is polluted by heavy 
metal is essential to the definition of polluted sedi- 
ments. A new pollution index is proposed which is 
distributed as noncentral chi-square in most of the 
cases of practical application. The fundainental 
philosophy of the method is based on the statistical 
idea that the upper 1% of the distibution formed 
by the normalized group of upstream sediment falls 
within the critical region. The method was tested 
by studying random samples of upstream sediment 
not polluted by wastewater and of polluted down- 
stream sediment by means of an Ekman-Burge 
dredge at ten points from both sides of 92 rivers in 
Japan. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00132 



PROBLEMS IN COLLECTION OF REPRE- 
SENTATIVE SAMPLES FOR DETERMINA- 
TION OF TRIBUTOXYETHYL PHOSPHATE 
IN POTABLE WATER, 

Environmental Health Directorate, Ottawa (Ontar- 
io). 

G. L. LeBel, and D. T. Williams. 
J-urnal of the Association of Official Analytical 
Chemists, Vol. 66, No. 1, p 202-203, January, 1983. 
1 Tab, 8 Ref 



38 



mM::,^'m 



Descriptors: *Pollutant identification, *Tributox- 
yethyl phosphate, 'Potable water, 'Sampling, Raw 
water. Water analysis. Organic compounds, Phos- 
phates, Flame retardants. 

Tributoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP) is used as a 
flame retardant plasticizer in many products. Re- 
sults of a brief investigation on tributoxyethyl 
phosphate in tap water are presented to illustrate 
the difficulties in obtaining representative samples 
and to alert analysts to the importance of designing 
suitable sampling protocols. Samples were taken of 
raw water at the intake bay of a treatment plant 
and of tap water. Large volume samples and ex- 
traction were carried out using the AD-2 macrore- 
ticular resin method. Grab samples were extracted 
with methylene chloride. Highly variable levels of 
TBEP were detected in water sampled from a 
laboratory tap. Grab samples of water from this 
tap, after a weekend of non-use, showed very high 
TBEP levels that decreased as the tap was flushed 
with water. Potable water grab samples collected 
from 2 private residences showed increased levels 
of TBEP in the first-draw samples, a third resi- 
dence did not show higher TBEP levels. Flushing 
the taps with 60 L water decreased the TBEP 
levels to those found in raw water at the treatment 
plant and in treated water at a pumping station in 
the distribution system. To provide adequate data 
for estimating exposure to certain organic com- 
pounds it is necessary to analyze both first draw 
and well flushed tap water samples. (Baker-IVI) 



DETERMINATION OF TRACE AZAARENES 
IN WATER BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY 
AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPEC- 
TROMETRY, 

Kitakyushu Municipal Inst, of Environmental 
Health Sciences (Japan). 
R. Shinohara, A. Kido, Y. Okamoto, and R. 
Takeshi ta. 

lournal of Chromatography, Vol. 256, No 1 p 81- 
n, January, 1983. 10 Fig, 2 Tab, 20 Ref 

Descriptors: *Azaarenes, *Aza heterocyclic hy- 
Irocarbons, *Gas chromatography, *Resin 
;olumn. Detection limits. Selected ion monitor 
-lame thermionic detectors, Dohkai Bay, Japan' 
>eawater. Pollutant identification. Mass spectrom- 
:try. 

Various chromatographic techniques have been 
insuccessfully employed to detect aza heterocyclic 
lydrocarbons (azaarenes) in water samples- a de- 
sction method with high specificity and sensitivity 
nd a method for concentrating azaarenes in water 
re required due to their low environmental con- 
entrations. Utilization of a gas chromatography 
lass spectrometry selected ion monitor detector 
jrC-MS-SIM) was very useful for the determina- 
on of trace azaarenes in environmental samples 
azaarenes in sea water taken from Dohkai Bay in 
Jtakyushu City were concentrated with an Am- 
erhte XAD-2 resin column and separated into 
saarenes with two and three rings and those with 
ve nngs by a solvent extraction, followed by a 
lean-up procedure using an alumina column The 
^■■enes thereby separated were determined by 
fC with a flame thermionic detector (GC-FTD) 
id GC-mass spectrometry with a GC-MS-SIM 
'election limits of the azaarenes by GC-FTE) 
ere in the range 0.5-3 ng and those by GC-MS- 
'sS-OoTIs" ^^^ ""^"^^ of 002-0.5 ng. (Collier-IVI) 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 5 
Identification Of Pollutants— Group 5A 



tULTI-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF TRACE 
OTALS IN SOME ENVIRONMENTAL SAM- 
t^^o?I SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND 
^^'fiSl^^^^^^ "QUID CHROMA- 
^^F^^ °^ METAL CHELATE COM- 

lames Polytechnic, London (England). School of 
lemistry. 

B. Edward-Inatimi. 

urnal of Chromatography, Vol. 256, No. 1 p 
3-266, February, 1983. 8 Fig, 7 Tab, 17 Ref 

Jscriptors: *Trace metals, 'High-performance 
uid chromatography, 'Solvent extraction, *Che- 
es, Metal complexes. Effluents, River Thames 



England, Plaice, Flounder, Shrimp, Atomic ab- 
sorption spectrophotometry. 

^u^/un°'^^'^^"''^'''^°™^"'^^ '■')"''' chromatogra- 
phy (HPLC), after preliminary solvent extraction, 
for the complete separation of trace amounts of 
metal chelates prior to their non-selective determi- 
nation was investigated. A UV detector set to the 
most intense absorbance peak of the reagent was 
used as a universal detector for all of the metal 
chelates at approximately the same sensitivity 
Sulfur-containing reagents such as dithizone and 
diethyldithiocarbamate were used owing to their 
high absorptivities and because they tend to form 
strong complexes with toxic metalloids. The ab- 
sorption mode of HPLC was used, because metal 
chelates are typically very soluble in non-polar 
solvents such as chloroform. The high distribution 
ratios of the complexes in such solvents made 
possible the use of small volumes for extraction 
and hence obviated the need for evaporation prior 
to direct HPLC injection. A buffer medium of pH 
8.5 -|- or - 0.1 gave optimum response for the best 
multi-element extraction and HPLC determination 
7o^j"i/"^'^*'* samples of non-ferrous effluent from 
19 different manufacturing plants were analyzed 
using the HPLC method and also using the recom- 
mended atomic-absorption spectrometry (AAS); 
HPLC can be carried out in 20-30 min, whereas 
the AAS requires over 90 min due to the extensive 
sample treatment involved. Water samples were 
taken from the River Thames at several sampling 
pomts; with very little sample preparation, trace 
metal profiles were obtained and the trace metals 
present were determined. Concentrations in aquat- 
ic biota (plaice, flounder, and shrimps) and in 
standard kale (Brassica oleracea) as determined by 
■ h^. (preceded by a rapid wet-ashing procedure 
with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide) agreeded well 
with values determined by AAS. (CoIlier-IVI> 
W85-00166 c ivi; 



RAPID, SENSITIVE, GAS CHROMATOGRA- 
PHIC DETERMINATION OF DIETHYL MAL- 
2/^^IS ^^^ DIETHYL SUCCINATE IN 
WATER FACILITATED BY SORBENT-TUBE 
PRECONCENTRATION, 
Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL 
D. R. Coleman, L. M. Rose, W. E. Meyers, and 
W. K. Fowler. 

Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 256, No 2 n 
363-367, February, 1983. 1 Fig, 7 Ref ' 

Descriptors: 'Gas chromatography, 'Diethyl mal- 
onate, 'Diethyl succinate, Preconcentration, Ex- 
traction, Dialkyl alkanedioates. Chromatography, 
"issticizcrs. 

Dialkyl alkanedioates (esters of dibasic acids) are 
used as plasticizers in the coatings and plastics 
industry and consequently their presence in the 
environment must be monitored. A relatively 
simple rapid method for the determination of 
diethyl malonate and diethyl succinate in water 
was developed based on the vapor-phase pre-con- 
centration of solvent extracts on solid sorbent pre- 
concentrator tubes and the subsequent thermal de- 
sorption of these tubes into a gas chromatograph 
At levels corresponding to aqueous sample con- 
centrations of approximately 3 ng/ml, in order to 
maximize the sensitivity of the method, the entire 
sample extract is pre-concentrated. Down to ap- 
proximately 25 ng/ml, in order to reduce the anal- 
ysis time and the complexity of routine sample 
manipulations, only a small portion of the extract is 
pre-concentrated. The efficiency of extraction was 
essentially 100% for both analytes using diethyl 
ether. The relative standard deviation of replicate 
determinations is typically less than 5% at analyte 
concentrations ten (or more) times higher than the 
working lower limit for quantitative determina- 
tions. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00167 



^J^^hl^^^ ^^ TRACE HALOCARBONS IN 
NATURAL WATERS BY SIMPLIFIED PURGE 
AND CRYOTRAP METHOD, 

International Science Consultants, Ringwood 
(England). " 

P. G. Simmonds. 

Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 289, p 117-127 
April, 1984. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 47 Ref 



Descriptors: 'Halogenated hydrocarbons, 'Gas 
chromatography, Cryoloops, Adsorption traps 
Permeation dryer, Henry's law, Electron capture 
detectors, Carbon tetrachloride, Trifluoromethane 
Methyl chloroform. Rain, Seawater, Air pollution.' 

A simplified purge and cryotrap method for the 
analysis of trace aqueous halocarbons is described. 
The usual Tenax adsorption trap is replaced with a 
cryoloop preceded by a permeation dryer which 
selectively removes water vapor and thereby pre- 
vents freezing in the cryoloop. This 'one-step' 
method reduces potential contamination and is 
highly sensitive when coupled with capillary elec- 
tron capture detector analysis of the purged vola- 
tiles. Using this method several previously unre- 
ported halocarbons have been observed in natural 
waters (including rain water); many additional ha- 
locarbons are observed in all of the water samples 
compared with samples of the associated ambient 
air. Henry's law constants were calculated directly 
by analyzing both water and ambient air samples 
collected at the same time. In most cases the water 
samples were supersaturated with the exception of 
the following halocarbons: the water/air phases of 
carbon tetrachlonde are close to equilibrium in all 
water samples analyzed; methylchloroform is close 
to equilibrium in rain-water; and trifluoromethane 
IS in equilibrium in sea-water. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00168 



EXISTENCE OF ANIONIC SURFACTANTS IN 
RIVER (IN JAPANESE), 

Kao Corp., Tochigi (Japan). Research Labs. 

K. Yoshimura, K. Hayashi, J. Kawase, and K 

Tsuji. 

Japanese Journal of Limnology, Vol. 45, No 1 p 

51-60, January, 1984. 5 Fig, 8 Tab, 19 Ref ' 

Descriptors: 'River sediments, 'Water analysis. 
Sulfonates, 'Anionic surfactants, 'Japan, Fatty 
acids, Fats, Surface water. Sediments, Linear alkyl- 
benzene sulfonates, Tama River, Ta River Kinu 
River, Tenpaku River. 

Surface water and sediment samples were taken 
from several Japanese rivers to analyze for the 
presence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) 
fatty acids and fats. Rivers studied include the 
Tama, Ta, Kinu, and Tenpaku Rivers. LAS deter- 
mination was carried out by Abbot's methylene 
blue method and reversed phase high performance 
liquid chromatography with a fluorimetric detec- 
tor After prelabeling of the fatty acids, fatty acids 
and fats were measured by a reverse phase HPLC 
with a fluorimetric detector. All river water and 
sediment samples showed the presence of methyl- 
ene blue active substances, while LAS was not 
determined in the Tama and Ta Rivers. The con- 
centrations of LAS detected in the river water and 
sediments of the Tama River were trace-0.38 mg/1 
and 1.79-10.72 ppm respectively. The concentra- 
tions of fatty acids in river water and sediment 
were 0.005-0.052 mg/1 and 7.7-426 ppm, respec- 
tively, and river sediments contained 8-19 ppm of 
fats. These fatty acids and fats were estimated to be 
derived from organisms such as algae and bacteria 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00191 



REEF-BUILDING CORAL SKELETONS AS 
CHEMICAL POLLUTION (PHOSPHORUS) IN- 
DICATORS, 

Nova Univ. Oceanographic Center, Dania, FL 
R.E^ Dodge, T. D. Jickells, A. H. Karp, S. Boyd, 
and R. P. M. Bak. ^ 

Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 15, No 5 p 178- 
8o'RiD'oJ)i5'^' ' ''''' '' ^'' NCAA gr'ant NA 



Descriptors: 'Phosphorus, 'Corals, 'Bioindicators 

Bermuda, 'St. Croix, 'Curacao, Montastrea, Di- 

ploria. Calcium, Reefs, Water pollution effects 

Seawater, Wastewater pollution, Endolithic algae. 

The inorganic and total phosphorus concentrations 
of the skeleton of reef building corals have been 
determined on specimens from Bermuda, St. Croix, 
and Curacao. Concentrations determined on sub- 
samples dated by density band growth increments 



III 



Si 
< 

w 
I 

z 

ECl 



it 
It 

it 



m':'-: 






I* 



ii^i 



39 



lb. 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5A— Identification Of Pollutants 



E 



indicate that a record of seawater phosphorus is 
preserved which, in certain cases, is consistent 
with the location and time history of sewage and 
other phosphorus pollution episodes. Concentra- 
tions are low with some differences over wide 
geographic areas and between the two species 
examined, Montastrea annularis and Diploria stri- 
gosa. The record in some specimens shows year to 
year variability which appears to be related to 
sewage pollution influence. The method of inclu- 
sion of the phosphorus within the skeleton is un- 
certain. A possibility may be tissue content of 
endolithic algae. Other sources include trapped 
detritus, trapped coral tissue and/or organic 
matrix, and primary deposition. Data from Bermu- 
da suggest that coral phosphorus to Ca ratio is 
similar to seawater ratios. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O20O 



USE OF MICROORGANISMS AS GROUND- 
WATER TRACERS: A REVIEW, 

Texas Univ. Medical School at Houston. 
B. H. Keswick, D.-S. Wang, and C. P. Gerba. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 142-149, March- 
April, 1982. 4 Tab, 49 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Groundwater pollution, *Microorga- 
nisms, 'Tracers, ♦Bacteriophages, Reviews, 
Groundwater movement. Path of pollutants, Bac- 
teria, Viruses, Yeasts, Spores, Public health. 

The microbial contamination of groundwater is a 
serious problem that has resulted in large outbreaks 
of waterborne disease. The ability to trace microbi- 
al movement in grounwater is essential in recogniz- 
ing the potential for transmission of disease-causing 
microorganisms. Chemical tracers do not always 
reflect the movement of microorganisms in ground 
water. Bacteria, viruses, yeasts and lycopodium 
spores have been used for this purpose and to trace 
underground movement of water in much the same 
manner as chemical tracers are used. The use of 
certain bacteria and animal viruses is undesirable 
due to their pathogenic potential and difficulties in 
their differentiation from background, naturally- 
occurring organisms. Bacterial viruses appear to be 
the microorganisms most suited as a microbial 
tracer because of their size, ease of assay and lack 
of pathogenicity. Bacteriophages have been used 
to trace ground-water movement over distances of 
1,600 meters and can be used under a variety of 
conditions. Because of host specificity, phages can 
be mixed, injected together, then distinguished on 
different hosts. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00299 



BAILING AND CONSTRUCnON CONSIDER- 
ATIONS FOR DEEP AQUIFER MONITORING 
WELLS ON WESTERN OIL SHALE LEASES, 

Kaman Tempo, Denver, CO. 
K. E. Kelly. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 2, p 179-185, March- 
April, 1982. 6 Fig, 3 Tab, 5 Ref. EPA contract 68- 
0302449. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring wells, 'Oil shales, 'Bail- 
ing, 'Well design, 'Piceance Creek Basin, 'Colora- 
do, Geohydrology, Water quality. Sampling, 
Groundwater. 

Water quality data collected from monitoring 
wells in the Piceance Creek Basin (Colorado) oil 
shale area can be significantly influenced by well 
design and sampling techniques. Many of these 
influences can be attributed to hydrogeologic com- 
plexities, which can have notable variations on a 
fairly local scale. To adequately address these 
complexities, a site-specific characterization of the 
hydrogeology is necessary. This is particularly im- 
portant for specifying well construction details of 
monitoring wells for a ground-water quality moni- 
toring program. Data collected during the bailing 
of deep aquifer wells on Federal Prototype Oil 
Shale Lease Tract C-a indicates the need for con- 
sistent and representative sample collection depths. 
Appreciable changes in water quality can be in- 
duced by variations in sample collection depths. In 
addition, unrepresentative data can be obtained due 
to the incorrect selection of intervals to be samples 
in the well. Care must be taken to sample consist- 
ently from the same depth and aquifer interval 



during each and every sampling effort. Studies 
such as these provide necessary background infor- 
mation for developing ground-water monitoring 
guidelines in the oil shale region. Sampling proce- 
dures must be consistent to a.ssure representative 
data collection. In addition, wells should be de- 
signed and completed according to the local hy- 
drogeology and the specific goals of the monitor- 
ing program. (Author's abstract) 
W85-OO304 



VADOSE ZONE MONITORING CONCEPTS 
FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES, 

Kaman Tempo, Santa Barbara, CA. 
L. G. Everett, L. G. Wilson, and L. G. McMillion. 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 3, p 312-324, May- 
June, 1982. 2 Fig, 6 Tab, 13 Ref. EPA contract V- 

7724-NALX. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, 'Vadose water, 'Haz- 
ardous materials, 'Waste disposal. Sampling, 
Groundwater pollution. Water pollution sources. 

The implementation of the Resource Conservation 
and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehen- 
sive Environmental Response, Compensation and 
Liability Act (CERCLA) may be enhanced by 
wider applications of vadose zone monitoring. 
More than 50 different vadose zone monitoring 
techniques are referenced. Fourteen different crite- 
ria are established for selecting alternative vadose 
zone monitoring methods. These monitoring meth- 
ods are categorized according to premonitoring 
techniques, sampling methods and nonsampling 
methods which could be applied in the vadose 
zone. Two conceptual cases are presented cover- 
ing vadose zone monitoring at a hazardous waste 
disposal impoundment. TTie rationale for the moni- 
toring program at a new impoundment and for an 
active impoundment is presented. The material 
constitutes the first phase of a vadose zone moni- 
toring manual. (Author's abstract) 
W85-0O314 



NEW METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS MEAS- 
UREMENT OF CL(-), BR(-), N03(-), SCN(-), 
AND I(-) AT SUB-PPM LEVELS IN GROUND 
WATER, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Hydrology and 
Water Resources. 

K. J. Stetzenbach, and G. M. Thompson. 
Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 36-41, January- 
February, 1983. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 6 Ref Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission contract NRC-04-78-275. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater pollution, 'Anions, 
'Pollutant identification. Inorganic compounds. 
Chromatography, Chlorides, Bromides, Nitrates, 
Iodides, Thiocyanides, Tracers, Chemical analysis. 

Ion-exchange high pressure hquid chromatography 
coupled with a variable wavelength UV detector 
has proven to be an extemely sensitive and precise 
method for measurement of a variety of common 
anions found in natural waters. Sensitivity of meas- 
urement is approximately 50 ppb for N02(-), 
N03(-), Br(-), I(-), and SCN(-), while Cl(-) has a 
detection limit in the one to ten ppm range. Chro- 
matograms require 8 to 13 minutes to complete. 
Analyses are performed on either of two stationary 
phases (Whatman SAX 10 microm or Brownlee 
anion exchange) depending on the anions of inter- 
est in the analysis and their interferences. It has 
been used extensively to measures SCN(-) as a 
tracer in waters ranging from potable water to 
chloride-saturated brines. The procedure described 
has been used very successfully, although to a 
lesser degree, to measure the remaining anions in 
natural waters. The analytical equipment has 
proved to be easily adaptable to field use when 
operated from a small portable generator. Thus the 
technique has been ideal for monitoring tracer 
experiments where real-time data is needed to de- 
termine sampling frequencies and to schedule other 
aspects of the tracing test. By simply changing 
columns and eluants, this HPLC instrumentation 
can be used for making measurements of a large 
variety of organic compounds. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00356 



COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR A TRILINEAH 
DIAGRAM PLOT AND ANALYSIS OF WATER 
MIXING SYSTEMS, 

Kent State Univ., OH. Dept. of Geology. 
M. D. Morris, J. A, Berk, J. W. Krulik, and Y. 
Eckstein. 

Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 67-78, January- 
February, 1983. 10 Fig, 4 Tab, 2 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Groundwater, 'Trilinear diagram, 
'Mixing, 'Computers, Water analysis, Path of pol- 
lutants. Iron, Aluminum, Silica. 

The Piper trilinear diagram (Piper, A. M. 1953. US 
Geological Survey, Water Res. Div. Ground 
Water Notes, Geochemistry, No. 12, 14 pp.) has 
been widely used to graphically represent the dis- 
solved constituents of natural waters and to lest for 
apparent mixtures of waters from different sources. 
Due to the time needed to plot jxiints and calculate 
the proportional values of mixing, this treatment of 
data is often quite tedious, particularly so in studies 
involving large numbers of chemical analyses. The 
PIPER program was written in BASIC to be run 
on a Hewlett-Packard desktop computer with an 
X-Y plotter. Data input is in ppm units. The pro- 
gram plots points in all three fields of the trilinear 
diagram, draws at each point within the central 
diamond field a circle with a radius corresponding 
to the concentrations expressed in meq/1, checks 
for points that fall on a straight line representing 
postulated mixtures with two end members, and/or 
within a triangle representing mixtures of three end 
members. The program does a numerical analysis 
of the mixing ratios of the constituents for postulat- 
ed mixing systems according to the methodology 
as presented by Piper. The computer program is 
based on Piper's original assumptions: all of the 
major constituents have been included in the calcu- 
lations; all ions are assumed to remain in solution; 
all the Fe, Al, and Si are present in the water in a 
colloidal state as oxides and are not in chemical 
equilibrium with the ionized constituents thus 
making it unnecessary to include these elements in 
calculations of total concentration; minor constitu- 
ents of ground water are summed with the six 
major constituents to which they are respectively 
related in chemical properties; and water consist- 
ing of substantial quantities of free acid cannot be 
fully represented on the diagram. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00360 



LABORATORY EVALUATION OF GROUND 
WATER SAMPLING MECHANISMS, 

Illinois State Water Survey Div., Champaign. 
Aquatic Chemistry Section. m 

M. J. Barcelona, J. A. Helfrich, E. E. Garske, and ■ 
J. P. Gibb. 

Ground Water Monitoring Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, 
p 32-41, Spring, 1984. 4 Fig, 10 Tab, 11 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater, 'Sampling, Reviews, 
Pumps, Monitoring, Chemical compounds. Water 
analysis, Pollutant identification. 

The task of obtaining representative samples of 
ground water in both research and compliance 
monitoring programs must be carefully ap- 
proached. Most pumping mechanisms may be ex- 
pected to perform satisfactorily for well purging 
and the measurement of solution parameters. Sam- 
pling for gas sensitive and volatile chemical con- 
stituents can be significantly b-Hsed by degassing 
and loss of volatiles during sample collection. Sig- 
nificant bias and poor precision may be expected in 
shallow ground water sampling with gas displace- 
ment, positive displacement mechanical, and suc- 
tion mechanisms, unless extraordinary care is taken 
in sample retrieval, transfer and collection. Bladder 
(no gas contact) pumps are superior for most appli- 
cations. The performance of grab samplers, par- 
ticularly bailers, is heavily dependent on both the 
expertise of sampling personnel and field condi- 
tions. The ideal controlled conditions under which 
these performance data were collected represent 
an optimum situation for the observance of mini- 
mal tampling error. Field conditions and solution 
composition are complicating factors that must be 
evaluated on a case by case basis. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00364 



40 



INDICATOR BACTERIA IN FRESHWATER 
AND MARINE MOLLUSCS, 

Mosul Univ. (Iraq). Dept. of Biology. 
M. M. Al-Jebouri, and D. R. Trollope. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. Ill, No. 2, p 93-102, Anril 
1984. 1 Fig, 7 Tab, 26 Ref. ' 

Descriptors: *Mollusks, *Indicator bacteria, Mus- 
sels, Clams, Cockles, Coliforms, Fecal bacteria, 
Water pollution effects, Marine enviroment, Bioin- 
dicators. 

The freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea and four 
marine shellfish (mussels, Mytilus edulis; cockles, 
Cerastoderma edule; clams, Mya arenaria; Scrobi- 
cularia plana) from a total of six sites were sur- 
veyed for Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfrin- 
gens, fecal streptococci, 25 and 37 C coliforms, 25 
C and 37 C total viable numbers and fluorescent 
pseudomonads. The A. cygnea from an urban lake 
contained greater numbers of the fecal indicator 
bacteria than animals from a rural lake. There were 
also differences in the other bacterial counts and 
these were discussed with respect to bacterial pa- 
rameter and animal characteristics. When freshwa- 
ter mussels were transferred from the city site to 
the rural site for 24 h the load of fecal indicator 
bactena was eliminated or significantly reduced. 
Other bacterial types took longer to become stabi- 
lized. Loss of indicator bacteria from Anodonta 
was also demonstrated using cleansing in the labo- 
ratory. Very high bacterial numbers were found in 
some marine molluscs notably Scrobicularia plana 
and most shellfish contained significant numbers of 
the three fecal indicator bacteria at every sampling 
occasion. The relationship between bacterial types 
was discussed and it was concluded that in both 
freshwater and marine animals the bacterial 
numnbers were determined more by sampling site 
than by species of shellfish. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00416 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 5 

Sources Of Pollution — Group 5B 



COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS IN LAKE 
ERIE - 1966 TO 1970, 

Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington (On- 
tario). 

S. R. Esterby, and A. H. El-Shaarawi. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. Ill, No. 2, p 133-146, April 
1984. 4 Fig, 5 Tab, 16 Ref ' f < 

Descriptors: *Lake Erie, *Coliforms, *Spatial dis- 
tribution, *Temporal distribution, Fecal coliforms. 
Water pollution, Indicator bacteria, Clustering! 
Seasonal variation. 

Total coliform concentrations obtained from cruis- 
es of Lake Erie, conducted from the Canada 
Centre for Inland Waters between 1966 and 1970, 
have been analyzed to determine the spatial and 
temporal distribution of total coliforms in the lake. 
Although year to year comparisons were made on 
a qualitative level due to the limitations in the data 
some consistent seasonal feature of the spatial dis- 
tribution are evident. The location of zones of 
higher concentration have been attributed to prox- 
imity to large urban areas and lake currents. The 
contnbution of fecal coliforms to the total coliform 
concentration has been examined with the conclu- 
sion that, at the low total coliform concentrations 
it °^ C' 30 per 100 ml) observed in much of the 
lake, there is not relationship between the two 
concentrations but, over a broader range, fecal 
coliforms increase with total coliform concentra- 
tions and, at very high total coliform concentra- 
tions (> or = 1000 per 100 ml), fecal coliforms are 
ilways present. The analysis demonstrates 1) the 
lvalue of examining observed and fitted distribu- 
.lons to compare subsets of a large collection of 
lata and 2) a clustering procedure which is gener- 
illy applicable to data consisting of counts (Au- 
hor's abstract) 
1V85-00419 



>B. Sources Of Pollution 



LINCOLNSHIRE LIMESTONE - HYDROGEO- 
:HEMICAL EVOLUTION OVER A TEN-YEAR 
'ERIOD, 

nstitute of Hydrology, Wallingford (England) 
-or pnmary bibliographic entry see Field 2F. 
V85-00017 



NITROGEN-ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF 

GROUNDWATER NITRATE IN CARBONATE 
AQUIFERS: NATURAL SOURCES VERSUS 
HUMAN POLLUTION, 

Texas Univ. at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geol- 
ogy- 

C. W. Kreitler, and L. A. Browning. 
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 61, No. 1-3, p 285-301 
February, 1983. 7 Fig, 3 Tab, 25 Ref. NSF grant 
DES 74-13560. ^ 

Descriptors: *Edwards aquifer, *Texas, *Ironshore 
Formation, 'Grand Cayman Island, 'Groundwater 
pollution, 'Nitrates, 'Nitrogen isotopes, 'Water 
pollution sources. Isotope studies, Septic tanks. 
Cesspools, Carbonate aquifers. Aquifers, Animal 
wastes. Groundwater recharge, Wastewater. 

The natural variation of the nitroger isotopes, N- 
14 and N-15, of groundwater nitrate 'n two car- 
bonate aquifers in different climatic regimes was 
used as an indicator of groundwater contamination 
from septic tanks; nitrates derived from different 
sources are isotopically distinguishable. Results of 
nitrogen-isotope analyses of nitrate in the waters of 
the Cretaceous Edwards aquifer in Texas, the sole 
water supply for the city of San Antonio, indicate 
that the source of the nitrate is naturally-occurring 
nitrogen compounds in the recharge streams. In 
contrast, nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the fresh 
waters of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation on 
Grand Cayman Island, West Indies, indicate that 
human wastes are the source of the nitrate. Re- 
charge is primarily by streams crossing the fault 
zone. The delta N-15 of 73 samples of nitrate from 
Edwards waters ranged from -f 1.9 to -hlO 0/00 
with an average of -f-6.2 0/00. This delta N-15 
range is within the range of nitrate in surface water 
in the recharge streams (delta N-15 range = -f- 1 to 
-1-8.3 0/00) and within the range of nitrate in 
surface water from the Colorado River, Texas 
(delta N-15 range = -|-1 to -|-11 0/00). No sample 
was found to be enriched in N-15, which would 
suggest the presence of nitrate from animal waste 
(delta N-15 range = -f 10 to -f22 0/00). The 
Edward's thick unsaturated section and the rapid 
dilution in the very porous aquifer may be prevent- 
ing any increased concentration of pollutants. The 
Ironshore Formation contains a small freshwater 
lens that is recharged entirely by percolation 
through the soil. The delta N-15 of four nitrate 
samples from water samples of the Ironshore For- 
mation ranged from -t-18 to -f-23.9 0/00, which 
indicates a cesspool/septic-tank source of the ni- 
trate. Limestone aquifers in humid environments 
that are recharged by percolation through the soil 
appear to be more susceptible to contamination by 
septic tanks than are aquifers in subhumid environ- 
ments that feature thick unsaturated sections and 
are recharged by streams. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00023 



ESTIMATION OF NONPOINT SOURCE 
LOADINGS OF PHOSPHORUS FOR LAKES 
IN THE PUGET SOUND REGION, WASHING- 
TON, 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 
R. J. Gilliom. 

For Sale by Distr. Br., USGS, 604 S. Pickett St 
Alex., Va. 22304. USGS Water Supply Paper 2240 
1983.24p, 3Fig, 7Tab,28Ref. 

Descriptors: Lakes, 'Eutrophication, Phosphorus 
modeling. Phosphorus loading, 'Mass-balance 
model 'Nutrients, Lake-water quality. Land-use/ 
water-quality relationships, Nonpoint phosphorus 
loading, 'Washington, Puget Sound region. Pacific 
Northwest. 

Control of eutrophication of lakes in watersheds 
undergoing development is facilitated by estimates 
of the amounts of phosphorus (P) that reach the 
lakes from areas under various types of land use. 
Using a mass-balance model, P-loadings were cal- 
culated from present-day P concentrations meas- 
ured in lake water and from other easily measured 
physical characteristics in a total of 28 lakes in 
drainage basins that contain only forest and resi- 
dential land. The P-loadings from background 
sources to each of the lakes were estimated by 
methods developed in a previous study. Differ- 



ences between estimated present day P-loadings 
and loadings from background sources were attrib- 
uted to changes in land use. The mean increase in 
annual P yield resulting from conversion of forest 
to residential land use was 7 kilograms per square 
kilometer, not including septic-tank system contri- 
butions. Calculated P-loadings from septic systems 
varied, and were found to correlate best with the 
number of lakeshore dwellings around each lake in 
1940. The regression equation expressing this rela- 
tionship explained 36 percent of the sample vari- 
ance. For lakes in basins that contain agricultural 
land, the P-loading attributable to agriculture can 
be calculated as the difference between the estimat- 
ed total loading and the sum of estimated loadings 
from all other (nonagricultural) sources. A com- 
prehensive system for evaluating errors in all load- 
ing estimates is presented. The empirical relation- 
ships developed allow preliminary approximations 
of the cumulative impact that development has had 
on P-loading and the amounts of P-loading from 
generalized land-use categories for Puget Sound 
lowland lakes. All the estimates are most suitable 
for use in developing water-quality goals, setting 
pnonties for lake studies, and designing studies of 
individual lakes. (USGS) 
W85-00038 



GROUNDWATER: AN INVENTORY OF 
WELLS AND CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL 
WITHIN THE SILURIAN AQUIFER OF CALU- 
MET COUNTY, 

Fox Valley Water Quality Planning Agency, Men- 

asha, WI. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5G 

W85-00055 



LONG ISLAND SEGMENT OF THE NATION- 
WIDE URBAN RUNOFF PROGRAM, 

Long Island Regional Planning Board, Hauppauge, 

L. E. Koppelman. 

December 1982. 134 p, 32 Fig, 75 Tab, 49 Ref 8 

Append. 

Descriptors: 'Urban runoff, 'Recharge basins, 
'Sediment, 'Storm water, 'Runoff cycles, 'Pollu- 
tion load. Runoff, Natural recharge. Replenish- 
ment, Nonpoint pollution sources, Storm runoff. 
Urban watersheds. Vegetation effects, 'New York, 
Long Island. 

The question of whether the continued use of the 
Long Island recharge basin, a device for the dis- 
posal of runoff and its recharge to groundwater, 
poses a threat to the quality of the bi-county water 
supply has caused increasing concern. There was 
some evidence that the basins were also devices for 
the concentration of pollutants in runoff and their 
swift transmission to Long Island's only source of 
water supply. The results of an investigation into 
these questions have proved to be largely positive. 
Coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria were 
found in runoff but not in the groundwater beneath 
the recharge basins. The concentrations of other 
pollutants, which were generally relatively low in 
runoff, were even lower in the groundwater be- 
neath the basins. It appears that infiltration through 
the soil IS an effective mechanism for the attenu- 
ation of some of the heavy metals and organic 
compounds. These findings were as true for the 
unlined basins as for the recharge basin at Center- 
each, which was built with a plastic lining. It also 
appears that, contrary to the widely held view, the 
removal of vegetation from the basin floor is not 
necessary, and that the vegetation may actually 
facilitate the infiltration of storm waters. The find- 
ings indicate that some control measures are com- 
plex, costly and of questionable effectiveness, and 
that preventative action precluding degradation is 
preferable. (Garrison-Omniplan) 
W8 5-0005 8 



OCCURRENCE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 
IN WATER AND STREAM SEDIMENTS DUE 
TO THE MT. ST. HELENS ERUPTIONS, 

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Dept. of Civil 
and Environmental Engineering. 
E. Hindin. 



41 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5B — Sources Of Pollution 

Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PBS 190446, 
Price codes; A06 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
Washington Water Research Center Report 52, 
October 1983. 91 p, 9 Fig, 42 Tab, 16 Ref, 3 
Append. OWRT Project No. C-10108-V (1458)(1), 
Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-1458(1). 

Descriptors: 'Organic compounds, Mudflows, Or- 
ganic carbon. Water quality. Phenols, Volcanic 
effects. Sediments, *Mount St. Helens, Water pol- 
lution sources. Path of pollutants. Pollutant identi- 
fication. Gas chromatography, 'Washington, 
*Cowlitz River basin. 

Surface and groundwater obtained from the Mount 
St. Helens area fifteen months after the May 18, 
1980, eruption were analyzed by gas chromatogra- 
phy for phenol chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic 
hydrocarbons, terpenes, and the haloform poten- 
tial. Groundwaters outside of the mudflow plain of 
the North and South Forks and main stem of the 
Toutle River and of the lower Cowlitz River, 
showed no measureable quantities (less than one 
nanogram per liter) of the specific compounds 
under study. However, wells located on the mud- 
flow plain were found to contain measurable con- 
centrations of phenols, chlorophenols, and total 
dissolved organic carbon. Surface waters con- 
tained a multitude of dissolved organics. The 
nature and magnitude of these organics depended 
on the location within the affected area. Mudflow 
deposits were found to contain traces of phenols, 
while the aged ash did not have detectable 
amounts of organic material. Continuous leaching 
column studies of the mudflow deposits revealed a 
rapid elution of dissolved organic compounds fol- 
lowed by the tailing of the dissolved organic 
carbon compounds. 
W85-00061 



DISSOLVED SOLIDS HAZARDS IN THE 
SOUTH PLATTE BASIN, VOL. II: SALT BAL- 
ANCE ANALYSIS, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

C. D. Turner, and D. W. Hendricks. 

Available from the National Technical Information 

Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190099, 

Price codes: A07 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 

Colorado Water Resources Research Institute 

Completion Report No. 129, December 1983. 151 

p, 14 Fig, 14 Tab, 8 Ref, 3 Append. OWRT 

Project No. A-051-COLO (3), Contract/Grant No. 

14-34-0001-1 106 and 2106. 

Descriptors: *Salt balance, 'Salinity, Dissolved 
solids, South Platte, River basin, 'Colorado, Salt 
flows, Salt transport. 

The first year of this project assessed the salt flows 
at five stations of the South Platte River between 
Henderson and Julesburg, and of the three main 
tributary streams, the St. Vrain, the Big Thomp- 
son, and the Cache la Poudre. The analysis of 15 
years of data from 1965-1979 showed that salt is 
lost from the river between Kersey and Julesburg. 
The objective of the second year of the project 
was to explain the negative salt balance in the 
Kersey-Balzac reach and to understand better the 
mass flows of salt within the system. Another 
objective was to develop basic data in preparation 
for development of a salt balance model involving 
the major components of the lower South Platte 
system, the long-range objective. Study of the 
canal diversions in the Kersey-Balzac reach indi- 
cated that the reason for the salt imbalance is due 
to two major canal diversions. These canals trans- 
port salt from the Kersey-Balzac reach to agricul- 
tural lands adjacent to the Balzac-Julesburg reach 
which, as shown in this analysis, are accumulating 
salts. This is indicated also by the USBR Narrows 
study which determined that a water deficit exists 
for these lands. This would corroborate that these 
lands may be accumulating salts. Given that these 
lands have potential for good drainage, which is 
the general a.ssessment of the USBR, the problem 
should be alleviated by application of sufficient 
irrigation water, an objective of the Narrows 
Project. 
W85-00063 



MEASUREMENTS TO QUANTIFY 

WASTEWATER FIELDS PRODUCED BY OUT- 
FALL DIFFUSERS, 

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

R. B. Wallace, and B. B. Sheff 

Available from the National Technical Information 

Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190156, 

Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 

Institute of Water Research Completion Report, 

August, 1984. 28 p, 12 Fig, 1 Tab, 13 Ref, 1 

Append. OWRT Project No. A-123-MICH (1), 

Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2124. 

Descriptors: 'Diffusion, Coefficient, Outfall 
sewers, 'Plumes, Wastewater disposal. Stratifica- 
tion, 'Stratified flow, Dispersion, Effluents, Path 
of pollutants. 

The behavior of two-dimensional plumes rising 
through an ambient fluid with a density discontinu- 
ity was studied. This system is characteristic of the 
situation where the ambient stratification has a 
strong thermocline. Dimensional analysis was used 
to obtain asymptotic equations which describe 
plume behavior. A dimension-less parameter relat- 
ing the location and strength of the density discon- 
tinuity and the initial buoyancy flux was found to 
measure the ability of the density discontinuity to 
stop plumes rise. Experimental measurements 
showed the range of values of this parameter 
where density discontinuity is strong or weak and 
provided unknown constants for the asymptotic 
equations so that spreading layer thickness, loca- 
tion, and effluent concentration can be predicted. 
The experimental measurements are compared to 
estimates made using integral equations and the 
entrainment concept. 
W85-00067 



NONPOINT SOURCE LOADING OF TOXIC 
SUBSTANCES FROM DECOMPOSING CROP 
RESIDUE, 

Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Agrono- 
my. 

S. Glenn. 

Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161, as PB84 190198, 
Price codes: A02 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
Maryland Water Resources Research Center Pub- 
lication No. 76, August, 1983. 14 p, 5 Tab, 14 Ref 
OWRT Project No. A-057-MD (1), Contract/ 
Grant No. 14-34-0001-2122. 

Descriptors: 'Agricultural runoff. Runoff rates, 
Runoff volume, Cultivation, 'Phytotoxicity, Phen- 
ols, 'Decomposing organic matter. Decomposi- 
tion, Agricultural watersheds, Maryland, 'Path of 
pollutants. Water pollution sources. 

Two adjacent, but separate watersheds were 
equipped to estimate total volume of runoff water 
and to collect an integrated water samples. One 
watershed was planted with corn (Zea mays L.) 
using no-tillage (NT) management and barley 
(Hordum vulgare L.) as a cover crop. The other 
watershed was planted with corn using conven- 
tional tillage (CT) management. Runoff water sam- 
pled between 1979 and 1983 were analyzed for 
phenolic acids and phytotoxicity to turnip (Brassi- 
ca rapa L.). The volume of runoff water was 
reduced with NT management, but the concentra- 
tion and total loading to phenolic acids were great- 
er in runoff water from the NT watershed com- 
pared to that found in runoff water from the CT 
watershed. The greatest concentration of phenolic 
acids were found in runoff water from the NT 
watershed sampled on 6/18/79 (65.4 ppm, w/v). 
This sample inhibited radicle growth of turnip 
32%. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic 
acid, o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and mandellic 
acid were isolated and identified from runoff sam- 
ples. 
W85-00075 



MERCURY IN SWEDISH LAKES - ITS RE- 
GIONAL DISTRIBUTION AND CAUSES, 

National Swedish Environment Protection Board, 

Solna. Water Pollution Research Lab. 

I. Bjorklund, H. Borg, and K. Johansson. 

Ambio, Vol. 13, No, 2, p 118-121, 1984. 6 Fig, 38 

Ref 



Descriptors: 'Mercury, 'Lakes, 'Sweden, 'Wattr 
pollution source*. Heavy metals, Sediment con- 
tamination. Fate of pollutants. Public health, 
Forest lakes, Air pollution. Pike, Lake acidifica- 
tion. 

The general mercury situation in 220 Swedish 
Lakes is discussed. None of the lakes receives 
direct discharges of industrial or municipal sewage 
effluents. Tlie mercury content of pike, Esox lucius 
L. was markedly elevated in lakes situated in forest 
areas in southern and central Sweden. TTie mean 
values varied between 0.68 and 0.86 mg Hg/kg for 
these regions. TTie highest mean values were found 
in two areas with major mercury emissions to the 
air. The natural background level of mercury in 
fish had been estimated to be 0.05-0.2 mg/kg, but 
values close to this level were found only in the 
northern part of Sweden. TTie generally high mer- 
cury content of fish in southern and central 
Sweden may be caused by an elevated load on the 
lakes from increased airborne deposition. Analyses 
of lake sediments indicated mercury concentrations 
five times higher than the natural load expected in 
non-polluted areas. This increase seems to have 
started during the 19th century, though the highest 
increase has taken place in the 20th century. Tlie 
advancing acidification of the waters causes an 
additional increase of the mercury content of fish. 
It is estimated that the total number of Swedish 
lakes in which the mercury content in fish exceeds 
1 mg/kg is very large, in all probability several 
thousand. Restrictions on emissions of both mercu- 
ry and acidifying substances may be effective in 
reducing the mercury content of fish in the lakes. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00087 



INFLUENCE OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL 
VARIATIONS ON ORGANIC POLLUTANT 
BIODEGRADATION RATES IN AN ESTUA- 
RINE ENVIRONMENT, 

North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill. Dept. of 
Environmental Sciences and Engineering. 
G. W. Bartholomew, and F. K. Pfaender. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 
45, No. 1, p 103-109, January, 1983. 3 Fig, 3 Tab, 
16 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Estuarine environment, 'Biodegra- 
dation, 'Water pollution effects, 'Temporal distri- 
bution, 'Spatial distribution, Newport River Estu- 
ary, Microorganisms, Cresol, Trichlorobenzene, 
Chlorobenzene, Nitrilotriacetic acid. 

The heterotrophic uptake method of biodegrada- 
tion assessment was used to evaluate the influence 
of spatial and temporal variations on pollutant me- 
tabolism by natural microbial communities in the 
Newport River Estuary, located near Morehead 
City, North Carolina. Three sites were used for the 
study, representing the gradient from freshwater to 
estuarine to marine systems. Radiolabeled com- 
pounds used as substrates for biodegradation as- 
sessments included cresol, chlorobenzene, nitrilo- 
triacetic acid, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. In gener- 
al the freshwater site demonstrated the highest 
uptake rates, with somewhat lower rates at 'he 
estuarine site. Rates at the marine site were much 
lower than at the other sites, except during the 
winter. Metabolic rates at both the freshwater and 
estuarine areas were significantly decreased during 
periods of low water temperature. Rates at the 
marine sites were relatively uniform throughout 
the year. Linear regression analysis was used to 
compare m-cresol biodegradation rates to charac- 
teristics of the microbial community, which includ- 
ed direct microscopic counts, CFU counts, and 
cellular incorporation of amino acids. The ob- 
served rates did not consistently correlate well 
with any of the measured characteristics of the 
microbial community. Findings indicate that for 
the compounds used, direct measurements of bio- 
degradation rates are needed if the inherent varia- 
bility of the environment is to be reflected in 
assessments of pollutant breakdown. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00097 



ACCUMULATION OF SEDIMENT-ASSOCIAT- 
ED VIRUSES IN SHELLFISH, 



42 



Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY. Dept of 

Energy and Environment. 

E. F, Landry, J. M. Vaughn, T. J. Vicale, and R 

Mann. 

Applied and Environmental Microbiology Vol 

45, No. 1, p 238-247, January, 1983. 1 Fie", 5 Tab' 

20 Ref. * 

Descriptors; *Viruses, *Sediments, *Shellfish 
Clams, Oysters, Poliovirus, Bioaccumulation, Bio- 
logical magnification, Human diseases. Public 
health. 

Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infaunal 
(Mercenana mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in 
cores, were exposed to either resuspended or un- 
disturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus 
type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by 
oysters was noted only when sediment bound vi- 
ruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumu- 
lation was noted in only one instance where sedi- 
ments remained in an undisturbed state. While the 
mcidence of bioaccumulation was therefore higher 
with resuspended rather than undisturbed contami- 
nated sediment, the actual concentration of accu- 
mulated viruses was not significantly different In 
the first study with clams, they were placed on 
inoculated cores containing a total of 5980 PFU 
where they failed to completely burrow into the 
sediments, leaving their siphons with little proximi- 
ty to the sediments, being some 6 to 8 cm above 
the sediment surface. Even so, when pools of four 
clams were analyzed they contained viruses in 
average concentrations of 1.60 PFU/50 g. Clams 
residing in two other inoculated cores failed to 
accumulate any viruses. In a second trial the clams 
were pushed to the desired depth before virus 
seeding. After an equilibration period, during 
which they resumed their normal pumping activi- 
ties, cores were agitated causing the clams to re- 
tract their siphons, and then challenged with virus- 
seeded sediments. Assay of pooled homogenates 
again indicated the presence of poliovirus in the 
clams, suggesting that some potential existed for 
sediment mediated virus uptake. A 10-fold increase 
m virus uptake was noted over the first trial, and 
relegated to the availability of higher concentra- 
tions of sediment-bound viruses. In a final trial 
D^fr^/.'i^''^ exposed to sediments containing 1,860 
FhU/lOO g and no viruses were found in any clam 
extracts, indicating that proximity to virus infected 
sediments does not guarantee bioaccumulation. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00099 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 5 

Sources Of Pollution— Group 5B 



rJS^\°i2^Po. °^ PSEUDOMONAS AERU- 
GINOSA IN A RIVERINE ECOSYSTEM 

Wisconsm Univ.-La Crosse. River Studies' Center. 
S. Pellett, D. V. Bigley, and D. J. Grimes. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiologv Vol 
45, No. 1, p 328-332, January, 1983. 3 Tab 34 Ref 

Descriptors: *Pseudomonas, •Public health •Mis- 
sissippi River, Ecosystems, Epibacteria, Human 
diseases. Sediments, Sediment-water interfaces 
Antibiotic sensitivity. 

The distribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 
navigation pool 8 of the upper Mississippi River 
was studied by acetamide broth enrichment of 
water, sediment, and swab (solid-water interface) 
TSf,A*°*^' °^ '" °^^^^ 316 samples collect- 
ed (48.1%) contained P. aeruginosa. Serological 
type 1 was predominant (34/2%), followed in 
order by types 4, 2, 7, 3, 5, and 6. An analysis of 
pyocin typing data was equivocal. It showed that 
isolates with similar susceptible indicator strains 
were clustered m certain serological types and that 
f. aeruginosa strains in pool 8 were not homogene- 
ous. Antibiotic sensitivity testing revealed that 
only 20 isolates (13.2%) were resistant to carbeni- 
cillin and that 1 (0.6%) was resistant to polymyxin 
a. None was resistant to gentamicin or to bramy- 
cm, and none was multiply resistant. Visible pie- 
mentation on Mueller-Hinton agar was hmited to 
91 of the 152 isolates. Of these, 68 (44.7%) elabo- 
rated typical blue-green pigmentation, 14 (9.2%) 
produced red pigment, and 9 (5/9%) produced a 
yellow-green pigment. None of the isolates pro- 
duced pyomelanin, and 61 (40.1%) were nonpig- 
rnented. P. aeruginosa was most commonly isolat- 
id from sediment, with solid-water interfaces (auf- 



wuchs samples) also exhibiting high frequencies of 
isolation. Current velocity, oxygen and nutrient 
availability, surface tension, dessication, and nega- 
tive phototropism were important factors in the 
rivenne distribution of this epibacterium. (Baker- 

W85-00100 



LEGIONELLA INCIDENCE AND DENSITY IN 
POTABLE DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Microbi- 
ology. 

D. L. Tison, and R. J. Seidler. 
Applied and Environmental Microbioloev Vol 
45. No. 1, p 337-339, January, 1983. 1 Tab? 22 Ref 

Descriptors: •Legionella, *Drinking water, *Water 
quality. Public health. Human diseases. Water 
treatment, Chlorination, Filtration, Legionnaires 
disease, Pontiac fever, Flocculation, Potable water 
Raw water. Water temperature. 

The incidence and density of Legionella spp in 
raw water, water at various stages of treatment 
and in potable distribution water were determined 
by direct immunofiuorescence. The four basic 
states of treatment included water receiving only 
chlonnation and stored in closed reservoirs, water 
receiving chlonnation and stored in open reser- 
voirs, slow sand filtration with chlorination, and 
water receiving flocculation, mixed media filtra- 
tion and chlonnation. The number of cells reacting 
with Legionella-specific fluorescent antibody con- 
■1';'^^^'" "".aw waters ranged from about 10,000 to 
100,000 cells/liter, whereas the concentration of 
fluorescent antibody-positive cells in the distribu- 
tion waters were generally 10- to 100-fold lower 
than in the raw source waters. No viable or viru- 
lent Legionella strains were isolated from either 
the source or distribution waters. However, Le- 
gionella spp. are infrequently isolated from water 
at temperatures below 15 degrees C as was the 
case in the systems surveyed in this study. The lack 
of Legionella isolation from the cool water speci- 
mens collected during this survey does not pre- 
clude occurrences of viable virulent cells in drink- 
mg water of higher temperatures. (Baker-IVI) 

"" oD-UUlUl 



nc acid was similar to adaptation to nitrophenol p- 
Cresol was mineralized rapidly in both preexposed 
and unexposed communities. These results would 
be useful m predicting the fate of the four test 
compounds if the compounds were released in the 
river. Tnfluralin would biodegrade slowly and at a 
relatively constant rate, depending on the concen- 
tration. p-Cresol would degrade rapidly and imme- 
diately, whereas PNP and 2,4-D would persist 
during adaptation of the microorganisms and then 
biodegrade rapidly. For PNP and p-cresol the 
mineralization rates closely parallel rates of parent 
compound disappearance. This is probably true in 
most cases where the initial step is rate limiting in a 
bioegradation sequence that involves complete 
mineralization. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00102 



ADAPTATION OF NATURAL MICROBIAL 
COMMUNITIES TO DEGRADATION OF XEN- 
OBIOTIC COMPOUNDS: EFFECTS OF CON- 
CENTRATION, EXPOSURE TIME, INOCU- 
LUM, AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL 
J. C. Spam, and P.A. Van Veld. 
Applied and Environmental Microbioloev Vol 
o^i^°r.?i P 428-435, February, 1983. 7 Fii, 1 Tab,' 
9 Ref. EPA contract 68-D 1-5043. 



Sd^^SI'^^ ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH 
THE DECOMPOSITION OF WOODY SUB^ 

stratesinastreamsedimenK 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Microbi- 
ology. 

J. H. Baker, R. Y. Morita, and N. H. Anderson. 
Applied and Environmental Microbioloev, Vol 
45.jNo. 2, p 516-521, February, 1983. 1 Fii, 3 Tab,' 

Descriptors: •Decomposing organic matter. 
Stream sediments, •Wood, •Bacteria, Bark, Nitro- 
gen fixation. Microflora, Tannins. 

Ground bark and heartwood from Alnus rubra and 
Pseudotsuga menziesii were added to a muddy 
sediment from a small Oregon stream and incubat- 
ed in situ. Carbon dioxide and methane production 
rates were increased by all amendments, the largest 
increase bemg shown with A. rubra wood. Except 
tor sediment amended with A. rubra wood, nitro- 
gen fixation rates from all treatments were approxi- 
mately 0.1 nmol/g per h throughout the 6 month 
study. Contrary to expectations, neither bark had a 
noticeable adverse effect on microbial activity but 
the A. rubra wood promoted nitrogen fixation. 
From the combined carbon dioxide and methane 
evolution rates, A. rubra wood appeared to decay 
at four times the rate of A. rubra bark, P. menziesii 
wood, and P. menziesii bark. The hypothesis that 
the slower decomposition of cetain woods is due to 
the presence of inhibitory substances is not support 
by these findings. Faster decomposition of A 
rubra wood may be related to enhanced N fixation 
and tannins in P. menziesii bark were ineffectual.' 
(Baker-IVI) 
W8 5-00 105 



Descnptors: •Fate of pollutants, *Degradation, 
•Microbiological studies, •Xenobiotics, Trifluralin 
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, p-Cresol, Miner- 
alization, Estuarine environment, Marine environ- 
ment, Biodegradation. 

Adaptation of microbial communities to faster deg- 
radation of xenobiotic compounds after exposure 
to the compound was studied in ecocores. Radiola- 
beled test compounds were added to cores that 
contained natural water and sediment. Adaptation 
was detected by comparing mineralization rates or 
disappearance of a parent compound in preexposed 
and unexposed cores. Microbial communities in 
preexposed cores from a number of freshwater 
sampling sites adapted to degrade p-nitrophenol 
taster; communities from estuarine or marine sites 
did not show any increase in rates of degradation 
as a result of preexposure. Adaptation was maximal 
alter 2 weeks and was not detectable after 6 weeks 
A threshold concentration of 10 ppb was observed 
J ,Tr*u'^ concentration no adaptation was detect- 
ed. With concentrations of 20 to 100 ppb the 
biodegradation rates in preexposed cores were 
much higher than the rates in control cores and 
were proportional to the concentration of the test 
compound. Trifluralin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic 
acid, and para-cresol were tested to determine 
whether preexposure affected subsequent biode- 
gradation. Microbial communities did not adapt to 
tnfluralin. Adaptation to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyace- 



ESTIMATED POLLUTION LOADINGS FROM 

TiS m8^^?'" ^^^'- '■ I'^vEs^?^ 

Direktoratet for j'akt, Viltstell og Ferskvannsfiske, 

Aas (Norway). 

A. Bergheim, A. Sivertsen, and A. R. Selmer- 

Olsen. 

^o'J'i*^"]!"''^' ^°^- 28. No. 3/4, p 347-361, July, 
1982. 2 Fig, 8 Tab, 15 Ref ^ 

Descriptors: •Fish farming, *Water pollution 
sources, •Norway, Nutrients, Organic matter, Sus- 
pended sohds. Decomposition, Carbon dioxide, 
Respiration, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, 
bodium. Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium. 

Water pollution was studied at four inland fish 
farms in the southeastern part of Norway which 
produced fingerlings of brown trout and rainbow 
trout. Concentrations of organic matter, suspended 
solids and nutnents increased when water passed 
through the fish tanks and ponds. The loadings per 
unit fish biomass varied considerably, mainly as a 
result of different operational conditions with 
regard to fish size, feeding routine, water flow and 
cleaning procedure. The single farm represented a 
loading corresponding to 30-1260 population 
eqmvalents. Production of carbon dioxide due to 
respiration and decomposing processes may cause 
decreased pH in fish ponds and tanks. Reductions 
ot 0. 1 to 4 pH units were registered. Conductivi- 
ty was little affected under routine conditions The 
lowered concentration of dissolved oxygen at one 
farm was probably a result of respiration of fish 



P:M 



is 



43 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5B — Sources Of Pollution 

and increasing water temperature. The biochemi- 
cal oxidation course of effluent from fish farms 
using dry feed is not unlike that of sewage. Con- 
centrations of organic components in the effluent 
are closely associated with feeding and cleaning 
operations. Suspended solids, total N, total P and 
phosphate-P were also markedly influenced at the 
farms investigated and the concentrations altered 
with organic matter. Increased concentrations of 
total N were noted when water passed through 
fish farms and was caused by contributions of 
organic N and ammonia. Concentrations of major 
cations Na, K, Mg, and Ca were realistic in com- 
parison with the feed supply. Calculations of daily 
loading indicated considerable pollution potentials 
due to farming activities. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00114 



DISSOLVED SOLIDS HAZARDS IN THE 
SOUTH PLATTE BASIN, VOL. I: SALT TRANS- 
PORT IN THE RIVER, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of Civil 
Engineering. 

R. V. Gomez-Ferrer, and D. W. Hendricks. 
Colorado Water Resources Research Institute 
Completion Report No. 128, December 1983. 186 
p, 59 Fig, 25 Tab, 41 Ref, 7 Append. OWRT 
Project No. A-051-COLO (2), Contract/Grant No. 
14-34-0001-1 106 and 2106. 

Descriptors: *Salt balance, •Salinity, 'Salt trans- 
port. South Platte, River basin, 'Colorado, Dis- 
solved solids, Salt flow, Return flows. 

This work demonstrates how river salinity may be 
characterized, in terms of both time and space 
variations. Fifteen years of daily and monthly sa- 
linity and flow data have been reduced to monthly, 
seasonal, and annual statistical characterizations for 
five river stations and three tributary stations for 
the lower South Platte River. From these charac- 
terizations distance profiles were plotted for flow, 
TDS, and salt mass flows. The distance profiles 
and measurements of diversion flows, tributary 
flows, and point source discharges were the basis 
for a reach-by-reach materials-balance analysis for 
four reaches of the South Platte River between 
Henderson and Julesburg. Return flows and return 
salt mass flows were computed as residuals. The 
analysis showed that there is not a salt balance in 
the lower South Platter River. A net salt loss to 
the land of 380 tons per day occurs by irrigation. 
The analysis provided can be the basis for a more 
comprehensive materials balance model. But the 
results can be used to estimate the impact of new 
water resources developments upon the salinity 
regime of the lower South Platte River. 
W85-00115 



INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT TYPES ON THE 
SORPTION OF ENDOTHALL, 

North Texas State Univ., Denton. Inst, of Applied 

Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 

W85-00133 



DEPOSITION OF FINE AND COARSE SAND 
IN AN OPEN-WORK GRAVEL BED, 

Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside 

(England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2J. 

W85-00148 



GEOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS AND BIOLOGI- 
CAL UPTAKE OF RADIUM IN SMALL CANA- 
DIAN SHIELD LAKES, 

Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg 
(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 
R. H. Hesslein, and E. Slavicek. 
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc- 
es, Vol. 41, No. 3, p 459-468, March, 1984. 4 Fig, 8 
Tab, 32 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Experimental Lakes Area, •Ontario, 
•Radium, •Geochemistry, •Bioaccumulation, Cal- 
cium, Discrimination factors, Macrophytes, Cray- 
fish, Fish, Sediment contamination. Trout, Sucker, 
Whitefish, Minnows, Dace, Shield lakes. 



Ra-236 occurs naturally in aquatic systems at low 
concentrations. Its behavior is of concern because 
of its high radiotoxicity, 1600 yr half-life, and its 
potential release from uranium mining and nuclear 
waste materials. The sediment-water interactions 
and biological uptake of Ra-226 in four small Cana- 
dian Shield lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, 
Kenora, Ontario were studied. A single addition of 
Ra-226 was made to each lake between 1970 and 
1976. Approximately 90% of the added Ra-226 
initially sorbed to the sediments. Outflow from the 
lakes showed losses of only 5-11% Ra-226 per 
year. Long-term loss of Ra-226 can be expected to 
be on the order of 0.5-2% per year as predicted by 
a water renewal model. Biological uptake and 
long-term Ra-226 concentrations were measured in 
three species of macrophytes, crayfish, and five 
species of fish. Bioaccumulation ranged from 1 100 
to 5000 in macrophytes, 750 in crayfish, from 30 to 
80 in large adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), 
white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and lake 
whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and from 230 
to 1200 in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 
pearl dace (Semotilus margarita), and northern 
redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos). Observed Ratio 
(OR) discrimination factors, (Ra/Ca-sample)/(Ra/ 
Ca-water), in fish fell between 0.011 and 0.032, 
with the exception of higher values for two dace 
species and fathead minnows which have higher 
dietary Ra intake. Ra-236 is favored versus calcium 
by macrophytes and crayfish. Due to the low Ca 
concentration in Canadian Shield lakes, and rela- 
tively long water residence times, biota have a 
high potential for radium uptake from mining of 
uranium deposits that are common in the forma- 
tion. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00153 



FATE OF KEPONE AND MIREX IN THE 
AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT, 

Columbia National Fisheries Research Lab., MO. 
J. N. Huckins, D. L. Stalling, J. D. Petty, D. R. 
Buckler, and B. T. Johnson. 

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 
30, No. 6, p 1020-1027, November-December, 
1982. 8Fig, 2Tab, 21 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Kepone, *Mirex, •Sediment con- 
tamination, *Bioaccumulation, Tissue analysis. Soil 
bacteria. Minnows, Degradation products, Biode- 
gradation. Pesticide residues. Flame retardants, 
Little Dixie Reservoir, James River, Missouri, Vir- 
ginia. 

The discovery of Kepone as a degradation product 
of mirex in the environment has prompted concern 
about the widespread use of mirex as a flame 
retardant and pesticide. Fathead minnows were 
continuously exposed to three concentrations of C- 
14 Kepone (4, 41, and 380 ng/L) and C-14 mirex 
(0.04, 3.8, and 33 micro g/L) in flow-through 
dilutor systems and then placed in fresh water for 
elimination phases. After 56 days C-14 Kepone 
residues were concentrated 16,600 times by fathead 
minnows. However, only 1-5% or 0.1-0.23 micro 
g/g of these residues was C-14 Kepone. Several 
observations suggested that some C-14 Kepone 
residues present in fathead minnows were chemi- 
cally bound to biogenic compounds. Similar expo- 
sures of fathead minnows to C-14 mirex resulted in 
bioconcentration factors as high as 51,400 times. 
The half-life of C-14 mirex was greater than 28 
days in fathead minnows, and no degradation prod- 
ucts were detected in whole body samples; concen- 
tration factors of C-14 mirex from water varied 
inversely with mirex water concentration. Hydro- 
soil samples were obtained from two Kepone con- 
taminated sources: the Little Dixie Reservoir, Co- 
lumbia, MO, and a tributary of the James River in 
VA (Bailey Creek). Environmental Kepone resi- 
dues determined by electron capture gas chroma- 
tography averaged 0.38 and 0.54 micro g/g (dry 
weight) respectively. No evidence of C-14 Kepone 
or C-14 mirex degradation by hydrosoil microor- 
ganisms was observed in anaerobic and aerobic 
hydrosoil exposures. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00160 



DEGRADATION OF NICLOSAMIDE (2',5- 
DICHLORO-4'-NITROSALICYLANILIDE) IN 
SEDIMENT AND WATER SYSTEMS, 



Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg 

(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 

D. C. G. Muir, and A. L. Yarechewski. 

Journal of Agricultural and Fo<xl Chemistry, Vol. 

30, No. 6, p 1028-1032, November-December, 

1982. 2 Fig, 5 Tab, 11 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Niclosamide, •Bayluscide, •Sorp- 
tion, •Degradation, •Fate of pollutants, Adsorp- 
tion, Sediment-water systems, Molluscicides, Pisci- 
cides, Pesticides, Persistence. 

Niclosamide (2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide) 
formulated as its ethanolamine salt CBayluscide) 
has been used in the Great Lakes for the control of 
the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and in 
tropical regions for control of freshwater snails. C- 
14 niclosamide degraded rapidly in river and pond 
sediments (water to sediment ratio 10-20:1) incu- 
bated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions over 
a 128-day period (25 degrees C); half-lives ranged 
from 1.1 to 3.9 days. Degradation in autoclaved 
samples occured at a very slow rate, suggesting 
microbial dependent degradation. The major deg- 
radation product was aminoniclosamide (2',5- 
chloro-4'-aminosalicylanilide), which represented 
more than 50% of the radioactivity extractable 
from sediments. Greater amounts of aminoniclosa- 
mide were formed under anaerobic conditions 
(redox potential < 350 mV) than in aerobic sys- 
tems. A hydrolysis product of niclosamide, 2- 
chloro-4-nitroaniline, was also detected but 5- 
chlorosalicylic acid was not detected in sediment 
or water extracts. Studies on the adsorption of 
niclosamide to five different sediments gave an 
average sediment sorption coefficient (Koc) of 
3111 + or - 1552. Only 0.3 to 1.7% of the sorbed 
radioactivity could be desorbed by shaking with 
water for 24 h. Due to the rapid degradation of 
niclosamide in sediment-water systems, the sorp- 
tion that was measured represented the sum of 
niclosamide and aminoniclosamide adsorption. 
Sorption of niclosamide or aminoniclosamide is 
unlikely to play a dominant role in the environ- 
mental fate of niclosamide under field conditons. 
(Collier-IVI) 
W85-00161 



BEHAVIOR AND DEGRADATION OF CHLOR- 
PYRIFOS-METHYL IN TWO AQUATIC 
MODELS, 

Forest Pest Management Inst., Sault Sainte Marie 

(Ontario). 

S. Y. Szeto, and K. M. S. Sundaram. 

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 

30, No. 6, p 1032-1035, November-December, 

1982. 4 Tab, 12 Ref 

Descriptors: *Chloropyrifos-methyl, *Fate of pol- 
lutants, 'Degradation, Sorption, Sediment-water 
studies. Pesticide residues. Pesticide kinetics. Per- 
sistence. 

At 15 degrees C, the movement, persistence, and 
degradation of 400 ppb of chlorpyrifos-methyl in 
the top 1.5-cm layer of flooded sandy loam soil 
(model I) and the behavior and degradation of 200 
ppb of this chemical in natural water (model II) 
were investigated for a period of 90 days. In model 
I chlorpyrifos-methyl was strongly adsorbed on 
the flooded soil; very little was desorbed and then 
dissolved in the water. The maximum concentra- 
tion in the water was 1 ppb, detected after 0.7 day 
(16.5 h) of incubation. Chlorpyrifos-methyl degra- 
dated readily in the flooded soil. The toxic break- 
down product was 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 
which reached a maximum concentration in about 
27 days and declined thereafter. The pyridinol was 
never detected in the water. Both compounds had 
almost completely disappeared in 90 days. In 
model II chlorpyrifos-methyl moved rapidly from 
the water to the flooded clean soil. After incuba- 
tion for 13 davs, its concentration increased from 
nondetectable lO a maximum of 560 ppb in the top 
1.5-cm layer of the soil but decreased from 200 to 
40 ppb in the water. Both the parent compound 
and its breakdown product were degraded readily 
in soil and water; only 0.1 and 10 ppb remained in 
the water and in the flooded soil, respectively, 
after incubation for 83 days. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00162 



44 



1 



\NALYSIS OF TRACE HALOCARBONS IN 
NATURAL WATERS BY SIMPLIFIED PURGE 
VND CRYOTRAP METHOD, 

ntemational Science Consultants, Ringwood 

England). 

-or primary bibliographic entry see Field 5A. 

V85-OOI68 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 5 

Sources Of Pollution— Group 5B 



EMPORAL MOMENTS AT LARGE DIS- 
ANCES DOWNSTREAM OF CONTAMINANT 
lELEASE IN RIVERS, 

:ambridge Univ. (England). Dept. of Applied 

lathematics and Theoretical Physics. 

.. Smith. 

3umal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 140 p 153-174 

larch, 1984. 10 Fig, 18 Ref, 2 Append. 

lescriptors: 'Path of pollutants, *Temporal mo- 
ents, *River flow. Temporal distribution. Water 
dilution control, Discharge siting. Moment equa- 
3ns, Advection, Diffusion, Wastewater disposal 
lathematical equations. 

smporal moments provide a tractable alternative 
spatial moments for the theoretical study of 
mtaminant dispersion in rivers, even when the 
>w is longitudinally non-uniform. Exact analyti- 
1 results are derived for the time-of-arrival, tem- 
iral variance and skewness far downstream of a 
dden contaminant release. When the channel 
nes markedly, there can exist optimal discharge 
es which are better than all nearby sites up- 
eam, downstream, or across the flow; it is only 
a substantial upstream relocation of the dis- 
arge that the peak concentration level at the 
)nitoring position can be further improved The 
vection-diffusion equation is taken to have a 
m which neglects longitudinal diffusion and 
;rages out the vertical structure. The asymptotic 
ue of the dosage depends only on the volume of 
itaminant and the river flow rate, so is inde- 
ident of either the discharge profile or the dis- 
irge location. It is only by reducing the volume 
contaminant released into the flow that the 
lages experienced far downstream can be ame- 
ated. The lowest pollution levels can be expect- 
when the monitoring (or freshwater extraction) 
ES place near the bank, even compared with 
s slightly downstream. The optimal discharge 
can be regarded as taking as much advantage 
possible of the downstream region along the 
How bank of low velocity and high shear in 
■Ju ^hear-dispersion process is most effi- 
it. The determination of an optimal site for the 
action of water from the river may take advan- 
: of the protection afforded by the efficient 
tion along an upstream region of shallow 
er. There is no worst position for water extrac- 
, nor for discharge; for each cross-section, 
e IS a constrained worst position, but there is 
rovement if downstream displacement is per- 
ed. (Colher-IVI) *^ 

5-00174 



widely developed in sheltered coastal embayments 
Levels of 137-Cs in inner Solway sediments reflect 
the talloff of radionuclide content with distance 
from Sellafield, over 100 pCi/g having been re- 
corded in the outer Solway while intertidal muds 
from the Ravenglass estuary, about 10 km south of 
Sellafield, have yielded in excess of 500 pCi/g. 

W85-00201 



MAVY METALS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS 
FROM THE SAW MILL RIVER, WEST CHES- 
TER COUNTY, NEW YORK, 1981, 

Geological Survey, Albany, NY. 

R. J. Rogers. 

Northeastern Environmental Science, Vol 2 No 

3/4, p 188-197, 1983. 3 Fig, 4 Tab, 9 Ref. ' ' 

Descriptors: *Bottom sediments, *Heavy metals 
*Saw Mill River, *West Chester County, *New 
York, Grain size. Spatial distribution, Fate of pol- 
lutants, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Water pollufion 
sources, Industrial wastes. 

Bottom sediments were collected at 20 sites be- 
tween February and September 1981 to assess the 
concentration and distribution of heavy metals in 
the Saw Mill River, which drains a largely urban 
and industrial area adjacent to New York City 
Bottom sediments from six sites were separated 
into six size fractions to determine the relationship 
between grain size and metal concentration. Con- 
centrations of seven or more acid-soluble heavy 
metals were determined in each fraction. Metal 
concentrations were typically greatest in the less 
than 63-micrometers (micro m) sediment and de- 
creased with increasing grain size. However, metal 
concentrations in 1,000- to 2,000-micro m sediment 
were, in general, higher than in the 250- to 500- 
micro m and 500- to 1,000-micro m sediment. The 
1,000- to 2,000-micro m sediment fraction was se- 
lected to study the spatial variation in heavy-metal 
concentrations because this fraction is least subject 
to transport and, therefore, a better indicator of 
source areas. Bottom sediments in the lower 3 
miles of the river were enriched with copper, lead 
and zinc compared to upstream sediments and are 
considered contaminated. No significant enrich- 
ment with iro.i or manganese was detected. Signifi- 
cant correlations were found between copper and 
iron, zinc and iron, and copper and zinc in up- 
stream sediments but not in sediments below river 
mile 3.7, which suggests that the sources of metals 
in the upstream part of the basin differ from those 
downstream. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium 
chromium, cobalt, mercury, and nickel were in 
general, at or below the analytical detection limits 
in the size fraction studied and therefore could not 
be evaluated. The sediments enriched with copper 
lead, and zinc are in the most heavily industrialized 
part of the basin. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00206 



collected during the summer. Results show a 
marked decline in the total solute concentration of 
precipitation away from the coast. No significant 
difference between the mean specific conductance 
of precipitation at Mt. Edgecombe and that at 
Zululand University was noted even though the 
two stations are 120 km apart and have very differ- 
ent site conditions. All five of the ions tested (Na, 
Mg, Ca, K and CI) declined in concentration away 
from the coast, but the rate of decline varied in 
each case. Calcium and potassium increased in 
relative importance to sodium, chloride, and mag- 
nesium away from the coast. On a broad regional 
scale, distance from the coast appears to be the 
principal factor determining spatial variations in 
precipitation chemistry. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00213 



i?i?J?.^l?^ O^ "■'-CS IN SURFACE IN- 
nriDAL SEDIMENTS FROM THE SOLWAY 

ine Research and Training Center, Piran 

;oslavia). 

>. Jones, J. M. Miller, and P. D. Roberts 

me Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 15, No 5 d 187 

1984. 7 Fig, 30 Ref. ■ ■^. P is/ 

:riptors: *Radioactive wastes, *Cesium radioi- 
'.f ' ^^^I'^^y ^"^^' *Sediment contamination, 
tland, England, Fuel reprocessing, Estuarine 
•onment. Water pollution sources, Intertidal 

distribution of 137-Cs from the Sellafield 
dscale) nuclear fuel reprocessing plant has 

examined in detail in the surface intertidal 
lents of the inner Solway Firth by means of a 
rcraft-borne radiometric survey. This survey 
)e used to identify areas for further in depth 
tigation based on sampling. Results from the 

Solway Firth show the 137-Cs content of the 
lents to be generally in the range of 2-30 pCi/ 
ith values locally exceeding 50 pCi/g The 
St activities are usually associated with fine- 
sd mud flat and salt marsh sediments, most 



SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN PRECIPITATION 
CHEMISTRY OVER NATAL, SOUTH ATOICA^ 

Hereford Sixth Form Coll. (England). 

A. L. Murgatroyd. 

South African Journal of Science, Vol. 79 No 10 

p 408-410, October, 1983. 3 Fig, 1 Tab, 29 Ref.' 

Descriptors: *Precipitation chemistry, *Spatial 
vanation *South Africa, *Natal, Sodium, Manga- 
nese, Calcium, Potassium, Chorides, Specific con- 
ductivity. 

Daily samples of precipitation were collected at 
tive locations in Natal over a six month period 
dunng the ramy season from October 1979 to 
March 1980. Two of the localities, the Mouth 
Edgecombe Sugar Research Station near Durban 
and the University of Zululand near Empangeni 
are both about 5 km air distance from the coast 
rhe Cedara Agricultural College near Pietermar- 
itzburg IS in central Natal, 80 km from the coast 
I he remaining two localities are furthest from the 
coast in western Natal. The Ntabamhlope Agricul- 
tural Research Station is near Eastcourt at 160 km 
from the coast and the Cathedral Peak Forest 
Research Station is at the foot of the Drakensbers 
Escarpment 200 km from the coast. A total of 
more than 200 samples from the five sites were 



A^.^^^'i?^^^ ^^ WATER AND DILUTE 
ACID TREATMENT ON ORGANIC AND INOR- 
GANIC CHEMISTRY OF LEACHATE TOOM 
FOREs'ysOI^" HORIZONS OF AN ACID 

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 
New Haven. Dept. of Soil and Water. 
E. C. Krug, and P. J. Isaacson. 

?nil ^,'=J5."'=^' "^o'- '37, No. 5, p 370-378, May, 
1984. 2 Fig, 4 Tab, 38 Ref ^ 

pescriptors: *Acid rain, *Leaching, *Forest soils. 
Acidic soils. Hydrogen ion concentration, Organ- 
ic matter. Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum, Soil 
horizons. Water pollution sources. 

Most watersheds considered highly sensitive to 
acidification by acid rain have high proportions of 
extremely acid, organic-rich lithic soils and peats 
1 he organic and inorganic chemistry of leachate 
produced by treating organic-rich horizons of an 
acid forest soil with distilled-deionized water or 
with water acidified to pH 3 with H2S04 was 
studied. Each soil horizon imparted considerable 
free and total acidity to the distilled-deionized 
water through the solubilization of organic matter- 
the amount and acidic nature of solubilized organic 
matter was a function of horizon. The amounts of 
Ca, Mg, and Al m solution were related to the 
amount of organic matter solubilized. After exten- 
sive leaching, material from the Oi horizon was 
allowed to equilibrate with water, which resulted 
m considerable further solubilization of organic 
matter and inorganic constituents and acidification 
of solution. Leaching with pH 3 H2S04 produced 
complex changes in both the organic and inorganic 
composition of leachate. The amount of Al solubi- 
lized was related to soluble organic matter de- 
pending upon the horizon leached. Although it is 
generally considered that soil organic matter buff- 
ers against strong acid additions only by exchange 
of bases and aluminum for H(-|-), a number of 
other mechanisms related to the solubilization of 
soil organic matter also act to consume H(-|-) The 
understanding of the effects of acid precipitation 
on shallow, organic-rich soils requires analyses of 
changes in the chemistry of soluble organic com- 
ponents. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00219 



INFLUENCE OF URBAN RUNOFF ON THE 
WATER POLLUTION OF THE VISTULA IN 
THE REGION OF CRACOW AGGLOMER- 
ATION, 

Instytut Ksztaltowania Srodowiska, Krakow 

(Poland). 

I. Skoczen. 

Acta Hydrobiologica, Vol. 23, No. 3, p 195-210 

1981. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 13 Ref. . P '" ziu, 

Descriptors: *Vistula, *Krakow, *Poland, *Urban 
runoff, ♦Water pollution sources. Urban areas. Bio- 
chemical oxygen demand. Precipitation, Pollution 
load. Rainfall runoff. 

The Vistula in the Krakow area has an unaccept- 
able level of pollution. Investigations on the influ- 
ence of urban runoff on the Vistula in the Krakow 
urban area (agglomeration) were carried out from 

ZiLT '" ^^-^ ^"^ °^^^^ "ver course. The 

BOD5 index was adopted as the basis for the 
investigation. About 1500 BODS determinations 






45 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group SB— Sources Of Pollution 

were made during the six years of the investiga- 
tion. The annual set of concentrations and loads is 
not homogenous and does not exhibit a normal 
distribution. The results obtained during a year 
were arranged into sets according to meteorologi- 
cal and hydrobiological criteria. A statistical analy- 
sis of the set for dry periods showed that the 
results are homogenous and exhibit a normal distri- 
bution; sets of loads for precipitation periods do 
not exhibit a normal distribution. The lowest pol- 
lutant load (about 7 thousand tons/year) was found 
in 1973, a year with low total precipitation. The 
highest pollutant loads (about 19 thousand tons/ 
year and 17 thousand tons/year) were found in 
1974 and 1975, years with high total precipitation. 
Runoff pollution constituted from 30 to 50% of the 
total pollution of the Vistula. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00222 



HEAVY METALS IN THE AQUATIC ENVI- 
RONMENT OF SOME WATER BODIES OF 
THE LUBLIN COAL BASIN, 

Akademia Rolnicza, Lublin (Poland). Dept. of 
General Chemistry and Agricultural Technology. 
M. Bubicz, L. Kozak, M. Mikos, and Z. Warda. 
Acta Hydrobiologica, Vol. 24, No. 2, p 125-138, 
1982. 6 Tab, 20 Ref. 

Descriptors: "Heavy metals, *Water analysis, 
•Sediments, *Plants, ♦Poland, *Lublin Coal Basin, 
Water pollution effects. Mercury, Cadmium, Lead, 
Copper, Cobalt, Manganese, Iron, Nickel, Wieprz 
River, Thysmienica River, Municipal Lake. 

The content of Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, 
and Fe in water, Ijottom sediments, and aquatic 
plants was determined. The samples of water taken 
from the rivers Wieprz and Tysmienica and the 
Municipal Lake contained Hg, Pb, Ni, Co, and Fe 
in amounts corresponding to concentrations admis- 
sible for waters of the purity class I, while the 
concentration of Cd, Cu and Zn corresponded 
with values admissible for water of the purity class 
II. The concentration of the investigated heavy 
metals in bottom sediments was positively correlat- 
ed with the content of organic matter. The content 
of heavy metal implants was highly variable and 
depended both upon the environment and the spe- 
cies. Some aquatic plants are capable of highly 
selective accumulation of heavy metals, chiefly of 
Mn, Fe and Zn. These plants can serve to help 
clean waters which are polluted with heavy metals 
and can also be regarded as natural regulators of 
the concentration of these metals in the aquatic 
environment. Of the elements determined in plants, 
only mercury and cadmium were positively corre- 
lated with the concentration in water and bottom 
sediments. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00232 



SHORT STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF A 
VALLEY ON THE COMPOSITION OF RAIN- 
WATER, 

Central Electricity Generating Board, Ratcliffe- 

on-Soar (England). Scientific Services Dept. 

A. Martin. 

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 16, No. 4, p 785- 

793, 1982. 6 Fig, 2 Tab, 15 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Wales, ♦Rain, ♦Valleys, ♦Hills, Air 
pollution. Water pollution sources. Nitrates, Sul- 
fates, Sodium, Hydrogen ion concentration. Am- 
monia, Topography. 

Rainwaters have been sampled weekly for 78 
weeks at 6 sites near the sea in mid-Wales, 3 in 
valley bottoms, 3 on adjacent hilltops. The results 
were examined for any significant elevational ef- 
fects and also compared with similar results from a 
site on the flat east coast of England. Statistically 
significant evidence was found of regularly in- 
creased sea-salt deposition on the hilltops relative 
to the open ends of the valleys and of spasmodic 
increased acid deposition in a deep valley bottom 
relative to a hilltop. On average, 30% less sodium 
ion was deposited in rain at the open ends of the 
two valleys compared with the hilltops. It is con- 
sistent with the concept of a layer of air carrying 
sea-salt aerosols lifting from the sea surface to 
cross the mountains, in contact with the hilltops. 
On average, 15% more hydrogen ion was deposit- 



ed in a deep narrow valley than on the adjacent 
hillside, 250 m above and 600 m away. In seven of 
the 13 weeks in which this occurred most clearly, 
the excess hydrogen ion was accompanied by its 
equivalent of sulfate ion, and in two weeks by its 
equivalent of nitrate ion. This is consistent with the 
concept of air rich in sulfur and nitrogen com- 
pounds being held below the valley tops until 
washed out by rain. In the remaining four weeks, 
there was excess ammonia in the hilltop samples, 
which reduced the rainwater acidity there but not 
in the deep valley bottom. Concentrations of ions 
in rainwater were low in mid-Wales compared 
with eastern England but the larger rainfall 
amounts in Wales led to a greater deposition of 
ions there. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00238 



FACTORS INFLUENCTNG TRACE METAL, 
SULFATE AND HYDROGEN ION CONCEN- 
TRATIONS IN RAIN, 

Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sci- 
ences Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2K. 
W85-00241 



ATMOSPHERIC TRACE METALS IN THE 

SNOW LAYERS DEPOSITED AT THE SOUTH 

POLE FROM 1928 TO 1977, 

Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de 

I'Environnement, Grenoble (France). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2K. 

W85-00244 



AaDITY OF RAIN IN EUROPE, 

Central Electricity Generating Board, Leather- 
head (England). Central Electricity Research 
Labs. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2K. 
W85-00245 



ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 
OF RAIN IN MINNESOTA, 

Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Plant Patholo- 
gy. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2K. 
W85-00246 



INVESTIGATION OF ACID PRECIPITATION 
IN QINGHAI PROVINCE, CHINA, 

East-West Environment and Policy Inst., Honolu- 
lu, HI. 
J. Harte. 

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 17, No. 2, p 403- 
408, 1983. 1 Fig, 2 Tab, 15 Ref 

Descriptors: "Acid precipitation, ♦China, ♦Qinghai 
Province, ♦Amne Machin Mountains, Urban areas. 
Hydrogen ion concentrations. Coal combustion. 
Nitrates, Sulfates, Air pollution. Calcium. 

Precipitation and surface water samples from the 
Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai Province, China, were 
collected in June 1981, in both small cities with 
intensive coal burning and highly visible air degra- 
dation and in the remote and sparsely populated 
Amne Machin Mountains on the eastern Tib3tan 
Plateau. A pH measurement in one urban precipita- 
tion sample indicated extremely acidic precipita- 
tion, with a pH of 2.25. The major acid in the 
observed event was nitric acid, despite the fact that 
coal combustion was the major source of local air 
pollution. The high nitrogen and low sulfate con- 
tent (0.82% N and 0.08% S) of coal from this 
region may account partially for the high nitrate- 
to-sulfate ratio in the precipitation in Machin. In 
the remote Amne Machin mountains, precipitation 
pH's did not vary significantly from a value of 
approximately 6, but levels of calcium, nitrate and 
sulfate were unexpectedly high. They could have 
arisen for any of several possible sources, including 
local dust, pollution from Machin and Xining, pol- 
lution from eastern China's industrial and populat- 
ed areas, and very long distance transport of pol- 
lutants from other countries. In all samples for 
which major anions were measured, including the 
very acidic urban sample, nitrate concentrations 
exceeded sulfate concentrations by a wide margin. 



46 



despite the dominance of coal burning in tht 

region. (Moore-IVI) 

W85-00247 



INFLUENCE OF HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS 
AND SUCCESSIONAL STATE ON DISSOLVED 
ORGANIC CARBON EXPORT FROM FOREST- 
ED WATERSHEDS, 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Inst, of Ecology. 

C. M. Tate, and J. L. Meyer. 

Ecology, Vol. 64, No. I, p 25-32, February, 1983. 4 

Fig, 4 Tab, 25 Ref NSF granU 79-04537 and 80. 

12093. 

Descriptors: ♦Organic carbon, ♦Succetision, 
♦Forest watersheds. Runoff, Dissolved solids, 
Pine, Hardwoods, Watershed hydrology, Nutrienl 
export. Forest management. 

Concentration and export of dissolved organic 
carbon (DOC) were compared in streams draining 
four southern Appalachian watersheds with differ 
ent treatment histories in 1969-1970 and again ii 
1979-1980. In 1969-1970 the watersheds were: olc 
field (1 yr old), hardwood coppice (7 yr old) 
white pine (13 yr old), and mature hardwood (ua- 
disturbed for at least 45 yr). DOC concentration! 
in 1969-1970 were three to four times greater thar 
in 1979-1980 on all watersheds, and the difference 
among watersheds were consistent both years: ok 
field > hardwood > pine > coppice. Concentra 
tions were always greater during the growinj 
season. Annual runoff was 50% greater in 1979 
1980, and annual DOC export in 1979-1980 wa 
half the 1969-1970 value in all watersheds. Annua 
export was greatest from the hardwood and old 
field watersheds and least from the pine and cop 
pice watersheds during both years. Although then 
appears to be a trend toward decreasing DOC 
concentration and export over the first two dec 
ades of secondary succession, differences cause* 
by periodic variations in runoff are far more signif 
icant than any successional changes observed. (Au 
thor's abstract) 
W85-00254 



EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANQ 
ON DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON DYNAM 
ICS OF A STREAM, 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Inst, of Ecology. 

J. L. Meyer, and C. M. Tate. 

Ecology, Vol. 64, No. 1, p 33-44, February, 1983. ' 

Fig, 3 Tab, 42 Ref NSF grants 79-04537 and 80 

12093. 

Descriptors: ♦Clear-cutting, "Forest watersheds 
♦Organic carbon, ♦North Carolina, Forest manage 
ment, Streams, Ecosystems, Dissolved solids, Basi 
flow, Throughfall, Leaching, Storm seepage 
Storm water. 

The response of a stream ecosystem to disturbano 
in its watershed was investigated by comparin] 
mass balances of dissolved organic carbon (DOC 
for a stream draining an undisturbed watershe( 
with a stream draining a watershed that was clear 
cut 2 yr before the study began. These second 
order streams are in the Coweeta Hydrologic Lab 
oratory. North Carolina. Both streams had similar 
elevated DOC concentrations (from < 1 to 5 mg 
L) during storms. Rising and falling limbs of thi 
hydrograph also had similar DOC concentrations 
During the growing season DOC concentratioi 
increased from headwater seep to the weir in thi 
undisturbed stream under baseflow conditions. N( 
significant longitudinal change was observed in th 
stream draining the clear-cut watershed. Heno 
concentration was consistently lower in basefiov 
samples during the growing season in the strean 
draining the clear-cut watershed. As a resul 
annual DOC export from the clear-cut watershei 
was less (9.8-11.5 kg/ha) than from the refereno 
watershed (14.6-15.1 kg/ha). The lower D0( 
export was partly due to reduced DOC input 
from throughfall and leaching of fresh litter, bu 
most importantly to lower DOC inputs in subsur 
face water and probably also less in-stream genera 
tion of DOC. The rate of recovery of this strean 
from disturbance is therefore dependent on the rat 






■■^^m 



at which the terrestrial system recovers. (Author's 

ibstract) 

*V85-00255 



VON-EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH TO MOD- 
ELING TOXIC METAL SPECIATION IN ACID 
iQUATIC SYSTEMS, ' 

javannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC 

r. D. Fontaine, IIL 

xological Modelling, Vol. 22, No. 1-4, d 85-100 

983-1984. 2 Fig, 22 Ref. . P »3 luu, 

)escriptors: 'Heavy metals, *Mathematical 
lodels, *Heavy metals, •Chemical speciation 
Simulation, *Acidic water. Acid streams. Acid 
Ikes, Kinetics, Fate of pollutants, Path of pollut- 
its, Cadmium, Mercury, Sorption, Cation ex- 
tiange. 

general algorithm (NONEQUI) was developed 
' simulate the kinetics of sorption and cation 
;change processes among heavy metals and sub- 
rates in acid (pH < 6.5) lake or stream environ- 
ents. Because the model is formulated in a kinetic 
imework, both fast and slow (relative to both the 
ne frames of biological metal uptake and adsorp- 
m as well as hydrological residence time) metal 
bstrate reactions can be simulated without incur- 
ig computational errors due to the assumption of 
emical equilibrium at all times. The model is 
5ful in that it predicts temporal and spatial con- 
ntrations of both bound and unbound metals 
lis IS particularly important because it is com- 
)nly the unbound species of a metal (e.g a free 
'alent cation of cadmium, Cd(2 + )) that is its 
>st toxic form. The model was developed for 
idicting the fate and transport of any divalent 
ion including mercury. Important transforma- 
is of mercury were included that other cations 

not significantly experience: methylation, de- 
thylation volatilization, and humic acid reduc- 
1 of Hg(2-f-) to Hg(0). The latter reaction has 
ential for significantly affecting the fate, trans- 
t, and effects of heavy metals in waters of the 
theastern U.S. (Author's abstract) 
5-00258 

PLICATION OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY 
ALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO A HEAVY 
TAL SPEOATION MODEL, 

annah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC 

J- Fontaine, III. 

W^Ta ^°delling. Vol. 22, No. 1-4. p 101-108, 

59!76sVc«'8*f9.' ^^''- ' ^'' °°^ ^°"'-" °E- 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION-Field 5 

Sources Of Pollution— Group 5B 

developed for the solute/solid phase mass balances 
I he liquid phase/solid phase equations are coupled 
hrough the reaction term in the liquid phase equa- 
tions. The resultant is a set of 2N simultaneous 
ordinary differential equations which can be solved 
by classical numerical techniques. The algorithm is 
also useful for multi-dimensional cases, as the seg- 
ments do not have to be oriented in series. (Moore- 

W85-00262 



tion from a determimstic model gives little insight 
into the probability of a risk occurring. The degFee 
of nsk should be expected to change as our certain- 
ty m coefficient estimates increases or decreases 
(Author s abstract) 
W85-00259 



FATES OF AROMATICS MODEL (FOAM)- DE- 
SCRIPTION APPLICATION, AND AN^^YSIS, 

Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sci- 

ences Div. 

S. M. Bartell, R. H. Gardner, and R. V. O'Neill 

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 22, No. 1-4, p 109-121 

1983/1984. 2 Fig, 2 Tab, 22 Ref. DOE contract W-' 

7405-eng-26. 

Descriptors: *Fate of pollutants, 'Hydrocarbons, 
Polycychc aromatic hydrocarbons, *Model stud- 
ies, Bioaccumulation, Degradation, Lotic environ- 
ment, Lentic environment. Dissolution, Volatiliza- 
tion, Photolysis, Sorption, Anthracene, Naphtha- 
lene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Simulation. 

The Fates of Aromatics Model (FOAM) evaluates 
the hypothesis that transport, degradation, and 
bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocar- 
bons (PAHs) m aquatic systems can be forecast 
trom fundamental chemical characteristics of this 
homologous series of compounds. Molecular 
weight, ring number, melting point, octanohwater 
partition coefficient, and a light absorption spec- 
trum are used to calculate rates of dissolution 
volatilization, photolytic degradation, sorption 
and bioaccumulation of specific PAH's in lotic and 
entic environments. FOAM forecast spatial and 
temporal concentrations of dissolved anthracene 
within 15 percent of concentrations measured in 
lotic microcosms. The model overestimated peri- 
phyton accumulation of anthracene by 425 ner- 
cent, but was within 40-50 percent of measured 
concentrations in stream sediments and papershell 
clams. Patterns of naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene 
flux simulated by FOAM agreed qualitatively with 
results reported for lentic microcosms. Monte 
Carlo error analysis of FOAM identified 7 param- 
eters that contnbuted importantly to imprecision in 
forecasts of anthracene fate. The rank order of 
correlation of these parameters with prediction 
error changes during the course of a simulation. 
(Author s abstract) 
W85-00260 



.nptors: *Risks, 'Uncertainty, 'Model studies, 
avy metals, 'Chemical speciation. Simulation 
icuy, Sorption, Cation exchange. Water pollu- 

very model there is a degree of uncertainty 
,iated with every coefficient that controls the 
ot material from one state variable to another 
use of this source of uncertainty, many simula- 
, each with different (but reasonable) estimates 
oefficient settmgs should be made so as to 
sximate the probable behavior space of the 
m of interest. Detenninistic models do not 
unt for vanability in output response caused 
ncertain estimates of coefficients. This can 
; their predictions to be of limited value in 
in instances. One such instance occurs when 
? to simulate the potential risk to the environ- 
that might be incurred as a result of toxic 
inputs If the uncertainty in coefficients that 
-n the kinetics of metal sorption and cation 
inge reactions with particulate and dissolved 
ates IS accounted for, a range of values for 
)int concentrations of unbound (toxic) metal 
» would be expected. Each individual end- 
concentration from the range of simulated 
. can be tested against a pre-specified thresh- 
sncentration level that if exceeded is said to 
tute a nsk to the environment. If the thresh- 
mcentration is not exceeded, then no risk can 
i to have occurred. By noting the number of 
out ot the total number of simulations that a 
ireshold level is exceeded, the probability of 
Jn be calculated. Conversely, making an as- 
-nt ot nsk based on one endpoint concentra- 



^.^^^^^ TRANSPORT PROCESSES AND 
DIFFERENTIAL ACCUMULATION OF PER- 
SISTENT TOXIC ORGANIC SUBSTANCES EV 
GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS ^"**^'^^^'> *N 

Rutgers -The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 
Uept. of Environmental Science. 
C. G. Uchrin. 

mtf^st ^^SrI""' ''• ""^ '■'• " '''-'''' 

Descriptors: 'Organic compounds, 'Groundwater 
modT^ ^^^ of pollutants, 'Mathematical 
tTons ^"'T'"^"' ^°'' '"^"i"' Differential equa- 

The ability to predict the potential spread of 
groundwater pollution resulting from past and ex- 
isting sources is of paramount interest for ensuring 
the potability of this important resource. Trace 
organic substances are, in general, hydrophobic 
and do not behave as conventional pollutants 
ITieir potential for selective association with the 
nf^'flu Sia«er comprising the soil matrix is 
quite high. Since the processes of adsorption and 
desorption are dynamic and not completely revers- 
ible, modeling difficulties arise. The conceptual 
development of several dynamic sorption models is 
presented, and their relationship to the classical 
equilibrium partitioning assumption is demonstrat- 
ed A numencal algorithm for solving time vari- 
able pollutant liquid phase and solid phase concen- 
trations in a soil matrix in three dimensions is 
formulated so as to be useful for both saturated as 
well as unsaturated conditions. The technique con- 
sists of segmenting the control volume into N 
segments for which N simultaneous, first-order, 
ordinary differential equations can be formulated 
for solute/liquid phase mass balances. Another N 
simultaneous ordinary differential equations can be 



PHYSIO-CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAI 
MODELING THE FATE OF TOXIC SUB 
STANCES IN NATURAL WATER SYSTEMS 

Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY. Environmental Engi- 
neering and Science Graduate Program. 
R. V. Thomann. 

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 22, No 1-4 n 145 17n 
1983/1984. 9 Fig, 3 Tab, 19 Ref. ' ^ °' 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Fate of pol- 
lutants, 'Toxic substances. Lake sediments. Food 
terns"'' Streams, Ecological effects, Ecosys- 

The basic mathematical modeling framework for 
the fate of chemicals discharged into the environ- 
ment IS a complex interaction of chemical kinetics, 
particle sorption and desorption, sediment interac- 

^^Z'J"L''^^^? ^"'^ *'^"'''«^ '" ^^^ aquatic eco- 
system. The fully time-variable equations do not 
present any significant insight into the general be- 
havior of chemical fate. Under a steady state as- 
sumption and including bottom sediment interac- 
tions, relatively simple fonnulations result that 
permit rapid calculation of the maximum concen- 
mfvln"! f^a' '"'gl't be expected. For a completely 
mixed lake, the ratio of the areal loading rate of the 
toxicant to the water column concentration is de- 
termined by the hydraulic overfiow rate and the 
net loss rate of the toxicant from the water column 
The steady state food chain model of the accumu- 
lation of a toxic chemical from both water and 
food sources is a means for estimating the param- 
eters ot loss and sediment interaction for a lake 
The steady state case of the discharge of a chemi- 
cal into a stream provides a simple means for 
estimating net loss rates under some reasonable 
assumptions. Coupling the food chain model to the 
physio-chemical model permits the use of chemical 
concentrations in the fish to estimate the net loss of 
toxicant m a stream. Examples using data for cad- 
mium in the Sajo River in Hungary and PCB in the 
Shiawassee fish and sediment appear to confirm 
the basic model. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00263 



MODELLING CONCEPTS FOR HYDROPHO- 
BIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN LAKES 

Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserverso'rgung 
Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschultz, Due- 
bendorf (Switzerland). 
R. P. Schwarzenbach, and D. M. Imboden 
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 22, No 1-4 n 171-21? 
1983/1984. 4 Fig, 4 Tab, 42 Ref, 1 Append. ' 

Descriptors: 'Hydrophobic compounds, 'Organic 
compounds, 'Fate of pollutants, 'Lakes, 'Mathe- 
matical models, Mixing, Gas exchange. Sorption, 
Desorption, Particulates, Organic carbon, Photo- 
chemical reactions. Limnology. 

A simple model concept is developed to evaluate 
the behavior of hydrophobic organic compounds 
in lakes. Hydrophobic compounds, defined as 
being readily soluble in nonpolar organic solvents 
but only spanngly soluble in water, include impor- 
tant environmental pollutants such as halogenated 
hydrocarbons, fuel and mineral oil compounds 
polycyclic aromatic, hydrocarbons plasticizers 
non-ionic detergents, etc Simple physico-chemical 
concepts are employed to portray the relevant 
transler and reaction processes: gas exchange is 
described by the two-film model, sorption/deforp- 
tion on particulate organic carbon (POC) bv a 
reversible, instantaneous linear sorption isotherm 
and hydrolysis and photochemical transformations 
by linear reaction kinetics. Based on the estimation 
of typical time and length scales for mixing in 
lakes, the aquatic environments are described 






■I 



47 



y/^'V^ 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY AAANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5B— Sources Of Pollution 

either by a completely mixed water body (1-box 
model), or by a annual cycle between stratification 
(two-box model, consisting of epilimnion and hy- 
polimnion) and overturn (1-box model). Two test 
lakes (schematic representations of Lakes Zurich 
and Biel, Switzerland) and several model com- 
pounds, which represent a wide range of typical 
reaction characteristics, serve to demonstrate how 
the spatial distribution pattern depends on the rela- 
tive importance of mixing versus reaction rates. 
The model is applied to the distribution of tetrach- 
loroethylene (PER) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 
and compared to measured data of PER in Lake 
Zurich. For compounds dominated by adsorption 
and removal on particles, a more sophisticated 
model is needed which includes the exchange be- 
tween sediments and water. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00264 



ERROR ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF 
MIREX BEHAVIOUR IN LAKE ONTARIO, 

Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlmgton (On- 
tario). 
E. Halfon. 

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 22, No. 1-4, p 213-252, 
April, 1983/1984. 18 Fig, 6 Tab, 61 Ref 

Descriptors: *Error analysis, *Lake Ontario, *Sim- 
ulation, 'Fate of pollutants, *Mirex, Public health, 
Bioaccumulation, Model studies, Niagara River, 
Oswego River, Lake sediments. Sedimentation, 
Resuspension, Adsorption. 

Mirex enters Lake Ontario from two major 
sources, the Niagara River and the Oswego River. 
Since 1968 most has come from the former source. 
Simulation models are employed to quantify the 
behavior of Mirex in the water column in the biota 
and in the bottom sediments of the lake. Error 
analysis was used to indicate areas which need to 
be investigated with field experiments. Such analy- 
sis has indicated environmental and chemical char- 
acteristics which control Mirex behavior in the 
lake. The most important are the bulk density of 
the sediments and the water sediment exchange 
processes of sedimentation and resuspension. Ad- 
sorption on sediments is also important but because 
the adsorption constant is so large, variations make 
relatively little difference. Over the long term, one 
thousand years and longer, volatilization is an im- 
portant process of Mirex removal. Mirex is biocon- 
centrated. Living organisms influence the medium 
term distribution (100 years or less). Mirex is very 
persistent in the lake and most likely will not be 
removed but only buried in the sediments. An 
exposure analysis demonstrated that even if heavy 
loading of Mirex stopped, the exposure of living 
organisms, particularly in the benthos, would 
remain high. Long term predicted persistance 
causes it to remain a chronic hazard. The risk to 
environmental health will continue. Coverage of 
Mirex contaminated bottom sediment by clean 
sediments will not be a solution for at least the next 
200-500 years. A bioconcentration exposure is defi- 
nitely evident, whereas biomagnification in the 
food chain has not been proven. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00265 



PRELIMINARY MODEL OF THE DISPERSAL 
AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TOXINS IN 
THE TAMAR ESTUARY, ENGLAND, 

Institute for Marine Environmental Research, 

Plymouth (England). 

J. R. W. Harris, A. J. Bale, B. L. Bayne, R. F. C. 

Mantoura, and A. W. Morris. 

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 22, No. 1-4, p 253-284, 

1983/1984. 16 Fig, 3 Tab, 29 Ref. UK Department 

of the Environment contract DGR 480/683. 

Descriptors: *Tamar Estuary, 'England, 'Fate of 
pollutants, 'Hydrocarbons, 'Cadmium, Toxic sub- 
stances, Estuarine environment, Simulation, Tidal 
effects, Mussels, Toxicity, Particulates, Adsorp- 
tion. 

A preliminary model of the axial dispersal of toxic 
substances in Tamar Estuary, a partially-mixed ma- 
crotidal estuary in southwest England, is de- 
scribed. The model is based upon a one-dimension- 
al simulation of net solute and particulate fluxes 
between mid-tidal values. Within this framework. 



the losses and partition between dissolved and par- 
ticle-adsorbed phases of selected aromatic hydro- 
carbons are calculated. Aromatic hydrocarbons 
ranging from benzene to benzo(a)pyrene are con- 
sidered, together with cadmium. As an indicator of 
biological impact, toxic effects on the mussel, My- 
tilus edulis, are simulated. Solute dynamics are 
treated as an advection-diffusion process. Model- 
ling of particle dynamics incorporates deposition 
and resuspension and simulates the observed tur- 
bidity maximum at the limit to saline intrusion and 
the effect of runoff and tidal range on the suspend- 
ed load of particulates. Hydrocarbon losses by 
volatilization, photo-oxidation and bacterial action 
are incorporated. The partition of toxic substances 
between dissolved and particle-adsorbed phases is 
assumed in all cases to be reversible and to achieve 
equilibrium. Chemical speciation of cadmium is 
treated similarly; competetive binding of humics 
and particulates by protons and major cations is 
taken into account. Toxic effects are simulated as 
acting on the energy balance of Mytilus edulis, via 
its rates of respiration and absorbtion. The distribu- 
tion of toxic substances within the simulated estu- 
ary depends critically on the balance between 
water flows and tidally-driven particle movement, 
and hence on the partition between dissolved and 
particle-adsorbed phases. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00266 



MODELING HEAVY METALS TRANSPORT 
IN AN ARCTIC FJORD SYSTEM POLLUTED 
FROM MINE TAILINGS, 

Vandkvalitetsinstitutet, Hoersholm (Denmark). 
N. Nyholm, T. K. Nielsen, and K. Pedersen. 
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 22, No. 1-4, p 285-324, 
1983/1984. 18 Fig, 5 Tab, 20 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Heavy metals, 'Fate of pollutants, 
♦Agfardlikavsa Fjord, 'Greenland, 'Mine wastes. 
Particulates, Suspended solids, Sedimentation, Dis- 
solution, Fjords, Mathematical models. 
Wastewater treatment. Pollution load. Water pol- 
lution control. 

A computerized mathematical model has been used 
to describe the dissolution and transport of lead, 
zinc, and cadmium in the Agfardlikavsa Fjord, 
Marmorilik, West Greenland, where tailings from 
the Greenex A/S lead/zinc mine and concentrator 
are being deposited. The hydraulic model basis is a 
quasi-stationary box model representation which 
has been calibrated using salinity profiles. The 
superimposed metals model assumes equilibrium 
between dissolved and particulate metal forms 
using Langmuir adsorption isotherms to calculate 
particulate concentrations from concentrations of 
dissolved metals and suspended solids, respective- 
ly. Calibration of the model parameters (sedimenta- 
tion rates and dissolution rates) has been made 
observing quite narrow constraints established by 
field observations and laboratory experiments. In 
the course of the time period being modeled, 1978- 
1980, the pollution with heavy metals has been 
mitigated significantly. The abatement measures 
undertaken include: (1) alteration of the lead flota- 
tion process and lime addition to tailings by June/ 
July 1978; (2) alum coagulation of the effluent by 
January 1979; and (3) establishment of a new tail- 
ings discharge system in December 1979. The 
model has been used to estimate the reductions 
brought about in inputs of dissolved metals as well 
as to quantify the dynamics of the heavy metals 
transport in the fjord system. A particular impor- 
tant objective was to estimate the net outflow of 
metals to the adjacent Quamarujuk Fjord and to 
predict how the outflow responded to a decreased 
pollution load. A further result from the model 
study was the finding that routine monitoring of 
soluble metals in the discharged tailings as assayed 
by a specific method did in fact approximate model 
estimates of metals discharge rates if pH in the test 
was changed from pH 7.0 to pH 8.0. (Author's 
abstract) 
W85-00267 



INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAVY METAL 
CONTENT OF SEDIMENTS AND ALGAE 
FROM THE RIVER NIGER AND NIGERIAN 
ATLANTIC COASTAL WATERS, 



Benin Univ., Benin City (Nigeria). Dept. of Chem- 
istry. 

C. L. Ndiokwere. 

Environmental Pollution (Scries B), Vol. 7, No 4, 
p 247-254, 1984. 1 Fig, 3 Tab, 25 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Heavy metals, 'Sediments, 'Algae, 
•River Niger, 'Nigeria, Coastal waters. Water pol- 
lution sources. Arsenic, Gold, Cadmium, Mercury, 
Nickel, Lead, Tin, Zinc, Oil pollution. Industrial 
wastes, Urban areas. 

Trace heavy metals in sediments and green algae 
from the River Niger and the Nigerian Atlantic 
coastal waters were examined at four locations: 
Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Forcados and Warri The 
samples, analyzed for As, Au, Cd, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, 
Sb and Zn by NAA (thermal-neutron activation) 
and AAS (atomic absorption sf>ectrophotometer) 
techniques, showed varying degrees of contamina- 
tion of the sediments by some of the heavy metals. 
The measured concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and 
Sb were higher in sediments from the coastal 
waters than from the River Niger The sediments 
from the River Niger contained higher Mn, Pb and 
Zn concentrations. Similar concentration trends 
were observed for the algae. Harbor and port 
activities in the sampling locations may increase 
the concentration of most heavy metals. Apprecia- 
ble amounts of some heavy metals may come from 
the large quantities of crude oil discharged into the 
coastal waters, creeks and rivers. Urban drainages 
and small scale industries also contribute to Ihigh 
levels of the trase metals in nearby sediments. The 
average precision of measurements varied in the 
range of 4.3% to about 10% for most metal*., 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00283 



UNDERGROUND TANKS CONTAMINATEi 
GROUNDWATER, 

S. Tejada. 

EPA Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, p 20-22, January- 
February, 1984. 1 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater pollution, 'Gasoline,' 
'Leakage, Gasoline tanks. Storage tanks, Corro- 
sion, Xylene, Benzene, Toluene, BTX. 

Leaking underground gasoUne storage tanks are a 
national problem. The great majority of tanks in 
use are made of steel, about 1.2 milhon. Only a 
small number of them, about 16,000, are protected 
against corrosion. About 200,000 of the tanks in 
use are made of fiberglass. Corroded tanks leak 
slowly, so even a dealer who inventories tank 
supplies regularly might not detect a leak for a 
long time. Gasoline floats on top of water, but 
some of the toxic components dissolve in the 
water. WTien gasoline is removed from soil oi 
water, these colorless, odorless components, in- 
cluding benzene, toulene, and xylene, or BTX, 
remain behind. With passage of the Pipeline Safety 
Act of 1979 the Dept. of Transportation was au- 
thorized to prescribe safety standards and accident 
reporting requirements for transportation of haz- 
ardous liquids in pipelines. The best bet for EPA 
regulation of underground tanks for storage ol 
non-waste materials such as gasoline and othei 
hazardous substances appears to lie with anothei 
law the agency administers, the Toxic Substance; 
Control Act. State and local efforts along with th< 
efforts of industry to curb this problem are consi 
derd. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00287 

RED HERRINGS IN ACID RAIN RESEARCH 

Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Inst, for EnvironmenU 
Studies. ' 

M. Havas, T. C. Hutchinson, and G. E. Likens. ' 
Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. IS 
No. 6, p 176A-186A, June, 1984. 6 Fig, 1 Tab, 7f 
Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Acid rain, 'Water pollution sources 
Lakes, Fish, Toxicity, Measuring instruments. 
Land use. Forestry, Agriculture, Runoff, Ecosys^ 
terns. 



48 



mn 



Five common misconceptions regarding the effects 
of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems are ex- 
posed. First: bog lakes have been acidic for thou- 
sands of years, thus the acidification of lakes is not 
a recent phenomenon. The erroneous conclusion 
here is that all acidification is natural and therefore 
not of recent anthropogenic origin. Second: the 
early methods for measuring pH are in error- 
therefore, no statement can be made regarding 
histoncal trends. To combat this claim, various 
companson studies of methods for detrmining pH 
have been undertaken. Third: acidification of lakes 
uid streams results from changed land use prac- 
tices and not acid deposition. Although changes in 
and use cannot be eliminated entirely as a mecha- 
usm for surface water acidification, they cannot 
:xplain convincingly the widespread regional 
icidification of lakes and streams in parts of Scan- 
inavia and eastern North America exposed to acid 
leposition. Fourth: the decrease in fish populations 
s caused by over-fishing, disease, and water pollu- 
lon - not acidification. The opposite conclusion is 
eached by vanous studies dealing with the failure 
if restocking programs, episodic fish kills, correla- 
lons between fish populations and pH, characteris- 
c age-class distributions, and distinctive physio- 
)gical blood parameters. Fifth: because lakes that 
iceive Identical rainfall can have considerably 
itterent pHs, regional lake acidification cannot be 
ue to acid precipitation. Lakes vary in their sus- 
iptibility to acidification based on biogeochemical 
irameters, surface topography, lake depth, 
3lume, and flushing time. (Baker-IVD 
'85-00288 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION-Fleld 5 

Sources Of Pollution— Group 5B 



ly occurring storm events. These latter systems 
have been shown to produce estuary-wide vari- 
ations in suspended materials, P04 and NH4 con- 
centrations increasing the mass of materials in sus- 
pension by at least a factor of two. This increase in 
total suspended load, P04 and NH4, is nearly an 
order of magnitude larger than that produced by 
the dredge. (Author's abstract) 
W85-0O289 



UTRIENT AND TRACE METAL GEOCHEM- 
ITRY OF A DREDGE PLUME, 

snnecticut Univ., Groton. Marine Sciences Inst 
M. Tramontano, Jr., and W. F. Bohlen. 
ituanne, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol 18 No 
p 385-401, April, 1984. 10 Fig, 3 Tab, 27'Ref' 
>N contract N00140-77-C-6536. 

5Scriptors: 'Dredging, »Nutrients, *Trace 
!tals, *Plumes, *Geochemistry, *Thames River 
«nnecticut. Estuaries, Resuspension, Suspended 
iiments. Dissolved solids, Phosphates, Ammo- 
'., Sihca, Manganese, Copper, Cadmium, Envi- 
imental effects. Water pollution sources. 

:ld sampling of the dissolved and particulate 
tenal field downstream of a large volume 
;ket dredge operating in the lower Thames 
'er estuary near New London, Connecticut, was 
iducted in order to examine the magnitude and 
iracter of the dredge-induced resuspension. 
;se data indicate that large amounts of dissolved 
>sphate, ammonia, silica, manganese, copper and 
ticulate materials are released into the water 
min, whereas cadmium concentrations were 
tiected. Concentrations in the vicinity of the 
ige exceed background levels by two to nine 
;s tor the dissolved materials and by two orders 
magnitude for particulates. During the ebb 
le, downstream material concentrations de- 
ise rapidly to background within approximately 
m for dissolved materials and 700 m for partic- 
es 1 wo mechanisms were found to control the 
■ibution of materials downstream of the dredge- 
Physical transport, including advection, turbu- 

mixing and diffusion, and (b) geochemical 
-esses (I.e. adsorption, desorption, precipitation 
)lution, etc.). The concentration of dissolved 
:nals downstream of the dredge at a first order 
•nential rate. The downstream distribution of 
dissolved ammonia and silica was found to be 
■stent with the reactivity experiments which 
icted that P04 would undergo a decay in 
entration m the presence of suspended sedi- 
s. Absorption of phosphate onto suspended 
nents and gravitational settling of the siispend- 
miculates were the processes. Manganese and 
■er underwent a dual transformation which 
Ived an initial dissolution, followed by floccu- 
1 and possible coprecipitation as Mn02 Cad- 
■ ^^"centrations in the water column were 
ected by the dredging process due to low 

water concentrations. The observed spatial 
bu ion indicates that dredge-induced injection 
^o ved and particulate materials is primarily a 

leld phenomenon producing relatively minor 
tions as compared to those caused by natural- 



COMPLEXATION OF TRACE METALS RV 
ADSORBED NATURAL ORGANS MaItER 

Geological Survey, Miami, FL. Water Resources 

J. A. Davis. 

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol 48 No 

4, p 679-691, April, 1984. 11 Fig, 4 Tab; 26 Ref 

Descriptors: *Trace metals, 'Adsorption, 'Organic 
matter, 'Complexation, Chemical speciation Alu- 
mina, Colloids, Natural waters. Copper, Cadmium, 
Fate of pollutants. 

Adsorptiori is significant in regulating the concen- 
tration of dissolved trace metals in natural waters 
Modeling approaches for adsorption have been 
based on studies on colloidal hydrous oxides in the 
absence of organic matter. The adsorption behav- 
ior and solution speciation of Cu(II) and Cd(II) 
were studied in model systems containing colloidal 
alumma particles and dissolved natural organic 
matter. At equilibrium a significant fraction of the 
alumma surface was covered by adsorbed organic 
matter. Cu(II) was partitioned primarily between 
the surface-bound organic matter and dissolved 
Cu-organic complexes in the aqueous phase Com- 
plexation of Cu(2 + ) with the functional groups of 
absorbed organic matter was stronger than com- 
p exation with uncovered alumina surface hydrox- 
yls. The complexation of Cu(II) by adsorbed or- 
ganic matter can be described by an apparent 
stability constant approximately equal to the value 
tound for solution phase equilibria. Cd(II) adsorp- 
tion was not significantly affected by the presence 
ot organic matter at the surface, due to weak 
conip ex formation with the organic ligands 
Models of particle/trace element interactions 
which are based on the surface chemistry of clean 
hydrous oxides may not be directly applicable to 
natural systems. The suspended particle concentra- 
tion in many natural waters is low enough that a 
large percentage of the surface area may be cov- 
ered with organic matter. (Moore-IVI) 



the water table. Long-term ground-water pollution 
has apparently not resulted. The lack of any signifi- 
cant long-term impact on ground-water quality is 
attributed to the low permeability of the ash rela- 
tive to the surrounding limestone aquifer. Typical- 
ly alkaline limestone ground water at the site is 
also attributed with neutralizing the low pH fly ash 
which was deposited. (Author's abstract) 
W8 5-00309 



W ATP J^^'^Il?^^'^ ALDICARB IN GROUND 
T^Ir^^J^J^^^^^^ AREAS OF THE CEN- 
TRAL SAND PLAIN OF WISCONSIN 

Wisconsin Univ.-Madison. Dept. of Geology and 
Geophysics. 

E. R. Rothschild, R. J. Manser, and M P 
Anderson. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 437-445 July- 
August, 1982. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 26 Ref ^ 

Descriptors: 'Aldicarb, 'Groundwater pollution 

Wisconsin Pesticide residues. Path of pollutants 

Water pollution sources, Carbamate pesticides 



HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF A FINE- 
Siw YORk"'-'^' CATTARAUGUS COlS^, 

Geological Survey, Carson City, NV 
Ji^/cP^^^iy bibliographic entry see Field 2F. 



The systemic pesticide aldicarb is applied in the 
potato furrow during planting. Its primary use in 
Wisconsin is to protect potatoes form the Colorado 
potato Beetle and nematodes. The goal of this 
study was to provide a preliminary assessment of 
the occurrence and movement of the pesticide 
aldicarb in ground water in the Central Sand Plain 
of Wisconsin. Aldicarb concentrations in ground 
water beneath three main study fields and two 
subsidiary fields were monitored during the period 
December 1980 to August 1981. A total of 67 well 
points, some nested, and one multilevel sampler 
were installed for this study. Twenty-five private 
wells and seven irrigation wells were sampled The 
highest concentrations of aldicarb were detected in 
shallow monitoring wells (those located immedi- 
ate y below the water table; no aldicarb was de- 
tected in any of the deep monitoring wells (those 
located roughly 60 feet below the water table), 
although aldicarb was found in some of the irriga- 
!i'°".K'^f 5 finished at approximately the same 
depth. Aldicarb seems to be concentrated in rough- 
ly a 5-foot layer near the water table. The presence 
ot aldicarb in shallow groundwater is due in part 
to the highly water-soluble nature of this pesticide 
I he presence of aldicarb in a few of the deep 
irngation wells was probably a result of local 
vertical flow components near the pumping well 
The detection of aldicarb in a few shallow private 
wells downgradient from some fields demonstrates 
the mobility of this contaminant in groundwater 
this pesticide is a good indicator of potential 
groundwater contamination by other organics be- 
cause It IS highly soluble and poorly adsorbed- in 
this sense It represents a worst case contaminant. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00324 



SuARRY* °^^*'°^AL ^N A LIMESTONE 

Dunn Geoscience Corp., Camphill, PA 
J. R. Peffer. 

?'°""iyf 5f.' Vol. 20, No. 3, p 267-273, May- 
June, 1982. 5 Fig, 1] Ref 

Descriptors: 'Fly ash, 'Quarries, 'Water pollution 
sources, 'Groundwater pollution, 'Pennsylvania, 
Water table. Land disposal. Sulfates, Alkaline 
water. Limestone. 

Approximately 740,000 tons (670,000 metric tons) 
ot eastern bituminous coal fly ash were deposited 
at the abandoned Zullinger limestone quarry 
(Pennsylvania) from 1973 to 1980. The quarry 
extended below the water table and was not lined 
to isolate the ash from the aquifer. The initial 
tilling involved dumping ash directly into the 
quarry water. The quarry was situated in folded 
and fractured limestone with relatively high solu- 
tion-void permeability. Ground-water quality was 
monitored at the site for seven years through a 
network of wells. During the first three years of 
the tilling operation, high levels of sulfate were 
detected in downgradient ground water. However 
this initial pollution diminished sharply in 1976 
when the ash filled the volume of the quarry below 



49 



NATURE AND SOURCE OF ARSENIC IN 
NORTHEASTERN OHIO GROUNDWATER 

Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH 

Dept. of Geological Sciences. 

G. Matisoff, C. H. Khourey, J. F. Hall A W 

Varnes, and W. H. Strain. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 446-456, July- 

OHIo'' ^ ^'^' ^"^ ^^^ ^^^"^ «'^"' ^-°^'- 

Descriptors: 'Arsenic, 'Groundwater pollution, 
'Canal Fulton, 'Ohio 'Water pollution sources 
Methane, Glacial till. Hydrogen ion concentration 
Redox conditions. Adsorption equilibrium. Ferric 
hydroxides. . v- ■■■- 

Elevated arsenic concentrations were found in 
ground water near Canal Fulton, Ohio. The hydro- 
logic and chemical properties of the area were 
studied to determine the source of the arsenic and 
evaluate the possibility of a similar problem occur- 
ring elsewhere. Two major aquifer systems exist 
within the study area: the Sharon Sandstone of the 
upland areas; and the outwash sand and gravel 
deposits of the buried valleys. Ground-wateF flow 
IS generally from the north, but local variations are 
caused by the Tuscarawas River valley on the 



:rll 






isasssSisiBsm 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5B — Sources Of Pollution 

south and west of the study area. Within the study 
area, there is no evidence for an anthropogenic 
source of arsenic to the ground water. Agricultural 
soils, abandoned underground coal mines, industri- 
al impoundments to the north, and an abandoned 
industrial dump site within the study area were all 
eliminated as possible sources for the arsenic. The 
arsenic in Canal Fulton ground water is entirely 
inorganic, consisting of about equal parts of arse- 
nate and arsenite. Reduction-oxidation (redox) 
considerations suggest that arsenic is controlled by 
an adsorption equilibrium with ferric hydroxides, 
and that the reduction of the feiric hydroxides by a 
recent lowering of Eh and/or pH in the aquifer has 
liberated both iron and arsenic to solution. A high 
correlation between ferrous iron and total dis- 
solved arsenic supports this model. It is hypoth- 
esized that Eh conditions have been lowered in the 
aquifer by either the recent introduction of meth- 
ane gas or the deposition of a thick layer of till 
during the last glacial retreat. The methane gase 
could be leaking from deep underground storage at 
the site and reducing oxidized compounds. The 
deposition of till would have eliminated local re- 
charge of oxygenated waters. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00325 



NITRATE DISTRIBUTION IN THE GROUND 
WATER OF THE ALLISTON REGION OF ON- 
TARIO, CANADA, 

York Univ., Toronto (Ontario). Dept. of Geogra- 
phy. 

A. R. Hill. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 696-702, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 16 Ref. 

Descriptors; *Groundwater pollution, *Nitrates, 
♦Fertilizers, 'Ontario, •AUiston, Path of pollut- 
ants. Agriculture, Wells, Water pollution sources. 

Analysis of groundwater samples from wells and 
springs indicates that several major areas of nitrate 
contamination occur within the shallow aquifer 
near AUiston, Ontario. Nitrate-N concentrations 
under potato fields often exceed 10 mg/1, whereas 
concentrations of less than 1 mg/1 are characteris- 
tic of groundwater under areas of forest and per- 
manent pasture. Regression analysis revealed a sig- 
nificant positive correlation between nitrate-N con- 
centration in groundwater and the average rate of 
fertilizer nitrogen application in the 1977-80 
period. A significant positive association between 
ground water chloride concentration and rates of 
potassium chloride fertilizer application together 
with consistent C1/N03-N ratios in ground water 
under potato fields also suggests that fertilizers are 
the major source of nitrate in the aquifer. Eight 
wells located adjacent to heavily fertilized potato 
fields had very low nitrate-N concentrations. In 
contrast to the majority of wells, these 8 penetrat- 
ed to more than 20 ft below the water table. The 
likelihood that low nitrate-N concentrations occur 
in the deeper portion of the aquifer requires further 
study. If the presence of a widespread zone of low 
niirate-N concentrations could be confirmed in the 
AUiston area, it may be possible to alleviate prob- 
lems of high nitrate levels in domestic water sup- 
plies by constructing wells which extend to a 
greater depth below the water table. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00347 



APPROXIMATING POLLUTANT TRANSPORT 
TO GROUND WATER, 

Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., 
Ada, OK. 

C. G. Enfield, R. F. Carsel, S. Z. Cohen, T. Phan, 
and D. M. Walters. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 711-722, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 35 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater pollution, *Solute 
transport, *Model studies. Pesticides, Degradation, 
Aldicarb, DDT, Path of pollutants. 

Tliree models are presented for estimating trans- 
port of organic chemicals though soils to ground- 
water. The models consider mobility and first 
order degradation. The first model calculates linear 
sorption/desorption of the pollutant and first order 
degradation without considering dispersion. The 
second is similar but also considers dispersion. The 



third considers nonlinear sorption following a 
Freundlich equation and first order degradation 
but does not consider dispersion. The models are 
compared to field data for the pesticides aldicarb 
and DDT. Based on the correlation between field 
data and model projections the approach should be 
adequate to make environmental decisions evaluat- 
ing the potential hazard of nonionic organics to the 
ground water. Modification to one of the equations 
would be necessary to evaluate ionic or charged 
compounds. The sensitivity of the model to degra- 
dation rate shows the need to describe degradation 
and the parameters affecting degradation accurate- 
ly. Each of the models has certain advantages, and 
the appropriate model should be selected based on 
individual need. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00349 



NUMERICAL MODEL STUDY OF GROUND- 
WATER CONTAMINATION FROM PRICE'S 
LANDFILL, NEW JERSEY - I. DATA BASE 
AND FLOW SIMULATION, 

Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 
W. G. Gray, and J. L. Hoffman. 
Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 7-14, January- 
February, 1983. 8 Fig, 1 Tab, 11 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Water quality control, 'Groundwat- 
er pollution, 'Atlantic City, 'New Jersey, 
Aquifers, Landfills, Data collections, Geohydro- 
logy. Model studies. 

Toxic waste is currently threatening to contami- 
nate the public water supply wells for Atlantic 
City, New Jersey. The geohydrologic data for this 
region are presented and organized into a two 
dimensional modeling study of the flow in the 
upper zone of the Cohansey formation in the 
region of the contamination problem. The study as 
described is strictly a modeling exercise. For two 
dimensional transient flow, prime aquifer param- 
eters for simulation of the head configuration are 
the storage coefficients and the transmissivity. A 
pump test was conducted on the Atlantic City 
Municipal Supply Well No. 4 in 1981. The well 
was pumped at 580 gpm for 36 hours. Drawdown 
in the upper Cohansey during the pumping period 
was noted at several nearby wells. A Thiem type 
analysis was performed. The primary region of 
interest in this modeling study is the portion of the 
upper Cohansey formation in the vicinity of Price's 
Landfill. Presentation of the data in light of numer- 
ical work reveals the importance of good estimates 
of boundary conditions, historical pumping 
records, reliable water quality data, accurate well 
logs, and reasonable parameter estimates. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00353 



GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION OF 
TWO PRODUCTION WELLS: A CASE HISTO- 
RY, 

Ecology and Environment, Inc., Seattle, WA. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5F. 
W85-00363 



ently below 10 mg/1 except for one point located 
to the west of the secondary treatment Utgoon. 
Chloride levels beneath the septage lagoon have 
been generally elevated above background levels. 
From the outset of lagoon operation, the nitrogen 
contribution from the septage cell U> the ground 
water has been primarily in the form of ammonium 
nitrate. The assumption that nearly complete nitri- 
fication occurs within the 1.22 m !>eparation div 
tance required between the base of the lagoon and 
the water table was not confirmed during the study 
period. Ammonium-nitrogen concentrations in the 
ground water immmediately below the primary 
lagoon have averaged 86.9 mg/1. It is speculated 
that the ammonium-nitrogen transformations ob- 
served were due to ground water advection proc- 
esses. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00365 



LANDFILL LEACHATE MIGRATION AND AT- 
TENUATION IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE 
IN LAYERED AND NONLAYERED COARSE- 
GRAINED SOILS, 

Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison. 
R. A. Gerhardt. 

Ground Water Monitoring Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, 
p 56-65, Spring, 1984. 8 Fig, 4 Tab, 14 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Landfills, 'Groundwater pollution, 
'Attenuation, 'Leachates, 'Sauk County, 'Wis- 
consin, Aeration zone, Lysimeters, Soil water. 
Path of pollutants. 

Two natural attenuation landfill sites, one near 
Prairie de Sac in Sauk County, Wisconsin, and the 
other near Reedsburg, also in Sauk County were 
selected for study. Leachate and soil-moisture sam- 
ples were collected from the refuse and the unsatu- 
rated soils by means of pressure-vacuum lysi- 
meters. The observed concentrations of the lea- 
chates, or any leachate component, at depth in the 
unsaturated zone beneath the landfills have appar- 
ently resulted from the interaction of several fac- 
tors: the chemical quality of the leachates being 
produced within the refuse material; chemical 
interactions between the soil and the leachate; and 
unsaturated soil moisture/leachate movement. The 
attenuation of leachate within the unsaturated zone 
was observed beneath the Sauk County and Prairie 
due Sac landfills. However, ground water beneath 
both sites was contaminated. The limited attenu- 
ation capacity of the unsaturated sands and gravels 
beneath the two sites was apparently incapable of 
preventing ground water contamination. Operating 
the landfills as natural attenuation sites did not 
prevent ground water contamination. Sampling 
with one or two lysimeter nests in the unsaturated 
zone may not be indicative of the actual ground 
water contamination potential of a landfill, as evi- 
denced by this study. In the case of layered soils in 
the unsaturated zone, the possibility of horizontal 
leachate movement must also be considered. At the 
Prairie du Sac landfill, leachate was detected in the 
unsaturated zone at least 15.2 m beyond the fill 
limits. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O366 



GROUND WATER MONITORING AT A SEP- 
TAGE LAGOON FACILITY IN CONNECTI- 
CUT, 

Geotoxi Associates, Inc., Glastonbury, CT. 
B. L. Morton, J. J. Kolega, and H. D. Luce. 
Ground Water Monitoring Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, 
p 45-50, Spring, 1984. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 1 1 Ref. 

Descriptors; 'Groundwater monitoring, 'Con- 
necticut, 'Lagoons, Wastewater treatment. Nitro- 
gen, Nitrates, Chlorides, Monitoring wells. 

Current design guidelines in Connecticut for sep- 
tage lagoons stipulate that they be constructed in a 
two cell, series configuration. Lagoon sidewalls 
and bottoms generally consist of excavated earthen 
material with a 30 cm layer of medium sand, 
ranging in grain size from 0.25 to 0.60 mm, placed 
on the bottom to facilitate sludge removal. Moni- 
toring studies indicated that in general natural 
water table elevations were found to be at their 
highest during the late part of February and early 
part of March. Chloride concentrations in the pe- 
ripheral monitoring well array have been consist- 



EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STRUC- 
TURE OF A FRESHWATER-SALTWATER IN- 
TERFACIAL MIXING (ETUDE EXPERIMEN- 
TALE DU MELANGE A LTNTERFACE EAU- 
SAUMURE), 

Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford (Eng- 
land). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2L. 
W85-00387 

5C. Effects Of Pollution 



BIOACCUMULATION STUDY ON HOMARUS 
AMERICANUS. 

O'Brien and Gere Engineers, Inc., Syracuse, NY. 
Final Report to U.S. Army Engineer District, 
New York, April, 1979. 52 p, 6 Tab, 41 Ref, 1 
Append. 

Descriptors: 'Bioaccumulation, 'Biochemical 
characteristics, 'Biochemical tests, 'Accumulation, 
'Chemical analysis, 'Lobsters, 'Tissue analysis, 



50 



•Municipal wastes, Industrial wastes, Dredging 
Ocean dumping, Crustaceans, 'New York, New 
York Bight. 

One method of determining man's impact on the 
marine ecosystem is to assess the bioaccumulation 
of contaminants by organisms indigenous to areas 
of interest. The American lobster, Homarus ameri- 
canus, IS a generalized marine predator of the 
ocean floor and, as such, has the potential to 
accumulate contaminants from its immediate habi- 
tat. It IS also a highly sought-after food fish, which 
couJd present toxicologic problems. As of 1970 
the commercial catch averaged approximately 30 
million pounds. In addition to the Ocean Disposal 
Site for Dredged Material, three alternate sites 
^ere chosen to study whether ocean disposal of 
iredged material is substantially enhancing bioac- 
jumulation in lobsters. Contributing factors at each 
lite included ship traffic and associated discharges 
ind spills; sewage effluent; wind-carried debris- 
:ellar dirt and industrial wastes; and other factors 
elated to an urban environment. Ten samples 
vere taken from each site. All but one petroleum 
lydrocarbon and all DDT concentrations were 
elow detectable values. PCBs, mercury and cad- 
iium were found in all 40 samples. Bioaccumula- 
on of PCBs, Hg and Cd was found to a higher 
egree at the Gravesend Bay location than at the 
ther three. Further evidence of bioaccumulation 
'as demonstrated by the correlations between 
ody weight and tissue concentration. Tissue con- 
immation accumulated at the Gravesend Bay site 
le Disposal site, and the Long Island Control site 
•e most likely site specific. (Garrison-Omniplan) 
'85-00045 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION-Field 5 

Effects Of Pollution— Group 5C 



EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER RUNOFF ON 
NEAHSHORE TROPICAL MARINE FISHER 

Caribbean Research Inst., St. Thomas VI 

M. J. Canoy, J. Beets, F. D. Martin, and B. 

Weichert. 

Available from the National Technical Information 

Service, Springfield, V A 22161, as PB84 190214 

Pnce codes: A04 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche' 

rechnical Report No. 16, September 1983. 57 n 7 

N^'iniV^/'rln^/' 3 ^PP^"<1- OWRT Project 
So ^' *^°"'^^'='/G'"ant No. 14-34-0001- 

Descriptors: *Runoff, Production, Plankton Fish- 
enes. Tropical waters. Fish larvae, Primary pro- 
eries'" ^^'" ^''^"'^'' *P'"'''*'' 'Marine fish- 

A study was done to determine the relationship of 
freshwater runoff to breeding conditions, repro- 
duction, and larval ecology of common nearshore 
manne fishery species. Finfish of the families 
Anchoa, Engrauhdae, Culpeidae, Gobiidae, and 
Syngnathinae were found to reach peaks in the 
ichythoplankton about 6-8 weeks after heavy rains- 
however on two occasions peaks, occurred with- 
out rains. The numbers of surviving fish larvae 
appears greater during plankton blooms following 
nutnent-nch runoff ^ 

W85-0OO64 



PPLICATION OF THE BIOTAL OCEAN 
ONTTOR SYSTEM TO A STUDY OF THE 
^PACTS OF OCEAN DUMPING OF 
REDGED MATERL4L IN THE NEW YORK 
ICjHT, 

;reco Corp., College Station, TX. 
. E. Peguegnat, B. M. James, E. A. Kennedy, A 
Fredencks, and R. R. Fay. 

:chnical Report prepared for the Department of 
' '^™y Corps of Engineers, New York District 
luary 1980. 48 p, 7 Fig, 9 Tab, 17 Ref 2 
)pend. 

:scriptors: *Bioaccumulation, *Ocean dumping 
lochemical characteristics, *Municipal wastes 
[ytilus, •Killfish, *Clams, •Accumulation™ 
;mical tests, 'Waste disposal. Lead, Heavy 
tals, Cadinium, Lead, Mercury, Ocean bottom, 
ew York, New York Bight. 

Uniited biological monitoring study was con- 
;ted at the Mud Dump Site and environs in 
IV York Outer Harbor and the Bight Apex 
ig biotal ocean monitors of the benthic type B- 
MS. Each of the B-BOMS was loaded with the 

Fundulus grandis; the bivalve mollusks Myti- 
edulis and Mercenaria mercenaria; the shrimp 
Jemonetes pugio; and the worm Nereis sp All 
:pt the worm were used in subsequent laborato- 
ests. Analyses were run on three metals: cadmi- 

mercury and lead. The only significant in- 
^e in cadmium occurred in Fundulus at the 
1 Dump Site and Gravesend Bay. Some lower- 
of concentrations occurred in both Mytilus and 
cenana, but both of these bivalves have verv 
1 natural levels of cadmium. Results of the 
:ury analysis suggest that tissue accumulation 
, ™^'^L,°ccurred in Mercenaria at the Mud 
ip Site. The only statistically significant tissue 
imulation of lead occurred in Mytilus in the B- 
'IS but not m the BOMS of the pelagic type 
oyed in the Mud Dump Site and in olvesend 

Several toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon pesti- 
. were found in Fundulus, Mytilus, and/or 
)ed Cancer irroratus. Among the more toxic of 
r nn?^ the cyclodiene compounds aldrin; 
T jP?^^' ^"'^ *"ch others as BHC and 
ne. In addition, PCBs in the form of Arochlor 
were found in all organisms tested. In Fundu- 
randis exposed in B-BOMS for 10 days PCB 

iplan?"^^'' *''°'" "^^ '° '^^^ ^^ (Garrison- 
-00051 



F^HSS^"'^^ EFFECTS OF ACIDITY ON AT- 
LANTIC SALMON FOR USE IN HABITAT 
SUITABILITY MODELS, habiiai 

Maine Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, Orono 
J. G. Trial, and J. G. Stanley. 
Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Spnngfield, VA 2216! as PB84 190065 
Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche.' 
Land and Water Resources Center Completion 
Report, February 1984. 37 p, I Fig, 9 Tab, 45 Ref 
1 Append. OWRT Project No. A-054-ME (I) 
Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-0121, -1121, -2121 

Descriptors: 'Acid rain, *Carrying capacity, 'Fish 
management. Habitats, 'Model testing, 'Salmon 
Streams Model studies, 'Acidity, 'Habitat Suit- 
abiity Index, Water quality. Water pollution ef- 
lects, Hydrogen ion concentration. 



er, one estimate of Atlantic salmon standing crop 
may not be indicative of carrying capacitv 
W85-00068 "P-icuy. 



HYPOXIC STRESS IN COPEPODS 

Maryland Univ. Baltimore County, Baltimore. 
Uept. of Biological Sciences. 
B. P. Bradley. 

Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 1904201 
Price codes: A02 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche.' 
Maryland Water Resources Research Center, Col- 
lege Park Pubhcation No. 81, August 1983. 17 p 5 
Tab, 17 Ref OWRT Project No. A-067-MD ( ) 
Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2122. 

Descriptors: 'Oxygen, 'Dissolved oxygen, 'Cope- 
pods, 'Water temperature, 'Hypoxia, 'Stress, Tol- 
erance. 

Lowering oxygen levels in the water lowered tol- 
erance to high temperatures in copepods. Toler- 
ances to high temperature and to low oxygen did 
not seem to be the same trait physiologically but 
may be related genetically. Females were more 
tolerant than males to hypoxia; acclimation to tem- 
perature increased tolerance to hypoxia and there 
seemed to be genetic variation in tolerance at both 
high and low oxygen levels. Slight changes in 
oxygen levels at critical temperatures, within the 
range expenenced in nature, markedly affected the 
copepods. 
W85-00078 



A Habitat Suitability Index model for Atlantic 
salmon was developed as a method for predicting 
reductions of habitat quality caused by acid pre- 
cipitation. 18 suitability curves describing density 
and survival of Atlantic salmon as a function of 
habitat variables were developed from published 
information. Of the 18 variables, 5 dealt with water 

TJ^h^', T^ T*' °^ "'^ "f'= stages spent in 
freshwater (fry and parr), and 7 with reproduction 
(spawning and embryo development). Stream pH 
was a vanable in both water quality and reproduc- 
\ ",■ ^^'"'^ °^ P" °" other model variables were 
studied^ Experiments at three levels of pH from 5 
to 6.0 had no effect on the temperature or oxygen 
levels selected by parr, demonstrating that thi 3 
vanables independently affect fish. Thus, a limiting 
factor model was used in aggregating variables of 
water quality. Field observations suggest that 
.fP ,J, i'^'ocity, and substrate for fry and parr 
should be combined using geometric means, be- 
cause the variables were compensatory. Laborato- 
ry studies of the effects of low pH on swimming 
performance of salmon fry led to modification of 
the onginal suitability curve for velocity, such that 
velocities greater than 30 cm/sec were unsuitable 
If average pH was less than 4.5. The models are 
eased on the assumption that the index of habitat 
quality is directly proportional to carrying capac- 
ity, to test this assumption and the sensitivity of 
this model to the effects of acidification, 1982 
salmon populations were correlated with HSI 
tA^^ calculated from measurements in 3 streams 
of differing pH. The model predicted reduced car- 
rying capacity of Atlantic salmon in one stream 
because of the effect of pH on embryo survival, 
^n^ ."^'"^ calculated by including pH data 
was 70% lower than that calculated without con- 
sidering pH. HSI values including pH data did not 
correlate with standing crops, whereas the HSI's 
produced without pH data did (p = 0.8) Howev- 



RIOU MORT, A TRIBUTARY OF THE LOT 
!?yiVI™ «^ "EAVY METALS. III. GENER 
AL FAUNISTIC STUDY (LE RIOU MORT AF- 
FXUENT DU LOT. POLLUE PAR METAIW 
LOURDS. III. ETUDE FAUNISTIQUE GENER- 

N°G?an?"^ Univ. (France). Lab. d'Hydrobiologie. 

Annales de Limnologie, Vol. 19, No 1 n 79.4^ 
1983. 9 Fig, 4 Tab, 29 Ref ^ ' 

Descriptors: 'Riou Mori, 'France, 'Ecological ef- 
fects, 'O igochaetes, 'Lot. 'Aquatic animals. 
Water pollution effects. Species diversity, Heavy 
metals, Population density. 



The Riou Mort, a river strongly degraded by 
domestic and industrial effluents, is characterized 
by a marked organic pollution, a high turbidity the 
presence of heavy metals and sudden variations of 
pH and 02 content in relation to regular dis- 
charges. This pollution is examined here from the 
faunistic approach by two methods: the total study 
of the fauna and the study of parameters that 
summarize the faunistic data (density, number of 
taxa, index of Boumand and Keck). The two meth- 
ods give similar results and can be used to describe 
the changes in the environment. The second 
method IS the simplest and quickest, and a general 
taunistic study appears superfluous in such cases of 
gross pollution. Likewise, it is sufficient to consid- 
er the total ohgochaetes only because very little 
additional information is obtained from their soe- 
citic identification. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00090 ^ 

^^^^J^^ ^E CONTRIBUTION OF NITRO- 
GEN AND PHOSPHORUS TO THE RIVER 
AVEYRON (DYNAMIQUE DES APPORTS EN 

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 
Toulouse (France). Centre d'Ecologie des Res 
sources Renouvelables. 
E. Chauvet, M. Prat, and J. N. Tourenq 

t9Z'1mlt'F^\Tei. ''°'- •'• ^°- '' P ''■''' 

Descriptors: 'Aveyron, 'France, 'Nitrogen 
Phosphorus, 'Eutrophication, Water pollution ef- 
fects Aquatic plants. Water pollution sources 
Denitrification, Watersheds, Slope. 

The upper reaches of the Aveyron show obvious 
signs of eutrophication. Even in the lotic zones, the 



i; ', 



51 



Field 5-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C— Effects Of Pollution 



periphyton (mostly benthic diatoms) and the aquat- 
ic macrophytes indicate the effects of the nutrient 
levels. Physical-chemical data were collected at 15 
stations on the Aveyron from October 197y 
through September 1980. The water chemistry, 
with generally high levels of nitrogen and phos- 
phorut, favors the development of aquatic vegeta- 
tion The quantities of nutrients from forested 
basins is very low. The effect of cultivated zones 
on the level of nutrients is evident at Bnane. cer- 
tain sections of the Aveyron exhibit auto-epuration 
- a phenomenon associated with denitrification 
bacteria. The three locations with the greatest 
basin slopes (Severac, Laissac and Rodez) are the 
origin of most of the point source pollution. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00092 

DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIAL PLASMIDS 
IN CLEAN AND POLLUTED SITES IN A 
SOUTH WALES RIVER, 

University Coll., Cardiff (Wales). Dept. of Applied 

Biology. _ J » -T- r> 11 

N F. Burton, M. J. Day, and A. 1 . Bull. 

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, VoL 

44, No. 5, p 1026-1029, November, 1982. 2 Tab, 18 

Ref 

Descriptors: 'Bacteria, 'Plasmids, 'Wales, 'Riyer 
Ely, Sediments, Water pollution effects, DNA, 
Conjugal transfer. 

Four hundred aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were 
isolated from the sediment of unpolluted and pol- 
luted sites in the River Ely, a fast-flowing south 
Wales river. Isolates were subjected to taxonomic 
tests and screened for the presence of plasmid 
DNA by alkaline lysis and agarose gel techniques. 
There were no significant differences between sites 
in either the total percentage of isolates containing 
plasmids (unpolluted site 9.4%; polluted site 15%) 
or in the percentage of non-Pseudomonas-like iso- 
lates containing plasmids (unpolluted site 15%; pol- 
luted site 10%). There were significantly more 
Pseudonomas-like isolates with plasmids at the pol- 
luted site than at the unpolluted site (unpolluted 
site 7%- polluted site 18%). This presumably re- 
flected a response of the nutritionally versatile 
Pseudomonas-like isolates to conditions at that site. 
The majority (86%) of the plasmids detected had 
molecular masses between 35 and 312 megadaltons. 
These plasmids were large enough to carry genes 
for conjugal transfer, suggesting the possibility of 
such transfer in this environment. One result of the 
technique used in this study supposedly is the 
reflection of a response to a generally increased 
level of pollutants. The values for plasmid occur- 
rences reported are minimum values for two main 
reasons. First, the technique used will not detect 
plasmids which are integrated with the host chro- 
mosome (i.e. episomes). Second, the band of chro- 
mosomal DNA on the agarose gels may obscure 
plasmids of 25 to 35 Md. (Baker-IVI) 
W 8 5-00094 

IMPACT OF COAL-COKING EFFLUENT ON 
SEDIMENT MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A 
MULTIVARIATE APPROACH, 

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Microbiolo- 

gy 

G. S. Sayler, T. W. Sherrill, R. E. Perkins, L. M. 
Mallory, and M. P. Shiaris. 

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 
44, No. 5, p 1118-1129, November, 1982. 6 Fig, 2 
Tab, 28 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution effects, 'Microbio- 
logical studies, 'Industrial wastes, 'Coking, Coal 
wastes. Alkaline phosphatase, Naphthalene, Phen- 
anthrene. Mineralization, Nitrogen fixation, Pro- 
tein, Anaerobic conditions. Methane. 




The response of a natural microbial community to 
coal-coking wastewater contamination was de- 
scribed in order to predict microbial community 
responses to coal-conversion contaminant-induced 
ecosystem perturbations. A specific objective was 
to determine whether coal coking wastewater 
caused a permanent alteration in the microbial 
community's ability to respond to temporal 
changes in the environment and to evaluate that 



response with respect to PAH biotransformation 
rates Those microbial variables that provide the 
greatest information in detecting changes_ or re- 
sponses within the microbial community of a con- 
taminated environment were also sought. Findings 
support the hypothesis that multiple functional 
measures of microbial community response are re- 
quired to evaluate the effect of and recovery from 
environmental contamination. When long term et- 
fects are evaluated, select physiological traits such 
as polyaromatic hydrocarbon mineralization may 
not reflect population and biomass estimates ol 
community response. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00095 

EFFECT OF EFFUENT FROM A NITROGEN 
FERTILIZER FACTORY AND A PULP MILL 
ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE 
OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN ALBE- 
MARLE SOUND, NORTH CAROLINA 
Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras. Dept. of Biology. 
T. C. Hazen, and G. W. Esch. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 
45 No. 1, p 31-42, January, 1983. 7 Fig, 6 Tab, 35 
Ref 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution effects, 'Industrial 
wastes, 'Aeromonas, 'Albemarle Sound, 'North 
Carolina, Pulp and paper industry, Kraft process. 
Fertilizers, Pulp wastes, Nutrients, Phosphates, 
Phytoplankton, Nitrates, Epizootics, Fish diseases, 
Roanoke River, Chowan River, Estuaries. 

The densities of Aeromonas hydrophila in Albe- 
marle Sound were studied to determine if they 
were affected by the industrial waste effluents 
present in the area. Albermarle Sound is a natural 
estuary with a mean depth of 3 m, a maximum 
depth of 20 m and a shoreline length of 600 km. 
The total watershed covers 45,695 sq km. The two 
main tributaries are the Roanoke River and the 
Chowan River. A Kraft pulping process papermiU 
is located on the Roanoke River, discharging 
147 000,000 liters/day into Welch Creek, a small 
feeder that joins the Roanoke River. A nitrogen 
fertilizer factor near Winton, N.C., on the lower 
Chowan River released 544 kg of total nitrogen 
each day during this study into the Chowan River. 
The impact of the pulp mill on water quality was 
acute, whereas that of the nitrogen fertilizer facto- 
ry was chronic and much more subtle. A. hydro- 
phila survival is increased by pulp mill effluent and 
decreased by nitrogen fertilizer factory effluent. A. 
hydrophila was directly affected by phytoplankton 
density and, thus, indirectly by concentrations of 
phosphate, nitrate, and total organic carbon. These 
two point sources are suspect as indirect causes ot 
red-sore disease epizootics, a disease of fish caused 
by A. hydrophila. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00096 

UPSTREAM MIGRATION BY YOUNG PIG- 
MENTED FRESHWATER EELS (ANGUILA 
AUSTRALIS AUSTRALIS RICHARDSON) IN 
TASMANIA, u u . 

Tasmanian Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart 

(Australia). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 60. 

W85-00131 

ANTIMONY AND THALLIUM TOXICITY TO 
EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF FATHEAD MIN- 
NOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS), 

EG and G Bionomics, Wareham, MA. 

G. A. LeBlanc, and J. W. Dean. 

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 

Toxicology, Vol. 32, No. 5, p 565-569, April, 1984. 

1 Tab, 16 Ref EPA contract 78-01-4646. 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution effects, 'Antimony, 
'Thallium, 'Minnows, Adsorption, Fish, Larval 
growth stage, Hatching, Embryonic growth stage, 
Metals. 



toxic to fathead minnows. No fathead minnow 
embryos survived exposure to 720 microg/L thalli- 
um. Significantly fewer embryos exposed to 350 
micro g/L successfully hatched than would be 
normally expected. Embryos were not affected by 
exposure to thallium concentrations as high as 200 
microg/L. No fathead minnow larvae survived 
exposure to 350 microg/L thallium. Larvae surviv- 
al was significantly reduced from exposure to thal- 
lium concentrations as low as 40 microg/L. The 
Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration for 
thallium, as thallium sulfate, is estimated to be less 
than 40 micro g/L. Thallium exhibited consider- 
able chronic toxicity. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00134 



Fathead minnow embryos hatched normally when 
exposed to antimony concentrations as high as 7.5 
microg/L. Survival and growth of larvae was also 
unaffected from exposure to antimony concentra- 
tions at this level. Solutions saturated with antimo- 
ny, as antimony trioxide, appear therefore not to be 



52 



FISH MORTALITY FOLLOWING APPLICA- 
TION OF PHENTHOATE TO FLORIDA 
CITRUS 

Agricultural Research and Education Center, Lake 

Alfred, FL. _, , , 

H. N. Nigg, J. H. Sumper, R. M. Queen, and J. L 

Knapp. 

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 

Toxicology, Vol. 32. No. 5, p 587-596, April, 1984. 

5 Tab, 1 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution effects, 'Fish, 
'Phenthoate, 'Florida, 'Citrus fruits, Gastropods, 
Insects, Toxicity, Mortality, Pesticides, Bass, Blue- 
gill. 

Florida citrus growers regularly apply pesticides 
near bodies of water and also may pump water 
from nearby lakes and ditches to supply spray 
machines. On April 27, 1982, 4 lb/gal emulsifiable 
phenthoate was applied to 33 acres of mature citrus 
trees at a rate of 10 lb phenthoate AI/A. Water 
was pumped into the supply vehicle from a pond 
and as the vehicle was filling, pesticides were 
added to the tank. All precautions were taken to 
prevent pesticide from entering the pond. Each 
sampling day the near shoreline regions of the 
control and treatment ponds were inspected for 
dead or dying aquatic organisms. None were ob- 
served in the control pond. Uncaged fish were still 
active postspray and demonstrated no observable 
problems. In the treatment pond no dead or dymg 
organisms were noted 3 hr after application. On 
day 1 postapplication, dragonflies, cove-headea 
grasshoppers, angular winged katydid, and various 
species of snails were dead or dying on the surface 
of the pond. One dead bass and 30 bluegiUs were 
retrieved. On day 2 more dead fish were retneved^ 
During the next several days, additional dead tub 
appeared on the surface of the treatment pond_ No 
live fish were observed in the treatment pond from 
day 2 to day 8, but 3 small live minnows were 
noted at the boat launch on day 8. Fish m treat- 
ment cages, when alive, appeared to be ui shock 
and responded sluggishly when prodded. I he 
western side of the treatment pond received more 
drift than the eastern half, consistent with westerly 
winds observed during application. (Baker-IVi) 
W85-00135 

TOXICITY AND ACCUMULATION OF MER- 
CURY IN FISH, THE HIMEDAKA ORYZIAS 
LATIPES, 

Tokyo Univ. of Fisheries (Japan). 
Y Nagashima, T. Kikuchi, and M. Chiba. 
Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fish- 
eries, Vol. 50, No.l, p 95-99, January, 1984. 7 Fig, 
1 1 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Mercury, 'Bioaccumulation, 'Ory- 
zias, 'Himedaka, 'Toxicity, Methyl mercury. Mer- 
curic chloride. Mortality, Heavy metals, Organ& 
mercury compounds. Water pollution effects. 

The toxicity of mercury to Himedaka (Oryziai 
latipes) was assessed at exposures of 100-1000 pp 
mercuric chloride and 50-300 ppb methyl mercun 
chloride (MeHgCl) in water tanks using the stU 
water method. LC50 values obtained were 700 ppl 
and 155 ppb for HgC12 and MeHgCl, respectively 
In live fish 25 ppm was the maximum concentra 
tion regardless of the concentration of HgCli usei 
for rearing. Concentrations in dead fish were ver; 
high, ranging from 41-58 ppm when reared in bW 






■■■m 



^ass 



1000 ppbHgC12 solutions. No conversion of 
HgC12 to MeHgCl was noted. The percentage of 
?J*u'^,'"T''"'y '" '°'^^ "g '" fish reared in 
^^^xT sol"«'ons was fairly consistent, being 60- 
90%. No evidence was found for the conversion of 
methyl mercury to other forms of mercury in fish 
bodies. Accumulation of mercury in Himedaka 
was not observed in the group reared with the feed 
:ontainmg mainly HgC12. Throughout the 5 week 
jeriod the total Hg concentration remained less 
ha O.I ppm. In contrast, gradual accumulation was 
)bserved m the other group of fish reared with the 
eed contammg mamly methyl mercury. The total 
/nci"''^r'"V°" reached 0.34 ppm after 5 weeks, 
^-95% of which was methyl mercury. (Baker- 

V85-0O138 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION-Field 5 

Effects Of Pollution— Group 5C 



^'^^^^^i^"^^^^ ^^ THERMAL TOLER- 
^CE OF COMMON ESTUARINE CRUSTA- 

tANS, 

fniversidad de Oriente, Cumana (Venezuela) Inst 

iceanografico. 

.. S. Chung, and K. Strawn. 

ulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fish- 

les. Vol. 50. No. 3, p 451-456, 1984. 2 Fig, 2 Tab 

) Kef. ' 

escriptors: *Crustaceans, 'Cooling towers, 
Ihermal pollution, 'Survival, *Bacliff, *Texas 
alveston Bay, Water temperature. Seasonal varia- 
m, tstuanne environment. Intake canals. Canals 
itrainment. 

le common estuarine crustaceans collected in the 
f^ '=^^V°*' '•'^ P- H- Robinson Generating 
Jtion, Bachff, Texas, were tested for 180 minutes 
^^'?S'i* ..'^'^'^''^'"Se canal temperatures during 
le 1974 through September 1975 to determine iT 
:y could survive passage through a discharge 
aling system. Temperature ranged from 13 to 

1 degrees C in the intake canal, from 14 4 to 

2 in the discharge canal above the cooling 
k'ers, Md from 22.3 to 37.8 below the cooling 
i/ers. Before June and after September efferent 
iperatures were usually under 35 degrees C and 

cooling towers were not operated. Three-hr 
I3U temperatures were significantly higher 
aughout the year, than the temperatures in the 
;harge canal downstream from the cooling 
'ers, indicating that crustaceans should survivS 
sage to Galveston Bay. The thermally critical 
lod of the year for the crustaceans entrained 
entrapped from intake water and exposed to 
discharge effluent is the summer, especially 
s-August, when discharge canal temperatures 
?^,L'^ degrees or greater. (Baker-IVI) 
5-00140 



moriahties (18%) occurred primarily during the 
longest depression (5 d at pH 4.5-5.0), which coin- 
cided with maximum surface runoff and peaks in 
concentrations (approximately 50 micro g/L) of 
inorganic (monomeric) AI. Although most mortali- 
ties were coincident with low pH and elevated 
inorganic Al concentrations, the high survival 
(82%) demonstrated that under natural conditions 
most sac fry could tolerate pH < 5.0 and inorganic 
AI concentrations of 40-50 micro g/L for at least 5 
d. Substantially higher concentrations of inorganic 
Al (approximately 80 micro g/L) were observed in 
the interstitial waters of the spawning rubble than 
in ambient waters, which indicated that fry within 
a spawning substrate may be subjected to more 
toxic conditions than test fry in incubators above 
the substrate surface. Conventional open-water 
samplmg programs, and field and laboratory bioas- 
says, may not adequately describe responses of 
WsT-M/scr" '° '"=''''fi'=^''0"- (ColIier-IVI) 

EMPIRICAL PREDICTION OF CRUSTACEAN 
ZOOPLANKTON BIOMASS AND PROFl^ 
S^L MACROBENTHOS BIOMASS IN LAKES, 

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). Dept. of Biol- 

w«Pj^7?i^y bibliographic entry see Field 2H. 
W 55-00 1 52 



A^TF*^?I KEPONE AND MIREX IN THE 
AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT, 

Columbia National Fisheries Research Lab MO 
(x?L^^fJ bibliographic entry see Field 5B. 

WiSD-OOIoO 



ACEPHATE IN RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO 
fL^^NTlSN^"^^^ TOXICITV^.^J|^^^g 

^SoToSscfers'^ '^''''' ^°'"'"'''^>- 
G. H. Geen, B. A. McKeown, and P. C Oloff 
v^^i^piq"^!^"^'™"?,^"*^' Sciences and Health, 
TaisORef ' " '"' ''"""' '^^^^ ^ ^'^' ^ 

Descriptors: *Acephate, "Trout, 'Toxicity, 

Elimination, 'Bioaccumulation, Organophos- 

phorus pesticides, Biological magnification, Metha- 

Sfem ""'°" coefficient. Water pollution 

The 96-h LC50 of acephate, a water-soluble organ- 
ophosphorus insecticide, averaged 2,740 ppm for 
rainbow trout. Such low acute toxicity is apparent- 
ly unique among commercial insecticides. Uptake 
of acephate by trout from water was rapid and 
reached equilibrium concentrations (4 to 6% of 
ambient concentrations) in 5 to 8 days. Methami- 
dophos, a metabolite of acephate, formed rapidlv 
reaching approximately 25% of the acephate con- 
centrations in the fish. Elimination of 50% of ace- 
phate and methamidophos from rainbow trout re- 

rfh'* ^a\'° ^-^^ '^^y'- Neither acephate nor 
methamidophos were bioconcentrated in the trout 
(mean biconcentration factor = 0533) Predic 
tions of bioconcentration of acephate, based on its 
water solubility, its octanol/water partition coeffi- 
cient, or based on relationships developed in other 
studies, did not, as a rule, agree with the experi- 
mental results. (Author's abstfact) ^ 
W8 5-00 169 



ACUTE TOXICITY, BIOCONCENTRATION 
AND PERSISTENCE OF AC 222,705 BKVTHIo' 
CARB, CHLORPYRIFOS, FENVALERATe" 
METHYL PARATHION, AND PER^ETHRIN 
IN THE ESTUARINE ENTVIRONMENT 
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL 

It Schimmel, R. L. Garnas, J. M. Patrick, Jr , 
and J. C. Moore. 

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol 
Fig,?Tai:5'2R?f:"'' J-"-V-February, 1983. 3 



)^JS^ ^"^ WATER CHEMISTRY AND 
^ J^Om (SALVELI^VS NAMAYCUSW 
)wlS,T,"''^^ DURING SPRING 

irio Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto 
. Gunn, and W. Keller. loronio. 

idian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc- 
1 Tab,43Ref ' '' "'■'''' ''"'''"^^^' '''"■ ' 

;riptors: *Trout, 'Snowmelt, 'Aluminum, 
die water, 'Fish fry, 'Whitepine Lake, 'On- 
, Acid precipitation. Mortality, Spawning Hy- 
en ion concentration. Water pollution effects. 

tuations of pH associated with snowmelt can 
r m poorly buffered lakes receiving high acid 
tigs. For fall spawning fish, especially species 
.pawn near shorelines in shallow waters, the 
g of hatch, yoke absorption, and emergence 
f^H-'f^i, '?''°?^"y '° depressed pH levels and 
ted hthologically derived aluminum concen- 
ns produced by snowmelt. Aluminum appears 
use fish mortalities under acidic conditions. 
licM 'P""8 of 1982, lake trout (Salvelinus 
ycush) sac fry were incubated at a spawning 
n Whitpain Lake, 90 km north of Sudbury 

1^ ^ f f : '^""o "^"^ ^ '^'s'°ry of lake trout 
tment failure^ Snow-pack pH ranged from 
5.2 and rainfall pH ranged from 3.6 to 4 9 
3"^.?u'^°'^^^ °^ substantial pH depression 
red at the spawning site. Observed sac fry 



Descriptors: 'Toxicity, 'AC 222,705, 'Benthio- 
carb 'Chlorpynfos, 'Fenvalerate, 'Methyl parath- 
lon, 'Permethnn, 'Biological magnification^ 'Per- 
I'^^k"^^: Pj^^tl^roids, Oysters, Partition coefficient. 
Solubility, Crustaceans, Sheepshead minnows, Pes- 
ScumulS. 0^g-°P''-Phorus pesticides. 

Six pesticides were evaluated in laboratory studies 
to determine acute (96-h) toxicity, octanol-water 
partition coefficient (log P), solubility, and persist- 
ence in seawater. In addition, three of the six 
pesticides (synthetic pyrethroids) were tested by 
using the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in 
ong-term (28-day) tests to determine their respec 
ive bioconcentration factors (BCF). Acute toxici- 
ty tests provided the following decreasing order of 
*°'^'^"y t° estuarine crustaceans and fishes: AC 
Sk 1 ' '^^"^a'erate, permethrin, chlorpynfos, 
J .^^/'"^i'""' ^"'^ benthiocarb. The estuarine 
mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) was consistently the 
m^t sensitive species with LC50 values as low as 
0.008 micro g/L. The sheepshead minnow (Cy- 

HvT?rr ''^f T^^'<=n^ ^,^ generally the least sensi- 
ive (range of LC50 values =1.1-1370 micro g/L) 
log P values were inversely related to solubility in 
seawater. The following are the increasing order of 
log P values (range 1.8-6.5) and decreasing order 
of solubihty (range > 1000-24 micro g/L): methyl 
parathion, benthiocarb, chlorpyrifos, AC 222 705 
fenvalerate, and permethrin. Pesticide half-lives iri 
sediment-water studies range from 1.2 to 34 davs 
tltr'^ '" the following order of increasing 
carb Tr'^^'.ln^' parathion permethrin, benthio^ 
^.'ct^ 222 705, chlorpynfos, and fenvalerate. 
The steady-state BCF's of the three synthetic pyr- 
27/ms' "T'/^mT ?' permethrin, 2300 for AC 
222 705 and 4700 for fenvalerate. After termination 
ot the exposure, each insecticide was depurated bv 
oysters to nondectable concentrations within 1 
week. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00163 



EFFECTS OF ACEPHATE (ORTHENE) ON DF 
VELOpMENT AND SURVIVAL OF THE SALA-" 
MANDER, AMBYSTOMA GRACILE (BAIRD) 

Simon Fraser Univ Burnaby (British Columbia)! 
Dept. of Biological Sciences. 

D Barker' ^ ^' '^'=^^°^"' ^ ^- Watson, and 

VnTRiQ°M^"o''°","J?"'^' Sciences and Health, 
VoL B19, No. 2, p 157-170, June, 1984. 2 Fig, 16 

Descriptors: 'Acephate, 'Orthene, 'Salamanders, 
toxicity, Organophosphorus pesticides. Water pol- 
lution effects. Hatching, Eggs, Larval growth 
stage, Mortality, Growth rates! 

The effects of acephate, a water-soluble organo- 
phosphorus insecticide, on the early growth and 
survival of the salamander, Ambystoma gracile 
were examined. The 96-h LC50 for 69-day old 
larvae was 8816 mg/L. Exposure of egg masses to 
concentrations up to 798 mg/L did not produce 
significant differences in mortality up to the time 
ot hatching. Larval mortality in the first 7 days 
alter hatching increased at the higher acephate 
concentrations but declined in the period day 7-29 
to low rates independent of acephate concentra- 
tion. Growth rate decreased and morphological 
** !3°^Ul *'^^ increased in larvae exposed to 382 
and 798 mg/L acephate. This component of lake 
fauna would be little affected by insect control 
programs which use acephate since maximum sur- 
face water concentrations would probably be < 1 
mg/L. (Author's abstract) :>' -^ <^ ' 

W85-00170 



Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby (British Columbia). 
Dept. of Biological Sciences. 

JnH'V^'^2"' P- A- G. Tilley, B. A. McKeown, 
and G. H. Geen. 

VoTr,o° M^"';'''°"T-f,"'fi ^'='^"'=^^ ^"'l Health, 
Tab! 20 Ref " ' ''"""' '^^^- ' ^'^' ' 

?Gflk"''iT"' , .^Acetylcholinesterase, 'Brains, 
Gills, 'Trout, 'Acephate, Toxicity, Organophos- 
phorus pesticides. Water pollution effects, Orth- 
ene, Esterase activity. 



53 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5C— Effects Of Pollution 

The in vitro effects of acephate (Orthene), a water- 
soluble organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, on 
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow 
trout tissues were investigated over an acephate 
concentration range of 1,000 mg/L (5.5 mM) to 
25,000 mg/L (136 mM). A recognized toxic action 
of OP insecticides is the direct inhibition of AChE 
with the consequent hyperstimulatory neurotrans- 
mitting action of acetylcholine. Measurements of in 
vitro AChE activity were based on the difference 
between total esterase activity and esterase activity 
in the presence of .0001 M eserine. A decline of 
AChE activity to < 18% of control activity, a 
level previously reported to be associated with fish 
mortality, was reached at concentrations of 25,000 
mg/L In vitro concentrations required to produce 
50% inhibition of AChE in the brain and gill were 
12,600 mg/L and 14,100 mg/L respectively. Smce 
such concentrations would not occur in natural 
waters following use of acephate to control terres- 
trial insect pest populations, fish mortalities would 
not be expected. (CoUier-IVI) 
W85-00171 



INFLUENCE OF EXPERIME^JTAL SEWAGE 
POLLUTION ON LAGOON PHYTOPLANK- 
TON, 

Institute of Geological Sciences, Nottingham 
(England). Geochemistry and Petrology Div. 
N. Fanuko. 

Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 5, p 195- 
198, 1984. 5 Fig, 12 Ref 

Descriptors: *Phytoplankton, 'Population dynam- 
ics, »Water pollution effects, 'Wastewater pollu- 
tion, *Lagoons, Coastal areas. Chlorophyll a, Bio- 
mass. Seasonal variation. 

Phytoplankton populations were examined in two 
experimental basins during an in situ enrichment 
program in coastal lagoons at Stunjan, north Adri- 
atic, from 1976 to 1978. Within a large lagoon two 
experimental basins were constructed, 63 sq m 
each, one of them receiving 300 1 of primary 
settled municipal sewage and the other one serving 
as the control. In the clean lagoon the phytoplank- 
ton exhibited regular seasonal variations. During 
the warm part of the year the lagoon was rich in 
phytoplankton. The phytoplankton growth in the 
polluted lagoon, however, showed marked symp- 
toms of inhibition. Chlorophyll a values were sig- 
nificantly reduced in the polluted lagoon and the 
cell density was significantly lower too. There was 
no correlation at all between chlorophyll a and 
cells in the polluted lagoon, while in the clean one 
a significant relationship between the two variables 
was found. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00202 



Administration action level of 1.0 ppm. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00204 

IN-SITU BIOASSAYS OF FISH MORTALITY 
IN TWO PENNSYLVANIA STREAMS ACIDI- 
FIED BY ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. School 

of Forest Resources. 

W. E. Sharpe, W. G. Kimmel, E. S. Young, Jr., 

and D. R. DeWalle. 

Northeastern Environmental Science, Vol. 2, No. 

3/2. p 171-178, 1983. 4 Fig, 3 Tab, 22 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Fish, 'Mortality, 'Acid streams, 
♦Pennsylvania, 'Bioa-ssay, Water quality, Acid 
rain. Water pollution effects, Atmospheric deposi- 
tion. Hydrogen ion concentration. Aluminum, 
Toxicity, Trout, Sculpin. 

A limited in-situ bioassay of fish mortality for the 
species Salvelinus fontinalis, Salmo gairdneri, 
Salmo trutta and Cottus bairdi was conducted on 
two streams. Wildcat and McGinnis Runs, during 
February and March 1982. Both streams are suffer- 
ing from varying degrees of acidification attributed 
to atmospheric deposition. These streams are locat- 
ed on adjacent watersheds on the Laurel Hill in 
southwestern Pennsylvania. Bioassay tanks were 
set up along each stream and maintained by a 
gravity flow of stream water. The less acidified 
stream. Wildcat Run, served as control. Observa- 
tions of water quality during the experiment re- 
vealed severe depressions of pH and increases of 
total aluminum in the water of McGinnis Run and 
similar but much less severe changes on Wildcat 
Run. Trout mortality in McGinnis Run com- 
menced during the first 24 hr of exposure. By the 
end of 9 days, all wild and hatchery-reared trout 
had succumbed with the exception of wild brook 
trout. Nearly all fish and invertebrates in the Wild- 
cat Run tank survived beyond the study period and 
showed no signs of stress. The mottled sculpin was 
the most tolerant of all fish tested. Allonarcys 
proteus was the most tolerant organism, although 
this organism is not found in McGinnis Run. Mi- 
croscopic examination of the gill filaments of the 
dead fish revealed the presence of a yellowish 
deposit characeristic of aluminum toxicity. Fish 
stress symptoms at the time of death and species 
tolerance differences were also typical of low pH- 
high aluminum toxicity. The lack of more detailed 
aluminum analysis obviates the conclusion that alu- 
minum was a factor in the deaths of the McGinnis 
Run fish. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00205 



MERCURY LEVELS IN BROOK TROUT (SAL- 
VELINUS FONTINALIS) FROM SELECTED 
ACID AND LIMED ADIRONDACK LAKES, 

New York State Coll. of Agriculture and Life 
Sciences, Ithaca. Dept. of Natural Resources. 
R. Sloan, and C. L. Schofield. 
Northeastern Environmental Science, Vol. 2, No. 
3/4, p 165-170, 1983. 1 Fig, 3 Tab, 22 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Trout, 'Mercury, 'Adirondack 
Mountains, 'New York, 'Liming, Acid lakes. 
Acidity, Heavy metals. Water pollution effects. 
Hydrogen ion concentration. 

Liming of acidified lakes is effective in maintaining 
pH levels conducive to fish survival and has been 
extensively employed in acid lakes of the Adiron- 
dack Mountains of New York. Concern that liming 
might increase mercury body burdens in fish led to 
the sampling and analysis by atomic absorption 
spectrophotometric methods of whole brook trout 
(Salvelinus fontinalis) from 15 small lakes. Brook 
trout inhabiting acid drainage lakes with pH 5 
exhibited significantly higher mercury concentra- 
tions than more alkaline acid drainage, seepage and 
bog type lakes. There was no evidence of in- 
creased mercury uptake by brook trout due to 
liming practices utilized in Adirondack lakes. None 
of the brook trout or other species sampled from 
the Adirondack lakes in this study had mercury 
concentrations greater than the Food and Drug 



AOD RAIN: NEW S02 CONTROLS INEVTTA- 
BLE, 

L. Catalano, and J. Makansi. 

Power, Vol. 127, No. 9, p 25-33, September, 1983. 

2 Fig, 1 Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Acid rain, 'Legislation, 'Sulfur di- 
oxide, 'Water pollution control, Powerplants, Util- 
ities, Scrubbers, Waste treatment, Air pollution 
control. Acid lakes. 

Acid dead lakes are believed to result from the 
poor buffering qualities of the surrounding soils, 
rather than from rain falling directly into the lakes. 
Lakes are not the only victims. Damage to vegeta- 
tion is extreme in some areas. Environmentalists 
urge that the only way to stop this ecological 
damage is to reduce emissions at the powerplants. 
Utilities vehemently protest this presentation of the 
problem urging that more conclusive evidence be 
gathered, perhaps through the use of radioactive 
tracer elements placed in the emissions of midwest- 
em powerplants and the path of the gases fol- 
lowed. The differences of opinion voiced by the 
environmentalists vs the utilities makes coming to a 
decision on this issue very difficult. The various 
legislative proposals that Congress has to choose 
from are outlined. Fueling the debate over the 
various proposals is an inundation of reports from 
scientific research organizations. Options open to 
industry to meet the acid-rain emission limits in- 
clude wet lime/limestone Hue-gas desulfurization 
(FGD), FGD with product recovery, physical 
coal cleaning, low-sulfur coal switch, spray-dryer 



FGD, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, h: 
stone-injection multisuge combustion, and p-. 
injection dry-sorbent injection. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-O0210 



ANALYSIS OF OLIATA FROM POLLUTED | 
SECTOR OF THE RIVER DRWINKA ON THE > 
BASIS OF BINARY DATA, 

Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Hy- 

drobiology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2 . 

W85-00223 

OCCURRENCE OF WATER MITES fHYDRA- 
CARINA) IN THE RIVER WIEPRZ POLLUTED 
WITH DOMESTIC-INDUSTRY SEWAGE, 

Akademia Rolnicza, Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Zo- 
ology and Hydrobiology. 
W. Kowalik, and E. Biesiadka. 
Acta Hydrobiologica, Vol. 23, No. 4, p 331-348, 
1981. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 20 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Mites, 'Rivers, 'Water pollution ef- 
fects, 'River Wieprz, 'Poland, Bioindicators, In- 
dustrial waste, Municipal waste. 

The occurrence of Hydracarina was investigated 
in the River Wieprz, which is polluted with do- 
mestic-industry sewage. A total of 42 species of ' 
water mites was found. Species structure showed I 
great similarity with Polish lowland rivers. Three I 
main groups of species were distinguished. The i 
most interesting group was connected mainly with ' 
mountain and submontane running waters and in- 
cluded Lebertia pilosa, L. slovenica, Torrenticola I 
stadleri, Hygrabates longiporus, Satractides tener, I 
and Mideopsis roztoczensis. The second group was * 
the most numerous and was constituted by largely J 
spread water mites including Hygrobates nigroma- 
culatus, Lebertia porosa, and Hygrobates fiuviatilis J 
along with Sperchon setiger, Lebertia inaequahs, 1 
Hygrobates calliger, and Sperchon clupeifer. The \ 
third, fairly large group consisted of species con- 
nected with stagnant waters. There was an evid : 
negative correlation between the abundance 
water mites and the number of their species . 
the degree of water pollution. The possibihty of j 
using water mites as indicators of the level of ' 
water pollution was estimated. (Baker-IVI) I 

W85-00224 



EFFECT OF WASTE WATER ON dLUllf 
COMMUNITIES IN THE BIALA PRZEMSZA 
RIVER, 

Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst, of En- j 

vironmental Biology. 

For primary bibhographic entry see Field 2H. 

W85-00227 

GROUPS OF PELAGIC ZOOPLANKTON IN; 
THREE LAKES OF DIFFERENT TROPHY, , 

Akademia Rolnicza, Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Zo- [ 
ology and Hydrobiology. : 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2H. 
W85-00228 < 

ZONATION OF MAYFLIES (EPHEMEROP 
TERA) IN SEVERAL STREAMS OF THE i 
TATRA MTS AND THE PODHALE REGION, ( 

Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow. Zaklad :; 
Ochrony Przyrody i Zasobow Naturalnych. I 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2H. i 

W85-00229 * 



EFFECT OF RATN WATERS ON LEAD LEVEL 
IN THE VISTULA IN THE REGION OF 
CRACOW AGGLOMERATION, 

Instytut Ksztaltowania Srodowiska, Krakow 

(Poland). 

I Skoczcn. 

Acta Hydrobiologica, Vol. 24, No. 2, p 95-107, 

1982. 2 Fig, 3 Tab, 9 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Lead, 'Water quality, 'Stonn 
runoff, 'Krakow, 'Vistula, 'Poland, Snowmen. 



54 



'rban runoff, Public health. Drinking water Diur- 
al variation. Seasonal variation. 

he quantity and duration of polluted runoff was 
vestigated in the Vistula in the region of Cracow 
'ay and night vanations of lead level were estab- 
ihed under various hydrological and meteorologi- 
il conditions. The problem was to investigate the 
mamics of pollutant variations of the Vistula in 
:pendence on the character, intensity, and loca- 
m of atmospheric precipitations. The starting 
lint of the study was protection of the water 
ien in for dnnking purposes and necessity of 
timating the sanitary state of the catchment area 
the Upper Vistula. The lowest amount of lead 
riability was found during the dry period 
mng the precipitation and thaw periods the day 
3 night vanability was considerably higher and 
pended on the amount of runoff pollution and 
lation of atmosphenc precipitation. The quantity 
lead loads dunng precipitation periods was con- 
loned by the character and location of atmos- 
;nc precipitation. Greatest lead loads occurred 
mg periods of continuous precipitation. In some 
es, maximum lead concentrations exceeded the 
el for the third class of surface water purity in 
and. Storing water for drinking purposes pro- 
ded mainly durmg periods of high flow. (Baker- 

5-00230 



^CT OF RAIN WATERS ON SALINITY 
RIATION OF THE VISTULA IN THE 
f^-^^J^"^ CRACOW AGGLOMERATION 
I THE EXAMPLE OF CHLORIDES), 

ytut Ksztaltowania Srodowiska, Krakow 

and). 

coczen. 

i Hydrobiologica, Vol. 24, No. 2, n 109-124 

:.2Fig,6Tab, 12Ref. ^ ' 

:riptors: *Salinity, 'Storm runoff, *Vistula 
»kow 'Poland, 'Rain, 'Chlorides, Water qual- 
ontrol, Diurnal variation, Snowmelt. 

indes are the main components of salinity of 
Vistula in the region of Cracow agglomeration 
rides do not undergo sedimentation for self- 
ication processes, thus eliminating the impact 
ater stages on the decrease in concentration 
;s A quantitative determination was made of 
:hlorides in the runoff and their influence on 
'istula in this region. Secondly, day and night 
ligations of the Vistula were made to deter- 
the variation in salinity of the Vistula during 
al periods and to examine the pollutant load 
: nver. Lovvest chloride loads were found in 
iry penod in all the years investigated. In 
js of precipitation and thawing the loads 

higher. Highest loads were found durine 
luous precipitation localized in the region and 
' f .1 ,?'^°Y agglomeration. Increases in sa- 
of the Vistula were dependent on the amount 
lospheric precipitation occurring to a greater 

than on other factors. The diurnal variation 
onde loads was dependent to a great extent 
iteorological factors. Lowest load values and 
t vanabhty were found in the dry period. 

)0231 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION-Field 5 

Effects Of Pollution— Group 5C 



study are presented along with their influences on 
the benthic macroinvertebrate community popula- 
tion. High acidity of the water causes a reduction 
in the number of taxons found at chemically 
s ressed sites. The Niepolomice Forest area, the 
study site, IS divided by the Drwinka River into a 
southern and a northern part. In the northern part 
a decidous forest predominates, while the southern 
part is mixed. Thirteen study sites were chosen 4 
a ong the middle stretch of the Drwinka River' 5 
along the Traczowka Stream in the southern part 
of the forest, 2 sites in the lode in the southern part 
of the forest, tnbutary of the Traczowka Stream 
and two sites in the lode in the northern part of the 
forest area. Very characteristic changes in acidity 
were noted along the stream. The lowest value 
be ow 5, occurred in the southern lode and pH 
below 6 was ascertained in the middle stretch of 
the Traczowka Stream. Among acidifying com- 
pounds chlorides and sulfates were abundant in the 
waters in the forest area. Changes in the carbon 
dioxide content, accompanied by the changes in 
the content of calcium and magnesium seem to 
influence pH. The levels of C02 and of pH value 
are alniost inversely proportional at all sites, and 

k"s 'u^ ^u'"y °^ '^^''^'"™ a"d magnesium to 
butter bicarbonates modifies this proportion The 
content of the oxygen dissolved in the water at all 
sites was quite sufficient. COD and oxidizability 
levels reveal that the forest waters are rich in 
organic matter, consisting mainly of humus com- 

(BaTer'-IVlT"*^"* '° ^^'''^"^' '•^=°'"P°''''°"- 
W85-00233 



EFFECT OF CUPRIC CHLORIDE ON OXIDA- 
TIVE METABOLISM IN THE FRESHWATER 
TELEOST, TILAPIA MOSSAMBICA 

Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Pesticide 

and Industrial Toxicology Centre. 

M. Balavenkatasubbaiah, A. Usha Rani K 

Geethanjali, K. R. Purushotham, and R 

Ramamurthi. 

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Vol 8 

No. 3, p 289-293, June, 1984. 3 Tab, 11 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Cupric chloride, 'Tilapia, 'Metabo- 
lism, *Toxicity, 'Copper, Enzymes, Fish behavior. 
Stress, Oxidative metabolism. Succinate dehydro- 
genase, Lactate dehydrogenase. 

The freshwater teleost Tilapia mossambica was 

subi't'h^f n%'''*'"J, ^^-^ '"^^ = LC50/48 hr) and 
sublethal (1-5 mg/1 copper treatment for 1, 7, and 
t^ rTi behavioral responses of fish exposed 

to lethal concentrations of CuC12 include slight 
exitation, irregular body movements, and increase 
in gill opercular movements. The unit metabolism 
of fish exposed to lethal and sublethal concentra- 
tions showed a significant (P < O.OOI) decrease 
over the control animals. The stressed fish appear 
to be meetmg the energy requirements through 
anaerobic oxidation, as indicated by elevated lac- 
tate dehydrogenase and decelerated succinate de- 
hydrogenase activities that can be interpreted as a 
tunctional/physiological adaptation during copper 
intoxication and that these enzymes can be used as 
fMoore^^VlT'"'' °^ '^^ metal-induced stress. 
W85-00271 



J^^S^^P^^"^*^ CHANGES IN KOOTENAY 

BfF?;sKiTTga^s:^^«^' '' ^""^"''^^ 

Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Vancouver 
(Bntish Columbia), Field Services Branch. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2H 
W85-00249 



SIMULATING THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS 
iVsTEMS?''''^^ '^ ''^''^'^'^ MICrSSS 

Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Fisheries 
O. Swartzman, and K. A. Rose 

foTl'/fos^' ^^'^^'''"S' '^°'- 22. No. 104. p 123-134, 
1983/1984. 5 Fig, 1 Tab, 15 Ref 



m^mE^, CADMIUM-CONTA^'.SI^S 

Goeteborg Uni'v. (Sweden). Dept, of Zoophysio- 

M.-L. Sjobeck, C. Haux, A. Larsson, and G 

Lithner. 

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Vol 8 

No. 3, p 303-312, June, 1984. 1 Fig, 3 Tab! 46 Ref 

Descriptors. 'Perch, 'Cadmium, 'Ernan, 
Sweden, Water pollution effects. Toxicity, Indus- 
trial wastes. Blood, Fish, Immune response, Metab- 



POSmON AND ZONATION OF 
HIC INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES 
►ME CHEMICALLY STRESSED AQUAT 

^H poZInS^ '"^epolomice Forest 

Academy of Sciences, Krakow. Zaklad 
ny Przyrody i Zasobow Naturalnych 
tnal, and E. Dumnicka. 

'f? ''ffiTRlf"'- ''' ''°- '' P '^'-•"• 

ptors: 'Invertebrates, 'Water pollution ef- 
Forest watersheds, 'Niepolomice Forest 

d. Acid waters. Dissolved oxygen. Organic 
Ohgochaetes, Chironomids, Benthos. 

ypes of the invertebrate communities are 
ushed in which Oligochaeta and Chirono- 
ire dominant groups. The changes of some 
al factors along the water course under 



Descriptors: 'Microcosms, 'Water pollution ef- 
fects, 'Model studies, 'Simulation, Bioassay, Tox- 
icity, Aquatic environmem. Mathematical equa- 

PW I, ^*'i?'^"'''°"' Zooplankton, Nitrogen, 
Phosphorus, Mesocosms. 

A multistage experimental approach involving lab- 
oratory bioassays, microcosms and mesocosms is 
proposed for assessing the effect of toxicant load- 
ing to an aquatic system. Simulation models can tie 
these expenments together and predict the re- 
sponse of natural ecosystems. The model simulator 
a ows comparison of alternative equations from a 
number of models. The model structure includes 8 
functional groups of phytoplankton, 5 groups of 
zooplankton, and nitrogen and phosphorus. The 
model consists of a system of non-linear differential 
equations representing, for each functional group, 
the rates of change of plankton biomass. Nutrient 
tlows for phosphorus and nitrogen are also repre- 
semed in the model. For equation calibration, a 
tf,n? "f ?^P"™ents was chosen offering substan- 
tially different environmental conditions with es- 
sentially the same biota, thereby allowing exposure 
ot the model to a variety of conditions. The equa- 

?^i , ^ °,^^ (Aquatic Ecosystem General 
Impact Simulator) which allows selection of com- 
patible groups of process equations in all possible 
combinations. Once the phytoplankton-zooplank- 
on model is cahbrated to the control microcosms, 
nvi."^"; /^? '1*^^ '■"'''"S of fhe effects of a 
S, K i °u'^^ biological processes in the model, 
for both phytoplankton and zooplankton, the toxi- 
f^'^lf^T """^be jelated to the concentration of 
,mL ^M "^Twll *^ organisms are exposed over 
time. (Moore-IVI) 

W85-00261 



55 



Since the beginning of the century, the lower 
reach of the Eman river system (Sweden) has been 
polluted by a discharge of cadmium and nickel 
from an accumulator factory at Fliseryd The dis- 
charge of metals ceased when the factory was 
closed down in 1976, but there are still elevated 
cadmium levels in sediments and water down- 
stream from Fliseryd. In a field investigation, bio- 
chemical and hematological parameters were 
measured m perch, Perca fluviatilis, living in the 
cadmium-contaminated river Eman. The number 
of lymphocytes was 45-100% higher in perch from 
the contaminated area than in the reference perch 
indicating a stimulated immune defense. In addi- 
tion the cadmium-loaded fish suffered from a 
slight anemia and a disturbed carbohydrate metab- 
olisni and blood plasma ion composition The 
perch in Eman did not show any hyperglycemia or 
hypocalcemia, which are typical symptoms in cad- 
mium-poisoned fish in laboratory experiments. The 
observed effects suggest that cadmium affects fish 
in the environment in a way similar to what has 
been observed in laboratory studies. The weaker 
response may imply that the perch in the field 
situation have adapted and thus acquired an in- 
creased resistance to cadmium. Biochemical and 
hematological methods have promise as diagnostic 
tools to reveal sublethal toxic responses in natural 
populations of fish. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00272 



S-^^55'^'^ • potential environmental 

IMPACTS AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 

Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati! 

E. R. Bates, W. W. Liberick, and J. Burckle 
Environmental Progress, Vol. 3, No. 2 n 107-115 
May, 1 984. 4 Fig, 1 3 Tab, 6 Ref 



UP 

< 

a. 

< 

a 
I 

iiSi 

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o 






Field 5-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5C— Effects Of Pollution 

Descriptors: 'Oil shale, 'Water pollution control, 
•Environmental effects, Sulfur dioxide. 
Wastewater treatment. Retort water. 

A program was begun in 1973 to evaluate potential 
environmental impacts from oil-shale development 
activities and suggest various potential control 
technologies. Recent results of these activities are 
reported including field test results on control of 
sulfur gases at Occidental Oil Shale's Logan Wash 
Site, and Geokinetic's Kamp Kerogen Site, 
wastewater treatability studies on retort water and 
gas condensate at Logan Wash, and results of 
laboratory and field testing on raw and retorted oil 
shales. Of the various systems studied, the Stret- 
ford, EIC, MDEA, (Selectamine and Adip), Ben- 
field, Diamox, and Selexol appear to have the 
potential for the greatest sulfur dioxide selectivity 
for application to direct fired retorts. Based on a 
cost evaluation of a model case, the Stretford 
process appears to be the most cost effective ap- 
proach for direct fired retorts. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00285 

NICKEL TOXiaXY TO MICROBES: EFFECT 
OF PH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ACID 

New York Univ., NY. Lab. of Microbial Ecology. 
H. Babich, and G. Stotzky. oc/,r> 

Environmental Research, Vol. 29, p 335-350, De- 
cember, 1982. 7 Fig, 4 Tab, 39 Ref EPA grant 
R808329. 

Descriptors: 'Nickel, 'Hydrogen ion concentra- 
tion, 'Acid rain, 'Toxicity, 'Microorganisms, Bac- 
teria, Actinomycetes, Yeasts, Fungi, Heavy metals. 

A broad spectrum of microorganisms, including 
eubacteria (nonmarine and marine), actinomycetes, 
yeasts, and filamentous fungi, were evaluated for 
their sensitivities to nickel. Wide extremes in sensi- 
tivity of Ni were noted among the filamentous 
fungi, whereas the range of tolerance to Ni of the 
yeasts, eubacteria, and actinomycetes was narrow- 
er. With all microorganisms, the toxicity of Ni was 
potentiated as the pH was decreased to acidic 
levels. The mechanism(s) of how pH affects the 
toxicity of Ni has not been defined, although the 
formation of hydroxylated Ni species with differ- 
ing toxicities was not involved. The enhanced tox- 
icity of Ni at acidic levels may have implications 
for the toxicity of Ni in environments stressed by 
acid precipitation. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00286 



EFFECTS OF COPPER ON SPECIES COMPO- 
SITION OF PERIPHYTON IN A SIERRA 
NEVADA, CALIFORNIA, STREAM, 

Freshwater Biological Association, Wareham 

(England). River Lab. 

H. V. Leland, and J. L. Carter. 

Freshwater Biology, Vol. 14, No. 3, p 281-296, 

June, 1984. 5 Fig, 1 Tab, 28 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Copper, 'Periphyton, 'Water pollu- 
tion effects, 'Convict Creek, 'California, 'Algae, 
Sierra Nevada, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, Cyano- 
phyta, Stream biota. Species diversity. Diatoms, 
Species composition. Abundance, Standing crop. 

Changes in species composition of the periphyton 
of an oligotrophic. Sierra Nevada stream (Convict 
Creek, California) continuously dosed for 1 year at 
three concentrations of copper (2.5, 5 and 10 micro 
g/1 total Cu; approximately 12, 25 and 50 ng/1 
Cu(2-f)) were determined. The numerically most 
abundant taxa were Bacillariophyceae (Ach- 
nanthes minutissima, Cooconeis placentula, Cym- 
bella microcephala, C. sinuata, Fragilaria con- 
struens, F. crotonensis, Navicula spp., Synedra 
acus and S. rumpens), and the Cyanophyta Lyng- 
bya spp., a co-dominant during spring and summer. 
Population densities of Lyngbya spp. were mark- 
edly reduced at all test concentrations of copper. 
Population densities of the principal Chlorophyta 
(Spirogyra spp. and Cladophora spp.) and the 
diatom Amphipleura pellucida were reduced at 5 
micro g/1 total Cu. Of the twenty-two most abun- 
dant taxa, sixteen were reduced in abundance by 
continuous exposure to 10 micro g/1 total Cu. 
There was no commensurate reduction in standing 



crop (total number of individuals of all taxa). Ach- 
nanthes minutissima, a co-dominant in the control 
was the primary replacement species. Other taxa 
that were more abundant at 5 micro g/1 total Cu 
than in the control were Ceratoneis arcus, Coccan- 
eis placentula, Navicula spp. and Synedra rumpens. 
Only A. minutissima and Calothrix spp. were more 
abundant at 10 micro g/1 than in the control. Three 
resemblance measures (Canberra metric, Bray- 
Curiis and Dice) and diversity (Brillouin's) were 
evaluated for detecting differences in species com- 
position among experimental stream sections. The 
Canberra metric, an index sensitive to proportional 
rather than absolute differences, was the most in- 
formative of these indices. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00294 



DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERNS AND HABITAT 
CHARACTERISTICS OF AMPHIPODA (CRUS- 
TACEA) IN THE INLAND WATERS OF 
ISRAEL AND SINAI, 

Hebrew Univ., Herusalem (Israel). Dept. of Zoolo- 
gy. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2H. 
W85-00395 



The Atchafalaya Basin contains North America'* 
largest hardwood river-swamp The basin, a rich 
and dynamic system, covers 4,662 sq km in south- 
central Louisiana. Distributional and ecological in- 
formation on the class Rotifera were compiled 
from both flood controlled and uncontrolled 
reaches of the Atchafalaya River Basin. In this 
study, the lower basin is that portion of the Atcha- 
falaya system south of Interstate Highway 10. The 
upper basin refers to the habiUts of Petite Prairie 
Bayou near Melville. This upper area is virtually 
confined by levees. In the minimally altered lower 
basin a variety of aquatic habitats within a small 
area resulted in a very diverse rotifer community 
consisting of an average of 46 Uxa. In contrast, 
only an average of 28 different taxa were collected 
in leveed upper basin habitats. Cluster analysi* 
identified rotifer communities associated with areas 
of similar water quality. Variations in suspended 
solids, total dissolved solids, and organic carbon 
were most often significantly associated with vari- 
ations in rotifer numbers from the lower basin. 
Seasonal flushing of backwater areas by mam- 
stream waters is very important in maintaining the 
diversity of these lower basin rotifer communities. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00399 



POPULATION GROWTH PATTERNS OF SKE- 

LETONEMA COSTATUM AND NUTRIENT 

LEVELS IN THE LOWER EAST RIVER, NEW 

YORK, U.S.A., 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 

W. B. Samuels, G. S. Kleppel, and J. J. A. 

McLaughlin. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 1, p 35-43, January, 

1983. 8 Fig, 38 Ref EPA grant R803370030. 

Descriptors: 'Skelotonema, 'Diatoms, 'East 
River, 'New York, 'Growth rates. Water pollu- 
tion effects, Phytoplankton, Nitrates, Phosphates, 
Silica, Seasonal variation. Nutrient requirements, 
Phytotoxicity. 

Discharges to the lower Hudson River estuarine 
system (New York), which includes the East 
River, contribute nutrients, toxic substances, and 
suspended material which all may have variable 
effects on phytoplankton growth. The population 
growth patterns of the centric diatom Skeletonema 
costatum and nutrient levels in the lower East 
River were examined through field measurements 
and laboratory experimentation. Maximum growth 
rates of this diatom (approximately 1.8 divisions 
per day) were obtained in water samples from the 
late winter - early spring months. Summer water 
samples supported little or no growth of this 
diatom. Measurements of NH3-N, P04-P, and Si in 
water samples from the lower East River indicated 
that nutrient saturated conditions exist year round 
in this area. During the summer months when S. 
costatum standing crop was low, the organism also 
failed to grow well in summer water samples incu- 
bated under controlled and near optimum condi- 
tions; grazing pressure is thus not limiting the 
population size during this period. Toxic sub- 
stances in the water column may be responsible for 
limiting S. costatum growth during the summer 
months. During the summer low river flow period, 
the residence time of phytoplankton is longer than 
during the high flows experienced during the late 
winter and early spring; summer phytoplankton 
populations would be exposed for a longer period 
to local toxic conditions than would late winter - 
early spring populations. (CoUier-IVI) 
W85-00397 



WATER QUALITY AND THE ROTIFER POPU- 
LATIONS IN THE ATCHAFALAYA RIVER 
BASIN, LOUISUNA, 

Louisiana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, 
Baton Rouge. 

L. E. Holland, C. F. Bryan, and J. P. Newman, Jr. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 1, p 55-69, January, 
1983. 4 Fig, 4 Tab, 29 Ref Army Corps of Engi- 
neers contract 14-16-0008-767. 

Descriptors: 'Rotifers, 'Atchafalaya River, 'Lou- 
isiana, 'Water quality. Aquatic habitats. Plankton, 
Cluster analysis. Swamps, Species diversity, Sus- 
pended solids. Dissolved solids. Organic carbon. 



TOXIC ASPECTS OF COPPER ON THE Bia 
MASS AND PRODUCnVTTY OF PHYTO- 
PLANKTON OF THE SAGUENAY RIVER, 
QUEBEC (ASPECTS TOXIQUES DU CUIVRE 
SUR LA BIOMASSE ET LA PRODUCnVTTI 
DU PHYTOPLANCTON DE LA RIVIERE Dt 
SAGUENAY, QUEBEC), 

Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi. Dept. des Science 
Fondamen tales. 
R. Cote. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 1, p 85-95, January, 
1983. 2 Fig, 3 Tab, 49 Ref. 

Descriptors; 'Saguenay River, 'Quebec, 'Copper 
'Phytoplankton, 'Biomass, 'Productivity, Watei 
pollution effects, Chlorophyll, Chlorella, Diatoms 
Heavy metals. 

The effect of copper ion (at 10, 50, 1(X), 200 am 
4(X) micro g Cu/L) in vitro on chlorophyll concen 
trations and rates of primary productivity wen 
studied in phytoplankton for 124 hours. The sami 
copper concentrations were tested on Chlorelb 
vulgaris for 8 days. These algal assays were camec 
out using the surface water of the Saguenay Rivet 
In natural populations of phytoplankton, photosyn 
thesis was more sensitive than growth; at th/ 
lowest concentrations, such as 10 micro g Cu/L 
copper seemed to increase the chlorophyll concen 
trations whereas the rates of primary productioi 
show a decrease of 60% with respect to the con 
trol. At higher concentrations of copper, the effec 
on chlorophyll concentrations is weak but thi 
effect on the rates of primary production is mor 
pronounced (decrease of 86% to 90%). The pen 
nate diatoms are dominant (in all the samples) ani 
these organisms are relatively resistant to coppei 
In Chlorella vulgaris, it was observed that witl 
100 micro g Cu/L, chlorophyll concentrations aa 
rates of photosynthesis respectively decrease b; 
63% and 99% with respect to the control. A 
higher concentrations of copper, a maximum de 
crease of 70% and 99% respectively for chloro 
phyll concentrations and rates of primary produc 
tion are observed. Such selection for resistant tac 
in populations of phytoplankton in the Sagueni; 
River may have important implications in the lov 
productivity in Saguenay Fjord. (ColUer-IVI) 
W85-00401 

AQUATIC CRYPTOGRAMS OF NATURAl 
ACID SPRINGS ENRICHED WTTH HEAVH 
METALS: THE KOOTENAY PAINT POTS 
BRITISH COLUMBIA, 

Durham Univ. (England). Dept. of Botany. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2H. 
W8 5-00402 

INFLUENCE OF ACID PREaPITATION Gf 
BACTERIAL POPULATIONS IN LAKES, 



56 



lational Water Research Inst.. Burlington (Ontar- 
)). Microbiology Labs. 
. S. Rao, and B. J. Dutka 

P^Sri'S^Ta^brXef- '' " •"■'"■ ^^""-^- 

•escriptors: 'Acid rain, •Bacteria, *Water pollu- 
Dn effects 'Turkey Lake, *Ontario, 'Lake 
uron, 'Lake Erie, *Lake St. George, Nitrogen 
ducmg bacteria. Sulfur bacteria, Organic matter, 
Ikalmity, Aerobic bacteria. Heterotrophic bacte- 
i. Hydrogen ion concentration. 

ilative abundance of total, respiring, aerobic he- 
rotrophic, nitrogen cycle, and sulfur cycle bacte- 
I was nieasured in the acid-stressed Turkey Lake 
itershed (in Ontario) and compared to data col- 
:ted from the relatively non-acid-stressed, hard 
Iter Lakes Huron, Erie, and St. George. The dH 
lues m Turkey Lake ranged from 5.3 to 6.5, with 
average of 6.0; the alkalinity value was 3.7 mg/ 
CaC03. In non-acid-stressed lakes, pH rangid 
m 7.3 to 8.7 with an average of 8.2; the alkalini- 
value was 75 mg/L CaC03. Data indicated that 
jtenal populations and densities were nearly an 
ler of magnitude less in acid stressed waters than 
lon-acid stressed waters. Nitrifying bacteria and 
le sulfur cycle bacteria (Thiobacillus sp.) were 
y low or absent m acid stressed waters. Surface 
iments of acid stressed lakes contained 3 to 4 
5S more organic matter (340 mg organic matter 
g dry weight sediment in Turkey Lake) than 
amount found in the relatively more enriched 
:. Acid-stressed conditions and a poor buffering 
em m the Turkey Lake watershed appear to 
t suppressed the bacterial populations and the 
^g^i^egradative processes. (CoUier-IVI) 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION-Field 5 
Waste Treatment Processes— Group 5D 



bial community existed, scrapers, gatherers and 

(AuXrSti^;.]'^^^^" ^" '''■^"-' ^^^^^- 
W85-00415 



ESSED STREAM ECOSYSTEM- MA 
^INVERTEBRATE COMMUNlW^INTEG 
NSE MICROBIAL TROPHIC RE- 

ronmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc., 

Kondratieff, R. A. Matthews, and A L 
sma, Jr. 

■SgTTar.°U'el! ''°- '' P «'-^'- ^P^'- 

riptors: 'Water pollution effects, *Inverte- 

s, Microorganisms, 'Stream biota, 'Virginia 

tnal wastewater. Wastewater pollution,' 

Chlorophyll a, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs 



mc^iSi^r^'" ^''^ BiorocS m': 

o'fTorSrsotts''"'"' ''"'^^"''^ ^''^- ^'=''-' 

H ^A ^u^"?*"' °- ^ ^^^'^^^' and E. S. Corbett 

3 Tab°2'0Rfr 'U' No, 161-169, 1984. 6 Fig, 

Descriptors: 'Water temperature, 'Clearcutting 

ment. Watershed management. Temperature ef- 

Ss,F^ra;uf""^°"'"^"'^' ^f^^^*^' ^"-«- 

Stream temperature alterations due to a commer- 
cial forest harvesting practice and a researchTat- 
ment were quantitatively evaluated. Summer maxi- 
mum stream temperatures averaged 1 C higher in 
the commercial clearcut and 9 C higher in the 

comrol'"^''^''^*'''^^"*"''^"'^ '''^" '" 'he forested 
control. The argest average monthly temperature 
increase on the commercial clearcut (2 2 C) oc 
curred during April; on the clearcut-herbicided 

r,!rL K-?'^^'' '^"""S •'""^ (10-5 O- The clear- 
cut-herbicide treatment resulted in changes which 
could have a negative effect on the aquatic inverte 
brates and fish life of the stream. High maximum 
temperatures, large diel fluctuations, Ind temZ^ 
tures above tolerance limits of aquktic orgSs 
IlJr^ periods could be lethal to various org"! 
msms, including brook trout. Little change in the 
aqua ic community would be expected tith the 
shght stream temperature changes which occur ed 
on the commercial clearcut. If anything, these 
small temperature changes, especially during the 
spring, may be beneficial. The increases in temper^ 
ature could increase primary productivity increas 

fislSortl>^r '°^ ^""^''^ invertel^aresTnd 
W85-00421 



ar-long study of a second-order stream in 
iwestem Virgmia was carried out from 1979- 
te ?L ff °"'J^'=*'^es of the study was to 
Iffi f^""^ °^ '^"^^Se ^d electroplating 
effluent stress on the trophic response of 
c invertebrate assemblages and microbial 
umties in he stream. Quantitative benthic 
5S were collected periodically at three refer- 
■tations and four stressed stations below the 
s. Invertebrates were counted, identified tax- 
nn ;i,^" ^'^'^^^'fied into functional groups 
on their feeding strategies. Ash-free dry 
ts were obtamed for each functional group 
a and station, and the number of densUy of 
nt taxa were calculated as well. Reference 
s had diverse mvertebrate assemblages- 
rs were well represented and all functional 
were present m reasonably equivalent pro- 
is. Stressed stations were dominated by col- 

scrapers. The trophic status of the microbi- 
munity was determined by suspending artifi- 
bstrates ,n the stream for 1-week periods 
jmmumty that colonized the substrates was 

Z. Li^^ chlorophyll a, and an auto- 

index (AI) was calculated using these 
1 he autotrophic component of the microbi- 
munity was greatest at the reference sta- 
h» cmnmunity became primarily hetero- 
below the outfalls. The AI correlated well 
./^kP°^'°" °J scrapers. Aquatic inverte- 
jsemblages and microbial communities re- 
',. hp.tT y '=J't"ging their trophic struc- 
it best the available energy sources. Where 
ophic microbes dominated, gathering and 

invertebrates utilized the abundant organic 
In areas where a mainly autotrophic micro- 



EFFECr OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE ON SAND 
BEACH MEIOFAUNA AT GOA, INDIA 

National Inst, of Oceanography, Panaji (India). 
n.t^T''- ^- Chatterji, and A. H. Par'ulekar. ^ 
Tab 20Re?'^' '' "'""^' '^^'*- ' P*«' ^ 

Descriptors: 'Wastewater pollution, 'Beaches 
'Meiofauna 'Goa, 'India. Invertebrates, Seasona 
variation. Water pollution effects. Monsoons. 

Mandovi estuary, which opens into the Arabian 
Sea near Panjim on the west coast of India re 

annT.!^''?' ''^°° "?'"'°" "'"^ «f urban unoff 
annually. A section of beach of the estuary receiv- 

Dkd fr^'I'%'''^'8| *'''?"«h a nullah, was sam- 
pled tor meiofauna. Samples were collected from 3 
^^ii'°."' T^- ^ decreasing gradient of sewage 
po lution during the premonsoon, monsoon and 
postmonsoon from February 1980 to January 1981 
Nematodes dominated the fauna numerically at all 
Stations, followed by harpacticoid copepod fohgo 
chaetes, polychaetes. and archiannelids Other fm- 
MoToffh?"' "^T" '"^''^"anans and gastrotrichs. 
Most of the animals were confined to the top 5 cm 
,n th. H^'^/T"*- ^ f^'°"al pattern was observed 
m the distnbution of the fauna. Maximum density 
was dunng premonsoon and minimum density in 
the monsoon season. There were significant spatial 
attriS"?' variations in mean meiofauna density 
attributed to organic discharge via sewage and 
prevailing environmental conditions in the study 
(Moore^ivt '^'""^ '^ ^" ""P-^ant factor' 
W85-00423 

NUTRIENTS OF THE SARONIKOS GIITF ttm 

A.'Cro'ssr""''''" "' ■■""" "•"*"'■■ 

N. Friligos. 



Descriptors: 'Saronikos Gulf, 'Athens, 'Greece 

Phosnhr/'' Tf^'"' P°""''°" ^ff^^'^' Nitratet 
Phosphates, Effluents, Wastewater pollution 
Marine environments. Seasonal variation, Stratifi- 
cation. 

Saronikos Gulf represents in many ways an excel- 
lent case for the investigation of the effects of 
urban waste disposal into an oligotrophic marine 
environment. The nutrient distribution in rdat"on 
to environmental characteristics of the Saronikos 
Gulf was studied for the period 1973-1976 at wo 

SutoGi^f "h °"'^' '" °."gotroF»^ic one in ^ 
Outer Gulf and an eutrophic one in the vicinity of 
the sewage outfall of the Greater Athens Area 
1 he distribution of measured values and their spa- 
tiotemporal variations were compared with previ- 
ous data for the same area. Winter convection 
LTn fv^^" ^ very weak gradient of temperature, 
salinity, oxygen and nutnents. Stratification started 
to develop in May and persisted for about six 
beared' ,n'"'' seasonal variation of nutrients a^ 
peared to occur, with higher values generally in 
winter. The station in the vicinity of^he outfall 

sta^i^Tfn t^"'" P''°'P''"*" '"'^ ^'"•"0"'a than the 
station in the source water. The levels of nutrients 

r." w ■'"' i" ''°*h y^^'^' ^""Pt in the case of 
phosphate and mtnte, which were double at the 
station near the outfall in 1975. Of the nutrients 
controlling productivity in the photic layer of the 
stations in the Saronikos Gulf, phosphate had a 
stronger limiting effect on plant growth than inor- 
ganic nitrogen. The distribution of nutrients wi 
tSLlH^'H >" ^"^ '^' effluent-generated n^ 
t"n"Soore"m) """''"'"' ^^-<^-^n..n distribu- 
W85-00424 

5D. Waste Treatment Processes 

PHOSPHORUS RENOVATION OF 

rPPUC™^, ^^ OVERLAND™ OW LAND 

Maryland Univ.,' College Park. Dept. of Agrono- 

R. R. Weil, and F. S. Payer. 

Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161, as PB84 19018 
Price code A03 in paper copy. AOl in microfiche.' 
Ma yland Water Resources Research Center Pub- 

Ref OW^T P' ^"^"v'r' '^*^- " P' » ^'g' ^ Tab, 21 
Ref. OWRT Project No. A-061-MD (1), Contract/ 
Grant No. 14-34-0001-2122. '-oniract/ 

Descriptors: 'Wastewater treatment. 'Wastewater 
HnT AH ^''^'^^'" irrigation. Soil contamina- 
non. Adsorption Canarygrass. Reeds, Coastal 
Plains, 'Land application. Monitoring. 

A study was set up to monitor an operating over- 
land flow wastewater system on soils derived from 
clayey coastal plain sediments. Three treatments 
were imposed on the Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris 
canarlensis) cover; cut 4 times per year and leave 
residue; cut 4 times and harvest residue; and cut 1 
ime and leave residue. Effluent was sampled at 6. 
12, 18, and 27 m from the point of application as 
well as from final collection weirs and directfy 
from spray nozzles. Inflow and outflow rates were 
monitored. Samples were collected on 8 dates at 
the beginning and end of each of 4 spray cycles 
consisting of 4-6 weeks of continuous spraying 

1^}T^^^ ^1 ^ '^% P^"°'^ °f ^-^ ^eeks. Levels of 
total P in the applied effluent were low (1 5 me/1) 
but application rates were high (15 to 23 cm/wk) 
1 he cutting treatments had no significant effect on 
P removal. While total soluble phosphorus (TSP) 
fro"m^nf,"°,".'" the applied wastewater ranged 
from 0.6 to 1.3 mg/1 for the cycles, the 27 m flow 
distance was sufficient to consistently bring °h^ 
TSP m the effluent down to about 0.3 mg/1 Aver- 

fn^fh/^'m '' f '"'"^'f '^^'^'' TSP concentrations 
m the effluent were 0.91. 0.70, 0.52, and 32 mg P/ 

W85-'S)56"' "' '"' '' " ''^'^"'^^^' -P-S 



< 

f ' V 

Kl 

: O 






At 

it 



57 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 



Group 5D — Waste Treatment Processes 



APPLICATION OF WASTEWATER TO WET- 
LANDS, 

East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC. Dept. of 
Biology. 

M. M. Brinson, and F. R. Westall. 
Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190388, 
Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
Water Resources Research Institute Report No. 5, 
Land Treatment Series, August 1983. North Caro- 
lina State Univ., Raleigh. 27 p, 1 Fig, 11 Ref. 
OWRT Project No. B-123-NC (15), Contract/ 
Grant No. 14-34-0001-9144. 

Descriptors: 'Land treatment, *Wetlands, 
♦Wastewater treatment, *Wastewater disposal, 
*North Carolina, Water quality standards. 

The fifth of a series of five reports dealing with 
land (and wetland) treatment of wastewater and 
sludge under the general guidance of a task force 
representing North Carolina regulatory agencies 
and universities. Draft reports were critiqued by 
other specialists and practitioners at regional con- 
ference before publication. This report reviews the 
status of wetland treatment technology and exam- 
ines its potential application in North Carolina and 
similar areas. Wetlands are viewed as valuable 
natural resources whose use for wastewater treat- 
ment should be limited to careful treatment in the 
context of water quality improvement not disposal. 
The report differs considerably from the other 
reports in this series in a more incomplete state of 
the art and the fact that wetlands contribute to 
water quality improvement in their natural state, 
provide valuable wildlife habitat, and function as 
important buffer zones between upland runoff and 
down stream receiving waters. Part I (Natural 
Wetlands) covers wetland types, hydrology, func- 
tional properties, and mechanisms of water quality 
improvement; Part II (Regulation, Planning and 
Engineering) deals with regulatory issues, planning 
and design considerations, and artificial wetlands. 
An Appendix Hsts reference and addifional read- 
ings. 
W85-00079 



GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SUBSURFACE 
TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER, 

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Soil 
Science. 

C. G. Cogger, and A. R. Rubin. 
Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190370, 
Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
North Carolina Water Resources Research Insti- 
tute, Raleigh, Report No. 4, Land Treatment 
Series, August 1983. 28 p, 16 Ref, 1 Append. 
OWRT Project No. B-123-NC (14), Contract/ 
Grant No. 14-34-0001-9144. 

Descriptors: *Land treatment, 'Land disposal, Soil 
disposal. Fields, *Wastewater disposal, 
♦Wastewater treatment. Septic tanks, *North 
Carolina, Water quality standards. 

The fourth of a series of five reports dealing with 
land (and wetland) treatment of wastewater and 
sludge under the guidance of a task force repre- 
senting North Carolina regulatory agencies and 
universities. Draft reports were critiqued by other 
specialists and practitioners at regional conference 
before publication. The report provides general 
guidelines for the design and management of large 
subsurface wastewater treatment and disposal sys- 
tems. While developed primarily for flows greater 
than 3000 gal. per day, many of the concepts apply 
to smaller systems. Emphasis is on the land treat- 
ment part of the system rather than initial treat- 
ment units. Major sections include Waste Charac- 
terization, Site Selection, Initial Treatment, Land 
Area Requirements, Absorption Area Design, and 
Maintenance and Monitoring. In addition to refer- 
ences, the Appendix discusses grass uptake of ni- 
trate and three models for determining nitrate 
loading rates. 
W85-00080 



GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR LAND TREAT- 
MENT OF SLUDGE, 



North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Soil 
Science. 

L. D. King, and P. W. Westerman. 
Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190362, 
Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
North Carolina Water Resources Research Insti- 
tute, Raleigh, Report No. 3, Land Treatment 
Series, August 1983. 37 p, 2 Fig, 6 Tab, 12 Ref, 1 
Append. OWRT Project No. B-123-NC (13), Con- 
tract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-9144. 

Descriptors: 'Land treatment, 'Land disposal, 
•Sludge disposal. Sludge treatment. North Caroli- 
na, Water quality standards. 

The third of a series of five reports dealing with 
the land (and wetland) treatment of wastewater 
and sludge prepared under the general guidance of 
a task force representing North Carolina regulato- 
ry agencies and universities. Draft reports were 
critiqued by other specialists and practitioners at 
regional conference before publication. This book- 
let presents a discussion of land treatment of sludge 
and general guidelines for design and management 
of related land treatment systems. It does not 
present detailed standards and attempts to leave 
maximum latitude for design by competent profes- 
sionals. Introduction covers basic considerations 
and general design principles. Major sections in- 
clude Sludge Characterization, Site Evaluation and 
Selection, Site Assimilation Capacity and Land 
Requirement, System Management, Monitoring 
Requirements, and Public Health Protection. An 
Appendix lists sources of materials and information 
and reference literature. 
W85-00081 



POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR LAND 
TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER, 

North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and 
Community Development, Raleigh. Div. of Envi- 
ronmental Management. 

W. L. Fleming, D. H. Howells, and F. J. Humenik. 
Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190230, 
Price codes: A02 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
Water Resources Research Institute Report No. 1, 
Land Treatment Series, August 1983. North Caro- 
lina State Univ., Raleigh. 11 p. OWRT Project No. 
B-123-NC (11), Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001- 
9144. 

Descriptors: *Land treatment, *Land disposal, 
♦Wastewater disposal. Wastewater farming, 
Wastewater irrigation, ♦Wastewater treatment, 
Wetlands, ♦North Carolina, Water quality stand- 
ards. 

The first of a series of five reports dealing with the 
land (and wetland) treatment of wastewater and 
sludge prepared under the general guidance of a 
task force representing the North Carolina Agri- 
cultural Research and Extension Services, Water 
Resources Research Institute, Division of Environ- 
mental Management, and Division of Health Serv- 
ices. Draft reports were presented at a regional 
workshop for critique and input from other 
sources. Policies and Procedures for Land Treat- 
ment of Wastewater introduces the series and dis- 
cusses public acceptance. North Carolina Statutes 
and Regulations, Administrative Permitting Proce- 
dures and Requirements, and the availability of 
Advisory and Technical Assistance. The series as a 
whole provides general guidelines for the design 
and management of land treatment systems. It does 
not present detailed standards and attempts to 
leave maximum latitude for alternative designs by 
competent professionals. The guidelines should be 
reviewed periodically to keep abreast of state-of- 
the-art developments. 
W85-00082 



GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR LAND TREAT- 
MENT OF WASTEWATER, 

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Bio- 
logical and Agricultural Engineering. 
P. W. Westerman, and L. D. King. 
Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161, as PB84 190354, 
Price codes: A04 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 



North Carolina Water Rc»ourcc» Retearch in» 
tute, Raleigh, Report No. 2, Land Trealmt 
Series, August 1983. 51 p, 2 Fig, 3 Tab, 23 Ref, 
Append. OWRT Project No B-123-NC (12), Co 
tract/Grant No. 14-34-(XJ01-9144. 

Descriptors: 'Land treatment, 'Land dispot 
♦Wastewater disposal, Wastewater farmii 
Wastewater irrigation, ♦Wastewater treatmo 
♦North Carolina, Water quality standards. 

The second of a series of five reports dealing wi 
the land (and wetland) treatment of wastcwal 
and sludge prepared under the general guidance 
a task force representing North Carolina regular 
ry agencies and universities. Draft reports w« 
critiqued by other specialists and practitioners 
regional conference before publication This bo< 
let presents a discussion of land treatment 
wastewater effluent and general guidelines I 
design and management of related land treatm< 
systems. It does not present detailed standards a 
attempts to leave maximum latitude for innovati 
design by competent professionals. Introducti 
includes basic considerations for design, gene 
design principles, and system alternatives. Ma. 
sections include Wastewater Characterization, S 
Evaluation and Selection, Site Assimilative Capi 
ity and Land Treatment, System Manageme 
Monitoring Requirements, Public Health Prot 
tion, and Economic Considerations. An Appeni 
lists sources of materials and information useful 
designing land treatment systems, as well as ref 
ence literature on land treatment. 
W85-00083 



DETECTION OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTAN 
AND TOXIC CHEMICAL WASTES 
SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT INFLUEN 
BY USE OF A BIOLOGICAL MONITOR, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. De 

of Microbiology, Cell Biology, Biochemistry a 

Biophysics. 

L. J. McElroy. 

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, V 

45, No. 2, p 730-732, February, 1983. 1 Fig, 1 T 

4 Ref 

Descriptors: ♦Wastewater treatment faciliti 
♦Pollutant identification. Industrial wastes, Tox 
ty. Anaerobic digestion, Bioindicators, Spirilh 

Sanitary sewage systems associated with indust) 
communities are often subject to industrial che; 
cal wastes which can cause a partial or compl 
inhibition of anaerobic digestion upon receipt 
the treatment plant. In such cases, raw or partij 
treated sewage sludge must be diverted to hold 
basins until digester activity can be restored, 
simple prewaming system for detecting potentij 
detrimental inhibitory materials would allow 
timely diversion of influent, thus protecting pi 
operating systems. Heterogeneous mixtures 
toxic chemical wastes affecting the normal of 
ation of a sewage treatment facility employ 
anaerobic digestion were detected by dark-fi 
observation of uncoordinate flagellar orientat 
patterns displayed by cells of Spirillum voluta 
These results were compared with plant par. 
eters determined by gas production, volatile fa 
acids, and alkalinity measurements and the met! 
was found successful for this plant. (Baker-P 
W85-00107 



APPLICATION OF A COMBINED CHEMIO 
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT TO HIG 
STRENGTH WASTEWATER, 

Osaka City Inst, of Public Health and Envir 

mental Sciences (Japan). 

K. Takamizawa, and A. Honda. 

Journal of Fermentation Technology, Vol. 60, 1 

5, p 447-456, 1982. 18 Fig, 2 Tab, 14 Ref 

Descriptors: ♦Biological wastewater treatmf 
♦Coagulation, ♦Combined treatment, ♦Activa 
sludge process, Biological oxygen demand, Slud 
Ferric chloride, Wastewater treatment, Sc 
wastes. Hydrogen ion concentration. 



58 



method for treating high-strength wastewater 
ectively in a smaller scale plant and also for 
:reasmg BOD to below the acceptable limit (300 
;/l) for sewage works at a practically low cost 
s developed. Wastewater generated by the 
vatenng process for a slurried-mixture of 
^hed-refuse and sewage sludge was used as 
h-strength wastewater. A combined chemical- 
logical treatment using direct addition of a 
ic chloride solution (a coagulant) to an aeration 
Ic of activated sludge was more efficient com- 
ed with the conventional activated sludge treat- 
it. The optimum pH in the aeration tank for the 
ibined chemical-biological treatment was 5-6 
ler this pH, the limitation of BOD-MLVSS 
xed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids) loading 
)btain an effluent BOD value below 300 meA 

mcreased from 1 kg BODAg MLVSS/day 
the conventional activated sludge treatment to 
? BODAg MLVSS/day. For the combined 
nical-biological treatment, the calculated value 
uPo '■^™°^^' coefficient (Kr) was 0.00057 (1 A 
VSS mg/1), the value of the biomass growth 
ficient 00 was 0.41 (g MLVSS/g BOD), and 
biomass-decay coefficient (Kd) was 0.38 (1/ 
. For the conventional activated sludge treat- 
t the values were 0.00030 (lA MLVSS mg/1) 
(8 MLVSS/g BOD), and 0.06 (1/day), respec- 
y. BOD removal was faster in the combined 
ment than in the conventional treatment To 
n the same treatment efficiency, the combined 
m could accept two times greater loading 
the conventional system with the same aer- 

tank volume and the same mass of activated 

e. (Co!lier-IVI) 

00172 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION-Field 5 
Ultimate Disposal Of Wastes— Group 5E 



88-96% of the wash water has occurred thus far 
and the remainder is suitable for normal waste 
treatment and discharge. Reuse of the dye pad 
.r^^^ ? HF concentrates is possible; the eventual 

length. Plant operator experience and color match- 
ing problems will also determine practical limits of 
concentrate reuse. A means has been evaluated on 
a pilot scale whereby any residual dye liquor and 
concentrate can be reduced to an officially innocu- 
ous so id suitable for landfill application or perhaps 
agricultural use. By this means it is possibleto 

W8^°^i<o^''° '^'scharge. (Baker-IVI) 
W o J -Uu2 5 2 



REVERSE-OSMOSIS MEMBRANE FOR TFST 
ING COAL-LIQUEFACTION WASTOWATER 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. 

p. Bhattacharyya, M. Jevtitch. J. K. Ghosal, and 

J. Kozmmski. 

Sr"'''''?n?J^n'?J. ^""Sress, Vol. 3, No. 2, p 95-102 
May, 1984. 9 Fig, 6 Tag, 19 Ref 

Descriptors: »Membrane processes, 'Filtration, 
Water reuse, *Coal liquefaction wastewater 
Wastewater treatment. Membranes, Reverse osmo- 
sis, Chlorides, Phenols. 



elsewhere; methane producing bacteria are present 
in areas where methane is found but not elsewhere- 
and methane IS produced from aqueous extracts of 
fluid from Well W13 inoculated with microbes 
from the contaminated zone and incubated under 
anaerobic conditions. Under the ambient condi- 
tions of the groundwater, over 95% of both the 
total recoverable phenolic compounds (TRP) and 
the phenolic compounds are removed within 1 000 
m ot the contamination source. Although dilution 
dispersion and exchange effects may be operating' 
these cannot alone account for the observed at- 
tenuation of TRP and total organic carbon relative 
to sodium. Sorption of TRP on aquifer sediments 
as a smgle cause of the observed attenuation is 
unlikely as independent measurements on lab col- 
TnTn'^r'^'^ \''^' P^^"°' '' "°t significantly 
T^ \^^^"''^t^''^^y^^^ ^^°^ 'hat naphthalene 
also exhibits a differential attenuation in concentra- 
tions relative to the sodium tracer, but the effect is 
less pronounced. The contaminated drift seems to 
be acting as a treatment zone for removal of phe- 
nolic compounds that have penetrated the aquifer 
It can be characterized as a continuous flow bior- 
eactor consisting of a fixed film microbial popula- 
W8"5 00348 ^ """"'P'^ ""*"^"* "''•e^'n- (Baker-IVI) 



^^^^^^ ACTIVATED SLUDGE 
Sw^SrS ^^^^ PROCESSING 

land State Univ., OH. Dept. of Civil Enei- 

ig. * 

Hung. 

ss Biochemistry, Vol. 19, No 1 n 25-28 

ary, 1984. 6 Fig, 3 Tab, 4 Ref ' P ^^ ^»' 

iptors: *pairy industry, * Activated sludge 
is, 'Milk 'Batch reactors, Industnal 
*'ater. Biological wastewater treatment Or- 
compounds. Chemical oxygen demand, 
organisms. 

oratory study was performed using batch 
ed sludge reactors to determine the organic 
al rates from milk wastewaters and to deter- 
he kinetic coefficients for biological treat- 
hive batch bench-scale activated sludge re- 
of 1 1 volume were used in this investigation 
vater strength in the reactors were 13 5 
I g of powdered milk per liter of reactor 
t. ihe COD removal efficiency decreased 
if '^^^ '"^^/M (food to microorganism) 
i'ercent COD removal was 87% at a F/M 
)ased on COD removal) of 0.73, and was 
a F/M ratio of 1.865. The oxygen utiliza- 

I 7''^"*^* ^."'* *''• ^^'■^ determined to be 
t.//h. The sludge production coefficients, 
, were found to be 0.483 and 0.14/day The 
e removal rate constant, k, was 1 1 5/day 
quantity of non-biodegradable material v' 
^dieted to be 30 mg/1. (Author's abstract) 



The development of low-pressure membrane-sepa- 
ration processes for the purpose of permeate-water 
reuse is gammg considerably importance because 
of the feasibility of simultaneous removal of organ- 
ic and inorganic dissolved solids. The treatment 
for ""h^^VuI "^o^l-hquefaction wastewater calls 
tor. H2S-NH3 stripping, phenolics extraction 
powdered activated carbon-assisted biologica 
processes, followed by a low pressure membrane 
separation process. Two types of membranes were 
evaluated: a polyamide hollow-fiber module and a 
spiral-wound module containing a thin-film com- 
posite membrane. The membranes were evaluted 
in terms of water flux, specific rejections of solutes 
and extent of water recovery. Both membranes 
removed 94-98% organics at zero to 90rwater- 
recovery levels. At low water-recovery levels the 
chlonde rejections were: 98% with the spiral- 
wound module and 94% with the hollow-fiber 
module At 90% water recovery, 91% chloride 
removals were obtained with the spiral-wound 
module compared to 80% removal with the 
hollow-fiber module. As these membranes also 
provide efficient removals of phenolics and salts, it 
IS possible that the indirect use of membranes with- 
out pnor biological treatment may be feasible to 
fsakw-IVI) ''"^^^ permeate quality for reuse. 
W85-00284 



ADV^CTION-DISPERSION INTERPRETA- 

™N^F TRACER OBSERVATIONS IN AN 

^^^ford Univ., CA. Dept. of Applied Earth Sci- 

w?//^?^!^ bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W 85-00326 



'ERY OF HOT WATER, DYES AND 
^lAR^Y^EMICALS FROM TEXTILE 

I Univ., Sc' 

ter, and G. A. Goodman. 

"£"iTatrRe7.°-'''"«^-'^^-^^^--y' 

;ors: 'Textile mill wastes, 'Membrane hy- 
lon, 'Water reuse, Wastewater renova- 
'astewater treatment. Filtration, Dyes 
ne processes. ' 

overy of hot water, dyes and auxiliary 
IS trom a continuous dye range has been 
rated using a full-scale dynamic membrane 
ration (HF) system. The membrane stabili- 
and rejections are satisfactory. Recycle of 



S?S5^*^'^"^'^ OF PHENOLIC CONTAMI- 

BACTERIA: ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 
M F Huh'"''' °' ^ °°""'^' E- M. Godsy, and 
Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6. p 703-710, Novem- 
ber-December, 1982. 5 Fig, 4 Tab, 20 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater pollution, 'Phenols. 

w!T"^; .^*- ^°"'' ^^'^' *Minnesota 
Wastewater treatment, Anaerobic conditions, Coa 
mme wastes. Methane, Carbon dioxide, Naphtha- 
Studies of contaminated near surface ground water 
at St. Louis Park, Minnesota indicate that coal tar 
derivatives from a coal tar distillation and wood 
treating plant operated there from 1918 to 1972 
have entered the water and that phenolic com- 
pounds are being converted to methane and carbon 
..l™ ^y anaerobic bacteria. The findings which 
support this conclusion are: methane is present in 
the contaminated portions of the aquifer but not 



J:™l°^^N AND PHOSPHORUS INTER- 
CHANGE BETWEEN SEDIMENTS AND 
OVERLYING WATER OF A WASTEWATER 
RETENTION POND, "AsitwAltR 

foS'pL"'^' '^^'^^"'h' ^"'^ Education Center, San- 
K. R. Reddy. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. 98, No. 3, p 237-243 Febru- 
ary. 1983. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 15 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Wastewater treatment, 'Retention 
ponds, 'Nitrogen, 'Phosphorus, 'Sediments, n" 
n?!^"c'?'"°''^'j- Phosphorus removal. Tempera- 
ture, Solar radiation. Turbulence, Floodwater 
bedment-water interface. Volatilization, Soii 

Nitrogen and P interchange between the sediments 
and the overlying water of a stimulated retention 
pond used for wastewater treatment were evaluat- 
ed under conditions of seasonal temperature fluctu- 
ations and varying physico-chemical conditions 
(exposing floodwater surface to daylight vs. dark 
and turbulent vs. quiscent floodwater). Natural 
sediment columns obtained from two types of field 
retention ponds were used. One type of retention 
pond consisted of calcareous clay loam sediment 
while the sediment of second retention pond con- 
tained organic soil. Nutrient interchange between 
sediments and the overiyijig water was measured 
once a month over a period of one year. Nitrogen 
removal rates from floodwater were controlled by 
he initial floodwater NH4(-h) and N03(-) concen- 
tration, rate of NH4( + ) diffusion from the sedi- 
ments to the overlying water, ammonification in 
he sediments. NH3(-) volatilization and nitrifica- 
tion at the sediment- water interface, and denitrifi- 
^^A°V^1^^ sediments. Under the conditions stud- 
ied, NH4(-|-) concentrations of the floodwater 
were in the range of 0.01 to 0.05 micro g/ml, while 
N03(-) concentrations were in the range of 0.27 to 
0.78 micro g/ml. Sediments with organic soil were 
found to be less effective in the removal of flood- 
water organic N. organic C and P, compared to 
the sediments with calcareous clay loam. Phospho- 
rus exchange rates were dependent on the capacity 
of the sediment to adsorb or desorb P Total P 
exclwnge rates were in the range of -1 04 to 34 
mg P/sq m day. Seasonal temperature fluctuations, 
turbulent vs. quiscent water conditions or exposing 
the floodwater surface to daylight or dark had 
very little effect on N and P exchange rates. (Au- 
tlior s abstract) 
W85-00410 

5E. Ultimate Disposal Of Wastes 

SEDIMENT BUDGET STUDY FOR CLAM- 
Ims DREDGING AND DISPOSAL ACTm- 

Army Engineer District, New York. 
J. F. Tavolaro. 



iii> 



59 



Field 5-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5E— Ultimate Disposal Of Wastes 



Report (1982). 27 p, 22 Fig, 5 Tab, 29 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Dredging, •Ocean clumping, 
♦Marine sediments, *Sand, •Municipal wastes, 
Barges, Turbidity How, Turbidity, Physical prop- 
erties. Sediment-water interfaces, Boats, New 
York, New York Bight, Mud Dump site. New 
Jersey. 

The sediment budget study represented one aspect 
of the investigation of ocean disposal of dredged 
material for the Port of New York and New 
Jersey. Approximately 500,000 cubic yards of 
dredged material from six separate locations were 
disposed at one previously unused location at the 
Mud Dump Site. The material was capped with a 
layer of 252,000 cubic yards of 'clean' fine-grained 
dredged material and 1,533,000 cubic yards of sand 
from Ambrose Channel. Approximately 2.0% of 
the dredged material was lost at the dredging site. 
Of this lost dredged material, 55% was due to the 
dredging itself and 44.3% was due to intentional 
barge overflow. Approximately 3.7% of the 
dredged material is lost at the Mud Dump Site, 
presumably during disposal. Total loss of dredged 
material during these clamshell dredging and 
ocean disposal operations was calculated to be 
5.6%. Observations revealed that turbidity plumes 
generated at dredging sites were local features 
which traveled along the bottom for several hun- 
dred feet. These plumes only persisted while 
dredging was occurring, and ambient conditions 
were established within a relatively short time after 
dredging ceased. Of the total quantity of dredged 
material which is allowed to overflow from the 
barges, 57.2% settles back to the bottom m a 
relatively short time. It appears as if dredging itself 
is the major contributor to the loss of dredged 
material at the dredging site. (Garnson-Omniplan) 
W85-00048 

EVALUATION OF CAPPING OPERATIONS 
AT THE EXPERIMENTAL MUD DUMP SITE, 
N.Y. BIGHT APEX, 1980, 

New York Univ. Medical Center, NY. Inst, of 
Environmental Medicine. 
J. M. O'Connor. , 

Final Report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 
New York District, December 1982. 70 p, 6 Fig, 7 
Tab, 126 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Dredging, *Ocean dumping, •Chem- 
ical analysis, •Municipal wastes, •Municipal 
wastewater, •Contamination, Bioaccumulation, 
Sand, Accumulation, Biochemical characteristics. 
Biochemical tests, •New York, New York Bight, 
Mud Dump site. 

Conflicting multiple uses of the New York Bight 
impose various stresses on its physical and biologi- 
cal resources. Current regulations dictate that con- 
taminated waste dredged material be given special 
treatment. Contaminated sediment from dredging 
projects in the Hudson estuary, Newark Bay, and 
contiguous waters were capped with fine sediment 
and sand from the Bronx River, Westchester Creek 
and the Ambrose Channel. The capping resulted in 
a layer of sand about one meter thick lying atop 
the contaminated sediment. It was determined that 
a sand-mud cap was successfully placed at the 
experimental dumpsite. The cap was still intact and 
in place after at least sixteen months. Cap erosion 
was minor; predictions of cap life were in excess of 
twenty years under normal meteorologic condi- 
tions. Major storm events, however, are capable of 
eroding the cap and exposing the contaminated 
material. During the sixteen months of the study, 
the total loss of contaminated material was about 
4%; all this loss occurred during the dumping/ 
deposition/compaction phase. Chemical analyses 
showed that contaminant levels in the sand cap 
were much lower than in the contaminated sedi- 
ments. Bioaccumulation studies showed that less 
contaminant uptake occurred at the capping site 
than at uncapped dredged material sites, and at 
sites in New York Harbor. Bioaccumulation rates 
were, for the most part, 0.1 or less. (Garrison- 
Omniplan) 
W85-0O049 



IDENTIFYING CHEMICAL SIGNATURES 
FOR DISPOSED DREDGED MATERIALS. 



New York Univ. Medical Center, NY. Inst, of 
Environmental Medicine. 

Final Report to U.S. Army Engineers, New York 
District, June 1982. 77 p, 59 Ref, 3 Append. 

Descriptors: *Chemical analysis, 'Ocean dumping, 
•Contamination, •Dredging, •X-rays, •Sediments, 
•Continental shelf, Heavy metals. Zinc, Metals, 
Municipal wastes, •New York, Staten Island, New 
York Bight, Mud Dump site. 

Contaminants dumped at sea on the continental 
shelf within the confines of the designated 
Dredged Material Dumpsite were analyzed, in- 
cluding subaquaceous burial of dredged material. 
The analysis was of physical and chemical charac- 
teristics of sediments from 10 dredging projects 
and 11 cores from the Mud Dump. Level of chemi- 
cal contamination were greatest for metals, espe- 
cially zinc; PCB levels were roughly similar 
throughout the projects. Unique chemical signa- 
tures were determinable for the Staten Island 
project, due primarily to very high levels of 
metals, particularly zinc. Chemical and physical 
analyses of core samples showed the presence of a 
sand cap of varying thickness. X-ray analyses of 
vibracore samples taken at the Mud Dump Site 
also demonstrated the presence of a sand cap; the 
depth of the cap was variable and ranged from a 
few centimeters to more than one meter. No sam- 
ples from dredging projects were found to contam 
unique chemicals. Levels of organic and inorganic 
contaminants at the Mud Dump Site were equiva- 
lent to levels detected in the analysis of samples 
from individual dredging projects. Where the sand 
cap was found to be in place, contaminant levels in 
the sand, and thus in contact with the water 
column, were greatly reduced. The use of contami- 
nated sediments for capping made it difficult to 
draw any conclusion regarding the extent to which 
successful capping occurred through the region 
under study. (Garrison-Omniplan) 
W85-00050 



SEDIMENT CAP STABILITY STUDY, NEW 
YORK DREDGED MATERIAL DUMPSITE, 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Miami, FL. Atlantic Oceanographic and Me- 
teorological Labs. 

G. L. Freeland, R. A. Young, G. Drapeau, T. L. 
Clarke, and B. L. Benggio. 

Report prepared for the Dept. of the Army, New 
York District Corps of Engineers, and the Office 
of Marine Pollution Assessment, NOAA, February 
1983. 209 p, 81 Fig, 12 Tab, 74 Ref. 

Descriptors: •Ocean dumping, •Municipal wastes, 
•Dredging, *Sediments, •Marine sediments, Sand, 
Storms, Fetch, Waves, Economic aspects, •New 
York, 'Sediment transport, New York Bight. 

The area under study had dredged material 
dumped which was determined, after the dumping 
occurred, to be unsuitable for unrestricted ocean 
disposal under the ocean dumping pollution crite- 
ria. This material was subsequently capped by 
clean dredged material. The sea-bottom conditions 
on the surface of the cap were measured. Both 
actual and predictive analysis indicated a slight 
amount of erosion occurring during a 'normal' 
year. The bottom is particularly susceptible to 
erosion during the winter season, when the water 
column is unstratified. Especially important for 
bottom sediment transport are storm conditions 
when the wind blows from directions of open 
water fetch (from east-northeast to south-south- 
west). Sea swell coming from these directions may 
also cause some transport. Severe conditions did 
not occur during the measurement period; never- 
theless, some sediment transport, primarily to the 
south, did occur. Since the present surface of the 
cap contains high percentages of easily transported 
find sand, it is recommended that additional mate- 
rial be added to the cap, and that this material be 
clean sand as coarse as is economically available, 
but not finer than 0.25 mm in grain size. The wave 
hindcasting technique used correlated very well 
with bottom measurements, but at least one bottom 
transport event corresponded with a time of sea 
swell, not locally generated wind waves. The cap, 
which is four to eight feet thick, appears to be safe 
for the time being. (Garrison-Omniplan) 
W 8 5-0005 3 



AREAS SUITABLE FOR APPLICATION OP 
MUNICIPAL SLUDGE. 

Fox Valley Water Quality Planning Agency, Men- 

asha, WI. 

Report, July 1983. 20 p, 104 Maps, II Tab, 4 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sludge utilization, 'Sludge dispoMl, 
Liquid sludge, Sludge solids, 'Sludge drying, 
'Wastewater disposal, 'Municipal wastewater. 
Slopes, Municipal wastes, Industrial wastes, Per- 
meability, Bedrock, 'Wisconsin, Maps, Land appli- 
cation. 

Sites near Menasha, Wisconsin, that were poten- 
tially acceptable for the land application of munici- 
pal wastewater treatment sludges were analyzed, 
using two main criteria: (I) the land had to be 
outside of existing urban development, to avoid 
conflicting land use problems, and had to be locat- 
ed within a reasonable distance from the municipal 
treatment plant; and (2) detailed soil and topo- 
graphic standards had to be met. These standards 
included: less than 12% slope, depth to seasonal 
water table greater than three feet, no flooding or 
ponding, depth to bedrock greater than three feet, 
permeability of the most restricting layer to be 
above three feet of 0.2 to 6.0 in. per hour, and 
available water capacity to be more than three 
inches based on a 60-inch column of soil. Maps 
showing suitability for sludge application maps are 
included for Brown, Calumet, Fond du Lac, Outa- 
gamie, and Winnebago Counties. A landowner in- 
terested in spreading sludge must be aware of the 
particular solids present in the fields and the limita- 
tion of these soils for the land application of 
sewage sludge. Other concerns such as the per- 
centage of slope, proximity to a waterway, and 
climatic conditions are also involved in the deci- 
sion. Some treatment plants have a policy of haul- 
ing the sludge to the farmer's field and dumping it 
onto the field; others not only haul the sludge to 
the field but also spread in onto the land. Liquid 
sludges demand different application equipmen; 
than dewatered sludge. (Garrison-Omniplan) 
W85-00054 



DISPOSAL OF SECONDARILY TREATED Ml 
NiaPAL SEWAGE BY SUBSURFACE IRRIGA 
TION, 

Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Agncul- 

tural Engineering. 

L. E. Stewart, D. S. Ross, H. L. Brodie, and T. 

Sohrabi. 

Available from the National Technical Informatioi 

Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PBS 190081 

Price codes: A02 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche 

Water Resources Research Center Techmci 

Report No. 70, August 1983. 19 p, 5 Fig, 6 Ref 

Project No. OWRT A-055-MD(l), Contract/ 

Grant No. 14-34-0001-2122. 

Descriptors: 'Subsurface irrigation, Sprinkler irn 
gation, 'Septic waste water, Chlorination, Tnck 
ling filters. Biological wastewater treatment. Sane 
filter. Secondary wastewater treatment, Tertun 
wastewater treatment, 'Wastewater treatment 
♦Wastewater disposal. 

Trickle irrigation tubing was used for low pres 
sure, uniform subsurface distribution of chlonnate^ 
sewage effluent for land treatment and disposal 
The effluent was domestic, secondanly treaiei 
water from a septic tank and sand filter system 
The land provided tertiary treatment of the wate 
through growing plants, evaporation, and grouJO 
water recharge. This method eliminated a pom 
source discharge into a stream and appears to na^ 
future application. This experimental system per 
formed well in the fall of 1982 and, with moditica 
tion, in 1983. Although the rowcrop tnckle imga 
tion tubing (tape) appeared to function satisfacton 
ly in a heavy soil containing stones, ng"" *' 
trickle tubing may be advantageous in proDien 
soils or at deeper depths. Effluent was even 
distributed without surface wetting for all treai 
ment application rates but precipitation was vet 
low during the test period. This system appeawi 
to allow good utilization of effluent nutrients oc 
cause plant roots were not saturated. This sysic 
may have application in urban areas where m 
surface can be used for public green space. Disp" 



60 



al can be under turfgrass in parks or under forage 
crops with lower pumping energy than by an 
overhead sprinkler system. 
W85-00060 



MEASUREMENTS TO QUANTIFY 

WASTEWATER FIELDS PRODUCED BY OUT- 
FALL DIFFUSERS, 

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5B 

W85-00067 



APPLICATION OF WASTEWATER TO WET- 
LANDS, 

East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC. Dept of 

Biology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5D. 

»v oD~uuu yy 



GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SUBSURFACE 
TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER, 

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Soil 

Science. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5D 

W85-00080 



GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR LAND TREAT- 
MENT OF SLUDGE, 

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Soil 

Science. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5D 

iV85-00081 



'OLIOES AND PROCEDURES FOR LAND 
rREATMENT OF WASTEWATER, 

;Jorth Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and 
community Development, Raleigh. Div. of Envi- 
onmental Management, 
w primary bibliographic entry see Field 5D. 

V o j-UUUoZ 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 5 
Water Treatment and Quality Alteration— Group 5F 

Eichsfelder Energie- und Wasserversorgungs 

G.m.b.H., Duderstadt (Germany, F.R.). 

F. Bergmann, and B. Schuette. 

Desalination, Vol. 49, No. 2, p 203-214, February, 

1984. 8 Fig. 



soil interaction. An advection-dispersion model 
predicts nitrate concentrations for various buffer 
widths, and is used in conjunction with a specified 
maximum allowable nitrate concentration to deter- 
mine a minimum horizontal buffer under certain 
ground-water flow conditions. (Author's abstract) 

5F. Water Treatment and 
Quality Alteration 

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF COLI- 
FORMS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYS- 
TEMS, 

Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Dept. of Biologi- 
cal Sciences. 

R. R. Christian, and W. O. Pipes. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Vol 
45, No. 2, p 603-609, February, 1983. 1 Fil 4 Tab' 
15 Ref 

Descriptors: *Coliforms, *Drinking water, *Penn- 
sylvania, *New Jersey, 'Water distribution. Fre- 
quency distribution. Bacteria, Public health. 

Nine small water distribution systems in Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey were sampled intensively to 
determine the patterns of dispersion of coliforms 
Cohforms were not randomly dispersed in any of 
the water distribution systems. In all systems stud- 
ied most locations yielded no coliforms. The fre- 
quency distributions of confirmed coliform counts 
were compatible with either the negative binomial 
or the lognormal distribution. They were not com- 
patible with either the Poisson and Poisson-plus- 
added zeroes distribution. If the lognormal model 
IS representative of the coliform distribution, the 
arithmetic mean sample count is a poor estimator 
of the true mean coliform density. Also, the likeli- 
hood of a person consuming water with a very 
high coliform density is small but finite even if the 
system is not shown to be in violation. (Baker-IVn 
W85-00106 ^ CI ivi; 



Descriptors: 'Reverse osmosis, *Water treatment 
Sulfates, *West Germany, Automation, Comput- 
ers, Drinking water. Conductivity. 

The Eichsfelder Energy and Water Supply Com- 
pany Limited is a service company in the northern 
section of the German Federal Republic. It sup- 
plies water to one city and 38 smaller towns in 
Lower Saxony. The water is supplied from 6 deep 
wells. German drinking water regulations require 
that the sulfate content of drinking water not 
exceed 240 mg of S04/1. Since the sulfate content 
in well water fluctuates considerably, a reverse 
osmosis (RO) plant was added to the existing water 
treatment plant to provide sulfate ion removal 
capabilities. The RO plant consists of two trains 
each using a different type of RO membrane and 
producmg 50 cu m/h (316.8 kpgd). The plant is 
tully automated and operated by computer based 
on conductivity values of the blended product 
water and the water requirement. The remote 
water treatment plant is not staffed around the 
clock. All operating data are transmitted by radio 
to a central control room where the plant perform- 
ance IS monitored on CRT. Water of nearly con- 
stant conductivity can be delivered to the supply 
net by using speed regulation motors. During 
nearly one year of operation (2,500 h) the RO plant 
has experienced no upsets. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00253 



;ENERAL GUIDELINES FOR LAND TREAT- 
lENT OF WASTEWATER, 

lorth Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Bio- 
)gical and Agricultural Engineering, 
or primary bibliographic entry see Field 5D. 
/ 85-00083 



ATURAL BUFFERS FOR SLUDGE LEACH- 
TE STABILIZATION, 

lames and Moore, Washington, DC. 

. S. Makeig. 

round Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 420-429 Julv- 

ugust, 1982. 3 Fig, 3 Tab, 42 Ref. 

escriptors: 'Sludge disposal, 'Buffer area, 'Lea- 
lates, 'Sludge entrenchment. Land disposal, 
roundwater pollution, Soil properties, Cation ex- 
lange. Nitrates, Permeability coefficient 
roundwater movement, Mathematical models. 

irge quantities of sludge can be disposed of safely 
■ bunal in narrow trenches. This paper describes 
study to quantify the amount of buffer area 
3und a trenching operation that would allow for 
s natural soils to stabilize sludge leachate with- 
t threatening the ground-water supplies of sur- 
unding communities. A vertical buffer consists of 
thickness of unsaturated soil below the base of 
: trench. Its thickness is calculated by comparing 
: cation exchange capacity of the soil with the 
:hangeable cations in the sludge leachate. Data 
m metropolitan Washington, D.C. consistently 
luire a vertical bufl-er of less than 3 feet thick A 
nimum of 3 feet of unsaturated soil is recom- 
nded as a margin of safety, although no specific 
dies were performed to reach this value The 
nzontal buffer is a strip of land that must be 
intained between the trenching operations and 
: site boundary. Its width can be more than two 
lers of magnitude greater than the vertical 
ter Its width is based on the nitrogen loading of 
soil from the sludge and the mobility of nitrate 
the upper aquifer based primarily on hydraulic 
iductivity and the characteristics of the sludge/ 



l^^^J^^^ ^^ CONTAMINATED 

v!?e^dTa^rYo"n^, ^™ ««^^^^^« ^^- 

R. P. O'Brien, M. M. Clemens, and W. G. 

Schuliger. 

AIChE Symposium Series, Vol. 79, No 230 n 44- 

52, 1983. 14 Fig. '^ 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater pollution, 'Water 
treatment, 'Activated carbon, 'Pennsylvania, *To- 
byhanna Army Depot, 'New Jersey, 'Rockaway 
Borough, Potable water, Organic compounds, Lea- 
chates. Cost analysis. Spills. 

Contamination of groundwater supplies in the 
United States with organic chemicals has become a 
serious widespread problem. In the granular 
carbon treatment of leachates and groundwaters 
generated from waste storage lagoons, industrial 
^^'^ j.^"'^' ^^^ transportation accidents, a total of 
27 different organic compounds were detected 
Treatment with granular activated carbon is a cost 
ettective process for removing a wide range of 
organic compounds from contaminated leachates 
and groundwaters. Case histories for Rockaway 
Borough^ New Jersey and the Tobyhanna Army 
Depot, Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania show that non- 
detectable levels of synthetic organic chemicals 
can be achieved in water supply systems with total 
operating costs as low as 22 cents per 1,000 gallons 
'/^^'^ ^""^ carbon usage rates as low as 0.1 lbs per 
1,000 gallons. Predicting the performance of 
granular carbon in groundwater treatment is no 
i^r^u',.^ '""^ consuming or expensive operation 
With the development of the Accelerated Column 
Test, potential granular carbon users can expect a 
more accurate system design in less time and for 
less money. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00128 



^ater^jreatment for waterflood 

S. Rooks. 

Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, Vol 24 

No. 4, p 140-142, April, 1984. 1 Fig, 1 Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Waterflood injection, 'Water treat- 
ment, 'Oil recovery, 'Seawater, Filtration, Sus- 
pended sohds, Deaeration, Dissolved oxygen. Or- 
ganic compounds. 

Secondary recovery techniques are used on oilfield 
reservoirs either to increase production rates or to 
stimulate older reservoirs which have lost pressure. 
The most common method of secondary recovery 
IS waterflood injection in which water from a 
source external to the field is treated and injected 
at high pressure into the reservoir. Knowledge of 
the amount of suspended solids and their particle 
size distribution is very important, and before a 
water flood development takes place, the seawater 
at or near the eventual abstraction site is tested for 
these parameters so that the optimum treatment 
process is selected. Seawater is usually abstracted 
from about mid-sea depth to ensure the cleanest 
water. Any biological material is killed by the 
injection of chlorine and biocides at the pump to 
prevent growths in the treatment system and to 
enable the material to be removed by filtration 
Waterflood injection requires very high quality 
filtered water as, under the normally large flow 
rates employed, the pressure of even quite low 
suspended solids and very fine particles would 
quickly lead to blockages in the injection wells and 
consequent falling off of injection rate. Backwash- 
ing of the filters uses unfiltered seawater when the 
suspended solids level is low thus eliminating the 
need for a backwash tank and pumps. Normally a 
single stage of the fine filtration is sufficient. Filter 
aids may involve the addition of a chlorine resist- 
ant polyelectrolyte. Dissolved oxygen must be re- 
moved from the water to be injected. A variety of 
chemicals is added to the injection water during 
the treatment process to control biological activity 
to serve as filtration aids, to aid deaeration, and to 
reduce foaming in deaerators due to the presence 
of organic compounds. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00273 



INTEGRATION OF A REVERSE OSMOSIS IN- 
STALLATION IN THE FULLY AUTOMATED 
OPERATION OF A RURAL WATER SUPPLY 



61 



GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION OF 
TWO PRODUCTION WELLS: A CASE HISTO- 



;<;■■..>■ 



Field 5— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5F— Water Treatment and Quality Alteration 






Ecology and Environment, Inc., Seattle, WA. 
K. Boateng, P. C, Evers, and S. M. Testa. 
Ground Water Monitoring, Vol. 4, No. 2, p 24-31, 
Spring, 1984. 9 Fig, 3 Tab, 7 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Wells, 'Groundwater pollution, 
•Lakewood, 'Washington, 'Chlorinated hydrocar- 
bons. Monitoring wells, Tetrachloroethylene, 
Dichloroethylene, Trichloroethylene, Water pollu- 
tion control. Organic compounds. 

Ground water sampling in the summer of 1981 
revealed that two production wells belonging to 
the Lakewood Utility District (Washington) were 
contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. 
Testing revealed the source of the problem to be a 
commercial facility located a few feet northwest of 
a monitoring well. Contaminants identified includ- 
ed l,2-(trans)-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 
and tetrachloroethylene. Recommendations were 
that the contaminated discharge from the facility 
be eliminated; that the two contaminated wells be 
pumped at intervals and sampled to determine 
when acceptable levels of water purity were 
achieved; and that if reasonable levels were not 
achieved within a reasonable time, then cost-bene- 
fit studies of treatment or the use of alternate 
sources be made. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00363 

5G. Water Quality Control 



PROJECTED EFFECTS OF PROPOSED CHLO- 
RIDE-CONTROL PROJECTS ON SHALLOW 
GROUND WATER-PRELIMINARY RESULTS 
FOR THE WICHITA RIVER BASIN, TEXAS, 

Geological Survey, Austin, TX. Water Resources 
Div. 

S G3.TZ3, 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, 
Denver, CO 80255. USGS Water-Resources Inves- 
tigation Report 83-4026, 1983. 40 p, 11 Fig, 2 Tab, 
23 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater, Water quality, 'Natu- 
ral chloride pollution, 'Digital computer model, 
'Aquifer simulation. Aquifer-head changes, 
'Texas, Wichita River basin. 

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' plan to con- 
trol the natural chloride pollution in Wichita River 
basin includes construction of Truscott Brine Lake 
on a tributary of North Wichita River. In connec- 
tion with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey was requested to define the existing 
ground-water conditions in the shallow freshwater 
system of the project area and to project the 
postconstruction effects of the proposed lake on 
the freshwater aquifer. The freshwater aquifer in 
the project area is a shallow water-table systein 
with relatively freshwater that contains approxi- 
mately 500-5,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved 
solids and consists of Permian rocks with very 
small values of hydraulic conductivity. It overlies 
a brine system that is even less permeable. Two- 
dimensional mathematical computer models were 
developed for aquifer simulation of steady-state 
conditions in a freshwater system and transient 
conditions in a brine-freshwater system where den- 
sity effects of the brine are considered. Main re- 
sults of the project are: (1) Water-level rises in the 
aquifer of 5-40 feet would be confined to areas near 
the proposed dam and along lake shoreline, and (2) 
migration of saltwater downstream from dam gen- 
erally would be limited to less than 1 mile and 
apparently, would not reach equilibrium during the 
100-year duration of the project. (USGS) 
W85-00026 



ESTIMATION OF NONPOINT SOURCE 
LOADINGS OF PHOSPHORUS FOR LAKES 
IN THE PUGET SOUND REGION, WASHING- 
TON, 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5B. 
W85-00038 



WATER SUPPLY SOURCE PROTECTION 
RULES AND REGULATIONS PROJECT, 



State Univ. of New York Coll. of Environmental 

Science and Forestry, Syracuse. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6E. 

W85-00046 



GROUNDWATER: AN INVENTORY OF 
WELLS AND CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL 
WITHIN THE SILURIAN AQUIFER OF CALU- 
MET COUNTY, 

Fox Valley Water Quality Planning Agency, Men- 

asha, WI. 

S. C. Hansen. 

Report, July 1983. 120 p, 13 Fig, 17 Tab, 29 Ref, 1 

Append. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater availability, 'Avail- 
able water, 'Water supply, 'Subterranean water, 
'Conforms, 'Contamination, 'Agricultural chemi- 
cals. Aquifers, Political aspects. Governmental 
interrelations. Interagency cooperation. Fertilizers, 
Groundwater quality. 

Concern over the quality of Wisconsin's ground- 
water supplies has recently increased due to inci- 
dents of contaminated drinking water sources. The 
presence of the pesticide 'aldicarb' in some wells in 
the Central Sands area of the state is but one 
example. Currently, two-thirds of the residences in 
the state rely solely on groundwater for their 
water supply. Most private drinking water systems 
in the state pump well-water from this reserve, as 
do about 560 out of 580 municipal water systems. 
The quality of groundwater within the Silurian 
aquifer of Calumet County was found to be gener- 
ally good and safe for human and livestock con- 
sumption, but excessive levels of nitrates and coli- 
form bacteria have been found in wells. Surface 
activities such as manure spreading, animal waste 
storage, solid waste landfilling, and pesticide and 
fertilizer applications are considered potential 
sources of contaminants. Large informational gaps 
exist on much of Wisconsin's groundwater sup- 
plies. It is recommended that Calumet County 
adopt policies stipulating land use or zoning re- 
strictions for activities which threaten groundwat- 
er quality. The county should also initiate an infor- 
mational program to inform landowners and the 
general public of activities which could degrade 
the quality of their groundwater. The proper 
design of manure storage facilities should be en- 
couraged, and the Silurian aquifer groundwater 
should be sampled over a period of time to estab- 
lish its existing quality and trends. (Garrison-Omni- 
plan) 
W85-00055 



INVESTIGATION OF THE CARRYING CA- 
PACITY OF THE MONOCACY RIVER AS A 
SCENIC AND RECREATIONAL RESOURCE, 
VOLUME III. THE MONOCACY RTVER- 
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SITUATION AND 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROTECTING 
THE RIVER RESOURCE, 

Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Recrea- 
tion. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6D. 
W85-00073 



WATER QUALITY CONTROL, 

G. Kovacs. 

Ambio, Vol. 13, No. 2, p 101-103, 1984. 4 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality control, 'Hungary, 
'Lake Balaton, 'Lake Velence, Wastewater trea- 
ment. Industrial wastes, Canals, Eutrophication, 
Lakes. 

As in every industrialized country the control of 
water quality is a problem of water management in 
Hungary. The efficient treatment of effluents is 
needed to protect the environment and also to 
develop water resources. The available natural 
water resources are limited and the ever increasing 
demand can be covered only if the repeated use of 
the water is ensured by the sufficient treatment of 
the effluents released into the water courses. Al- 
though transboundary pollution, along with a wid- 
ening gap between water supply and sanitation, 
hinder the development of water quality control, 
some improvements have been attained. The im- 



62 



provement of water quality in Lake Velence, the 
second largest shallow lake in Hungary, is dis- 
cussed. TTie eutrophication of Lake Balaton and 
the efforts to provide sewage treatment and restore 
the canals are ajnsidered. Apart from technical 
measures, which mostly involve the treatment of 
effuenls, a regular observation of qualitative pa- 
rameters, the localization and elimination of acci- 
dents and the administrative regulations for licens- 
ing the use of water, are all instruments for the 
improvement of water quality control. Multidisci- 
plinary research is needed to establish a firm scien- 
tific basis for the ongoing protection of water 
resources. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-O0086 



CONSERVATION OF FRESHWATER FISHES 
OF SRI LANKA, 

California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Wildlife and 

Fisheries Biology. 

F. R. Senanayake, and P. B. Moyle. 

Biological Conservation, Vol. 22, No. 3, p 181-195, 

March, 1982. 1 Fig, 3 Tab, 46 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Conservation, 'Fish, 'Sri Lanka, 
Environmental effects. Deforestation, Urbaniza- 
tion, Watershed management. Translocation, Land 
use. Mining, Pesticides, Diversion, Fisheries, Legal 
aspects. 

Sri Lanka supports a diverse fauna of freshwater 
fishes, 24% of which are endemic. A survey of the 
island's streams indicated that a number of the 
endemic fishes are threatened with extinction and 
others are depleted due to the interaction of defor- 
estation, urbanization, gem mining, pesticides, ex- 
ploitation, water diversions, and introduction of 
exotic species. It is important to conserve these 
endemic species for ethical, economic, and ecologi- 
cal reasons. Ways of achieving this goal are out- 
lined. The endemic species considered included 
two spot barb, black ruby barb, cherry barb, side 
striped barb, blotched filamented barb, red scissor- 
tail barb, vateria flower rasbora, green carplet, 
green labeo, banded mountain loach, spotted loach, 
green topminnow, comb tail, ornate paradisfish, 
and redtail goby. The distribution of fishes of Sri 
Lanka suggest that there are three distinct ichthyo- 
logical provinces: the Southwestern Province, the 
Mahaveli Province, and the Dry Zone Province. 
Legal machinery for protecting the fishes already 
exists in Sri Lanka, under sections 34 and 37 of the 
Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance, as amend- 
ed by Act 44 of 1964 and approved by the National 
Assembly in 1972. Some of the steps that should be 
taken include captive breeding, watershed manage- 
ment, translocation, and regulation of fisheries. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00118 



LOCAL PROBLEMS BECOME NATIONAL 
ISSUE, 

L. Tangley. 

BioScience, Vol. 34, No. 3, p 142-146 and 148, 

March, 1984. 3 Fig, 3 Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater pollution, 'Water pol- 
lution control. Natural resources. Groundwater 
movement. Aquifers, Legislation. 

Groundwater is a vast natural resource with 
aquifers that hold it underlying most of the United 
States. Groundwater comprises more than 96% of 
all fresh water in the United States. One well 
known characteristic of groundwater, particularly 
relevant to its contamination, is the speed that the 
water moves, anywhere from a few feet to just a 
fraction of an inch per day. Slow movement of 
contaminants also means that groundwater quality 
can differ dramatically from place to place. In 
addition, aquifer geology and natural groundwater 
quality vary locally, leading many researchers to 
believe that the resource is best managed at the 
state or local level. Many groundwater pollutants 
tend to be invisible, as well as being odorless and 
tasteless. Detection can be difficult. Often there are 
no surface water alternatives for communities that 
depend on groundwater. Testing of many contami- 
nants as possible carcinogens has not yet been 
completed. Such testing, particulariy in humans, is 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 6 



difficult. The complex microbial ecosystems con- 
tained in groundwater are discussed along with 
consideration of various sources of pollutiSn and 
the EPA strategy for dealing with the problem. 
(Baker-IVI) ^ 

W85-00125 



TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED 

GROUNDWATER WITH GRANULAR ACTI- 
VATED CARBON, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5F. 
W85-00128 



INTEGRATION OF FOREST AND LAKE FER- 
TILIZATION: TRANSPORT ANJ TRANSFOR- 
MATIONS OF FERTILIZER ELEMENTS, 

British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Van- 
couver. Fish and Wildlife Branch. 
C. J. Perrin, K. S. Shortreed, and J. G. Stockner. 
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc- 
es, Vol. 41, No. 2, p 253-262, February, 1984. 9 
Fig, 6 Tab, 44 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Mohun Lake, *British Columbia, 
♦Forest fertilization, *Lake fertilization, *Nutri- 
ents. Cycling nutrients. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, 
Phytoplankton, Nitrogen transport. Chlorophyll, 
Ureas, Fertilizers. 

Application of fertilizers to forests and to lakes has 
resulted in increased productivity in both systems. 
Forest fertilization by helicopter with a centrifugal 
spreader (435 kg urea/ha) on the Mohun drainage, 
northern Vancouver Island, during late fall 1979 
resulted in a combined increase in urea, ammonia, 
uid nitrate concentrations to 8000 micrograms N/ 
L above control levels in streams not protected 
A'lth 50-m-wide leave (i.e. unfertilized) strips and 
550 micrograms N/L in those having leave strips. 
By spring 1980, dissolved nitrogen loads to Mohun 
.^ake increased by a minimum of 55% in the larg- 
;st basin and 1924% in the smallest basin. This 
;orresponded to fertilizer losses of 2.1% of the 
otal applied from drainages that had leave strips 
ind up to 5.2% from those where the treatment 
ncluded direct application to stream channels. Ni- 
rogen transport was dominated by reduced nitro- 
;en species and lasted up to 144 d. During the 3 yr 
irior to forest fertilization, nitrogen (ammonium 
litrate) and phosphorus (ammonium phosphate) 
vere added to the lake at an N:P ratio of 4.5 (wt/ 
vt) and a load of 1.4-2.2 mg P/sq m/wk. Spring 
vertum phosphorus concentrations were 4-5 mi- 
rogram/L throughout the study and, except 
unng the spring following forest fertilization, NP 
atios (N03-N:TP) at spring overturn were 3-6 
ivt/wt). Despite the low ratios, nitrogen-fixing 
hytoplankton were not dominant in Mohun Lake, 
"he lake's phytoplankton community was nitrogen 
mited prior to the increased nitrogen supply, 
ifter forest fertilization, average epilimnetic chlo- 
Jphyll concentrations were 1.8 rimes higher than 
1 1979, the last year of, lake fertilization. The 
icrease is attributed to the much higher spring 
Jcycling processes within the extensive littoral 
Me of the lake. (CoUier-IVI) 
/85-00147 



[ERCURY LEVELS IN BROOK TROUT (SAL- 
ELINUS FONTINALIS) FROM SELECTED 
CID AND LEVIED ADIRONDACK LAKES, 

ew York State Coll. of Agriculture and Life 
;iences, Ithaca. Dept. of Natural Resources, 
or primary bibliographic entry see Field 5C. 
'85-00204 



ISPOSING OF POWERPLANT FLYASH CAN 
E EFFECTT:D IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY 
^FE MANNER, 

D. Strauss. 

3wer, Vol. 128, No. 2, p 45-48, February, 1984 4 
g- 

escriptors: 'Fly ash, *Powerplants, *Landfills, 
Delaware, Waste disposal. Waste dumps, Eco- 
imic aspects. Groundwater protection. Air pollu- 
)n control, Dusts, Monitoring, Leaching. 

ry disposal of flyash as opposed to ponding was 
gun in Delaware with experience gained at the 



Indian River station of the Delmarva Power and 
Light Company serving as a base. The Indian 
River station is a coal-fired plant comprising four 
generating units with nominal capacities for a total 
capacity of 757 MW. The plant consumes about 
5150 tons/day of eastern bituminous coal. About 
180,000 tons of dry flyash and 32,000 tons of 
bottom ash are generated annually. Flyash is 
loaded into haul pans from the storage silo and 
transported to an on-site landfill by a contractor. 
The design of the landfill is based on a 30 yr plant 
life. The completed landfill will eventually cover 
about 140 acres, including sedimentation basin, 
access roads, perimeter dikes, and drainage ditches. 
Dust control measures are implemented at the 
landfill to minimize this problem. An emergency 
response plan has been developed for times when 
there are high winds at the landfill in the direction 
of adjacent landowners. An aerovane alarm system 
sounds an alert, which sets the plan in motion. 
Some of the environmental control measures used 
to prevent dusting also are effective in protecting 
the groundwater. Chemical binders reduce the 
amount of water needed for dust control, which 
minimizes the potential for leachate generation. 
Proper compaction is essential as it not only facili- 
tates cell construction and minimizes dusting, but 
also promotes surface water runoff by minimizing 
infiltration and cracking due to settlement. Ground 
and surface waters are monitored to allow for 
early detection of potential groundwater contami- 
nation. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O211 



EFFECT OF RAIN WATERS ON LEAD LEVEL 
IN THE VISTULA IN THE REGION OF 
CRACOW AGGLOMERATION, 

Instytut Ksztaltowania Srodowiska, Krakow 

(Poland). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5C 

W85-0O23O 



BUMPER CROP YIELDS GROWING PROB- 
LEMS, 

SAI Comsystems Corp., Eureka, CA. 

L. McWilliams. 

Environment, Vol. 26, No. 4, p 25-33, May, 1984 5 

Fig, 2 Tab, 21 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater pollution, *Nitrates, 
♦Agncultural chemicals, 'Wisconsin, Aldicarb, 
Legislation, Water managment. Insecticides, Fertil- 
izers, Leaching, Soil properties. 

While agricultural chemicals have helped to set 
new crop production standards, they sometimes 
have combined to pollute groundwater and endan- 
ger the health of people, livestock, and other ani- 
mals. Wisconsin's Central Sands region is an exam- 
ple of an area that has reaped the rewards of 
modem agricultural practices at the expense of 
water quality. The Central Sand's susceptibility to 
groundwater pollution began thousands of years 
ago when glaciers retreated northward, depositing 
sandy, loamy soils in thin layers on top of igneous 
and metamorphic bedrock. The adverse environ- 
mental and economic consequences of over-irriga- 
tion or excessive precipitation on sandy soils is 
known. One problem is the presence of insecticides 
and other agricultural chemicals in the groundwat- 
er. News of aldicarb in Wisconsin groundwater 
came too late for action during the 1981 growing 
season. Subsequent changes can make such an oc- 
currence less likely in the future. The outlook for 
nitrates is not as good. Nonpoint source pollution 
is ubiquitous. There are three avenues toward the 
goal of groundwater free of pollution: federal, 
state, and local or citizen action. Federal action 
could include legislation protecting groundwater, 
incentives to states that voluntarily implement 
groundwater management, or programs that would 
aid innovative farmers in implementing practices 
that prevent groundwater pollution. At the local 
level, even if laws are passed, it will take fime to 
get meaningful enforcement. The forcefulness of 
national environmental and conservation groups 
cannot be ruled out in this issue of great concern 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00277 



Techniques Of Planning— Group 6A 

PERMIT FEES FOR NEW JERSEY'S SURFACE 
AND GROUNDWATER DISCHARGERS, 

New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection, 

Trenton. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6E 

W85-00281 



TANKS CONTAMINATE 



UNDERGROUND 
GROUNDWATER, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5B 
W85-00287 



DEGRADATION OF PHENOLIC CONTAMI- 
NANTS IN GROUND WATER BY ANAEROBIC 
BACTERIA: ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5D 

W85-00348 



6. WATER RESOURCES 
PLANNING 

6A. Techniques Of Planning 



COST AND PRECISION IN A STREAM SAM- 
PLING PROGRAM, 

Montana Univ., Missoula. Dept. of Zooloev 

A. L. Sheldon. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. Ill, No. 2, p 147-152, April 

1984. 3 Fig, 1 Tab, 7 Ref - H . 

Descriptors: *Costs, 'Sampling, 'Streams, 'Preci- 
sion, Planning, Research. 

The total cost of sampling is the sum of fixed and 
vanable (incremental) components. Attainable 
sample size and precision are constrained by total 
budgeted cost and the relative and absolute magni- 
tudes of the components. Nomograms relating 
fixed, variable and total costs to sample size and 
precision are presented for use in research plan- 
ning. Preliminary estimates of cost allow one to 
estimate attainable precision while knowledge of 
cost components and desired precision specify the 
total budget. Time costs for a survey of a Montana 
stream were dominated by fixed costs and the 
laboratory component of variable costs while vari- 
able field costs were small. Cost reductions are 
always worthwhile. Cost reduction in survey sam- 
pling permits large increases in precision while 
reducing variable costs in research sampling have 
more effect on total cost than on precision 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-0O420 



PROBABILISTIC METHOD OF OPTIMIZING 
SURVEYS WHEN DESIGNING HYDRAULIC 
STRUCTURES, 

E. G. Gaziev. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 6 p 
309-312, June, 1982. 3 Fig, 3 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitetl'stvo, No. 6, d 19-21 
June, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Decision making, 'Surveys, Design 
criteria. Systems analysis. Optimization. 

The process of designing a hydraulic structure is 
imagined as consisting of these main stages: sur- 
veys, including an engineering-geological survey 
of the site, geophysical and geotechnical investiga- 
tions, construction of engineering-geological 
models; formation of an idea about the character 
and layout of the future structure; construction of a 
geomechanical model serving as the basis for math- 
ematical and physical modeling; design, calcula- 
tions and physical modeling; and parametric analy- 
sis and establishment of the most important factors 
determining the design. The use of such a cyclic 
process, surveys-models-designing-parametric anal- 
ysis-surveys, makes it possible to obtain the opti- 
mal value from the surveys, the necessary accura- 
cy and detail. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00467 



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63 



Field 6— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 



Group 6A — Techniques Of Planning 

DETERMINATION OF THE FIRM YIELD OF 
A SYSTEM OF RESERVOIRS FOR WATER 
SUPPLY, 

A. L. Velikanov, and V. I. Klepov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 9, p 
439-443, September, 1983. 1 Fig, 2 Tab, 11 Ref. 
Translated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, 
No. 9, p 15-18, September, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Reservoir yield, •Model studies, 
•Water supply development, *Moscow, 'USSR, 
Simulation, Storage reservoirs. Reservoir oper- 
ation. Water quantity management. 

The city of Moscow and adjacent areas are cur- 
rently supplied with water from the Volga, 
Vazuza, and Moscow rivers. The system has 
grown and now consists of eight reservoirs, four of 
which are located in the basin of the Moscow 
River and the other four are located in the basin of 
the upper course of the Volga River. The increase 
of water consumption and the increase of the re- 
quirements imposed on nature-conservation flood- 
ing releases inevitably lead to an increase of the 
water yield of the system. When developing the 
reservoir management regulations it is necessary to 
be guided by certain management quality criteria, 
and these criteria should take into account the real 
possibility and form of predicting the inflow of 
water to the reservoirs. When planning reservoirs 
for water supply the design probability is assigned 
on the basis of standards. Indices such as the 
volume of water delivered to the user, the relative 
duration of uninterrupted periods, or the relative 
number of uninterrupted years can serve as charac- 
teristics of the reliability of water supply. Simula- 
tion models of the operation of water management 
systems can be of considerable help in developing 
management regulations, estimating the yield of a 
water management system, and in determining the 
indices of its reliability. The use of simulation 
modeling methods for determining the properties 
of a system of reservoirs makes it possible to 
overcome the barrier of the large dimensionality of 
the problem of optimal control of water manage- 
ment systems. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O49O 



6B. Evaluation Process 



NATIONAL WATER SUMMARY 1983- HY- 
DROLOGIC EVENTS AND ISSUES. 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Water Resources 
Div. 

Available from Supt. of Documents, GEO, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20402. USGS Water-Supply Paper 
2250, 1984. 243 p, 1 1 Fig, 9 Tab, 66 Maps. 

Descriptors: 'National Water Summary, Federal- 
State interrelationships. State jurisdiction. Hydro- 
logic cycle, *Water policy, 'State policies, Water 
management, Institutional constraints. Water avail- 
ability. Water quality, Hydrologic hazards. Land 



The 1983 National Water Summary reviews cur- 
rent hydrological conditions and recent events in 
the United States and provides a broad overview 
of the hydrologic issues facing the nation. The 
summary also includes a description of water issues 
for each State, the District of Columbia, Puerto 
Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the western 
Pacific Islands under the jurisdiction of the United 
States. States were chosen as the basis for describ- 
ing water issues because the country's water re- 
sources are managed and controlled, for the most 
part, by State governments. The State water-issue 
summaries were prepared by U.S. Geological 
Survey personnel in each of the states and are 
based on discussions with more than 130 State and 
local organizations, reviews of recently published 
information, and knowledge of water conditions 
acquired in the course of U.S. Geological Survey 
studies. The State water-issue summaries identify 
concerns expressed by State and local water-man- 
agement officials. In some cases, they also illustrate 
the variety of actions that are being taken to re- 
solve the issues. Major issues described in this 
report include (I) the short-term vulnerability of 
surface-water supplies and shallow ground-water 
supplies to drought; (2) concerns about the reliabil- 



ity of water supplies as competition for water 
increases; (3) declining groundwater levels; (4) 
control of surface-water pollution, especially non- 
point sources of pollution; (5) contamination of 
ground-water supplies and the mitigation of exist- 
ing sources of pollution, such as hazardous-waste 
sites; (6) the potential effects of acidic precipita- 
tion; (7) chronic problems of flooding; (8) the 
impacts of resource development, such as coal 
mining and low-head hydropower, on water re- 
sources; and (9) the development of water alloca- 
tion and reallocation procedures. Hydrologic per- 
spectives on these issues are discussed under the 
heading 'Water availability'; 'Water Quality'; 'Hy- 
drologic hazards and land use'; and 'Institutional 
and management'. (USGS) 
W85-00035 



ESTIMATED USE OF WATER IN THE 
UNITED STATES IN 1980, 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Water Resources 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6D. 

W85-00042 



WATER IN AMERICA 1983, A REPORT BY 
THE OFFICE OF WATER POLICY, DEPART- 
MENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 
Office of Water Policy. 

Available from Supt. of Documents, GPO, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20402. OWP Report, (1984). 18 p, 5 
Fig, 1 Tab. 

Descriptors: *Water policy, *River management, 
•Interstate water conflicts, •Indian water rights, 
•Water project development, *Acid rain, •Salinity, 
Water quality. 

This is a supplemental report to accompany the 
National Water Summary 1983 (USGS Water 
Supply Paper 2250). That report provides a de- 
tailed look at water resources conditions through- 
out the United States. Several policy issues emerge 
from this review of regional and State data relating 
to the availability and quality of our water supply 
and the impact of natural hazards such as drought 
and flooding. Their analysis explores the kinds of 
problems posed by underlying hydrologic condi- 
tions, the changing roles of Federal, State and 
local authorities, and promising trends in solutions 
developing at each level of government. In this 
report six policy issues have been chosen for spe- 
cial attention: (1) Improving River Management; 
(2) Interstate Water Conflicts; (3) Water Project 
Development; (4) Indian Water Claims; and (5 and 
6) Water Quality: Acid Rain and Salinity. 
W85-00057 



WATER RESOURCES APPRAISAL OF THE 
COLLEGE OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS AREA, 
ST. THOMAS, 

Caribbean Research Inst., St. Thomas, VI. 

O. Ajayi, and F. Gomez-Gomez. 

Technical Report No. 11, September 1983. 70 p, 12 

Fig, 10 Tab, 23 Ref OWRT Project No. A-009-VI 

(2), Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2150. 

Descriptors: •Water supply management, *Water 
harvesting. Groundwater development, •Conjunc- 
tive use, Optimum development plans, •Virgin Is- 
lands, •St. Thomas, Cost effectiveness, •Water 
supply augmentation. 

The St. Thomas campus of the College of the 
Virgin Islands faces water management problems 
typical of the Virgin Islands. Lack of detailed 
accounting in the water supply and distribution 
system makes optimal decision-making for water 
management at the College difficult to realize. The 
College has also had to ration water in the past. 
However, the College has aquifers which can be 
exploited under better management to yield 
enough water, in conjunction with the rainwater 
harvesting system, to satisfy its water needs in an 
average rainfall year. The College will face in- 
creasing water bills if dependency on public supply 
continues. Water rates have jumped from $6.50/ 
Kgal to $17.50/Kgal in less than four years and are 
expected to go higher. Harvested rainwater and 



groundwater represent least cost alternatives ol 
water supply to the College. Emphasis should be 
on conservation and full utilization of all available 
roof areas and storage capacity which are present- 
ly under-utilized to reduce the overall costs ol 
providing water to the College. 
W85-OfX)66 



PREDICTION OF ECONOMIC POTENTIAL 
FOR IRRIGATION USING A GROUND 
WATER MODEL, 

Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Dept. of Geolo- 
gy- 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 48. 
W85-00336 



PROSPECT RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED TC 
GROUND-WATER RESERVOIR EVALUA 
TION, 

G. H. Davis. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 6, p 657-662, Novem 

ber-December, 1982. 2 Fig, 1 Tab, 12 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater storage, •Water yield 
•Assessments, 'Storage capacity, Aquifer charac 
teristics, Groundwater hydrology. Reservoirs 
Evaluation, Risks, Monte Carlo method. 

A method is proposed for predevelopment assess 
ments of the potential yield of groundwater reser 
voirs. A systematic assessment of aquifer param 
eters leads to estimates of groundwater storage 
capacity and the geologic risks that may affec 
those estimates. Area of reservoir, average saturat 
ed thickness of aquifers to a limit of economic 
dewatering, and average specific yield, all arrivei 
at through a Delphi procedure are combined in 
Monte Carlo simulation to yield an unrisked prod 
uct at several probability levels. Marginal probabil 
ities are assigned to each parameter and combine' 
in a further Monte Carlo simulation to yield 
series of risk estimates. The results are expressed i 
a table and a cumulative probability curve c 
groundwater storage capacity that can provide 
basis for economic modeling. When applied to th 
estimation of fresh groundwater resources of 
specific hydrogeologic unit the following step 
would be taken: assemble all available hydrogeolc 
gic data on the groundwater reservoir or subdiv 
sions thereof; summarize the information followin 
a standard format of tables, sections, and map: 
quantify the data to the feasible degree includin 
extent, thickness and character of known aquifei 
and interbedded materials, mode of occurrence c 
ground water, porosity, permeability, and storat 
vity of aquifers, and information on recharge an 
discharge; convene a panel of hydrogeologic e; 
perts to review the data for a given reservoir. Eac 
expert is polled as to his subjective estimate of 
low storage capacity corresponding to a 95^ 
chance that at least that much storage capacity 
available, a high storage capacity corresponding t 
a 5% chance that at least that much storage capac 
ity is available, a model value which the expe 
associates with the highest probability of that sto 
age capacity occurring, and a mean value calcula 
ed by summing the others and dividing by thre- 
The results are then reviewed by the group. Tl 
subjective estimates of the experts are combined i 
a Monte Carlo procedure to arrive at a set ( 
probabilistic estimates of the storage capacity < 
the reservoir under consideration. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00341 



QUANTITATIVE MODEL TO PREDICT 
SAFE YIELD FOR WELL FIELDS IN KUFR 
AND SARIR BASINS, LIBYA, 

Ohio Univ., Athens. Dept. of Geological Science 
M. U. Ahmad. 

Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 58-66, Januar 
February, 1983. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 29 Ref 

Descriptors: •Groundwater management, •Well 
•Predicting, •Libya, •Kufra Basin, •Sarir Basi 
Basins, Water resources development, Irrigatio 
Water demand. 

Using the available water level data of the Kuf 
and Sarir basins, a steady state model was co 



64 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 6 



structed, and regional transmissivities were deter- 
mined for the two basins. The best match with the 
•ictual water level data indicated a discharge of 
ibout 80 cu m/s. This appears to be a reasonable 
iischarge on the basis of estimated underflow of 40 
:u m/s from Libya, and about 29 cu m/s is dis- 
:harged from Libyan oases. In addition to the 
;xisting KSP, KPP, South and North Sarir, and 
lalo well fields, nine more well fields are proposed 
n the Kufra and Sarir basins. These well fields are 
jlanned to pump a total quantity of 120 cu m/s. 
rhe simulation which was performed indicated 
hat sufficient drawdown was available to last at 
east 50 years. (Baker-IVI) 
V85-00358 



■VALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 
MEASURES TO SHORTEN THE CONSTRUC- 
TON TIME OF MASS CONCRETE STRUC- 
TJRES OF HYDROELECTRIC STATIONS, 

(. E. Kazantsev, and V. I. Teleshev. 
lydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 7, p 
95-400, July, 1983. 2 Fig, 2 Tab, 2 Ref Translated 
ram Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 7, p 
6-29, July, 1982. 

)escriptors: *Concrete, *Decision making, Hy- 
raulic engineering. Construction, Optimization, 
ystems analysis. 

"he most important criterion of the optimization of 
decision with respect to the technology and 
rganization of constructing structures at hydros- 
itions is the time necessary to complete the vari- 
us tasks needed. The effectiveness of technologi- 
»1 and oganizational decisions aimed at increasing 
le rate of placing concrete in the main structures 
id, consequently, at shortening the construction 
tne on the whole, should be examined carefully, 
n index is presented which permits a numerical 
valuation and comparison of the effectiveness of 
troducing various organizational and technologi- 
il measures and singles out the most effective 
les. TTie example given uses the proposed crite- 
an and shows its clarity and practical applicabil- 
1 for evaluating the effectiveness of specific 
easures. Since in principle it is possible that one 
easure can prove to be optimal with respect to an 
dex, an increase of height above this optimal 
ilue not only will not increase the rate of placing 
increte in the structure but will even lead to a 
urease. (Baker-IVI) 
'85-00476 



HYDROPOWER UTILIZATION SCHEME OF 
THE EUPHRATES RIVER IN SYRIA, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 
W85-00504 



RCHTTECrURE OF FOREIGN HYDROELE- 
UC STATIONS, 

N. Vaksman, and E. A. Pershanin. 
ydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 10, p 
-20, October, 1983. 8 Fig. Translated from Gi- 
otekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 10, p 16-20 
;tober, 1983. 

jscriptors: 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Developing 
untries, 'Architecture, 'Egypt, 'Syria, 'Tunisia, 
lorocco. Hydraulic structures. Construction, 
»ign criteria, Planning. 

hen developing the architecture of hydrauhc 
uctures for new power stations in developing 
untries, it is necessary to take into account not 
ly the local climatic conditions and established 
tional traditions, but also those social transfor- 
itions which are characteristic for the majority 
them. The depth of the approach of architects to 
jeneral architectural solution is characterized by 
effect on the engineering-technological layout 
the powerhouse of the hydroelectric station. It 
noted that when designing generator rooms not 
tnbined with dams of powerhouses, a unique 
pneering tradition has become established in 
iich the structural members of the supporting 
mework of the powerhouse itself are used for 
hnological servicing of the units by crane equip- 
nt during their installation or repair. Several 
hitectural approaches to specific dams are dis- 
ised including the Aswan High Dam on the Nile 
/er m Egypt, the Tabqa hydrostation on the 
phrates River in Syria, a hydrostation on the 
sseb River in Tunisia, and the Mansour Eddahbi 
iroelectric station in Morocco. (Baker-IVI) 
!5-00500 



6C. Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, 
Pricing/Repayment 



COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF WETLAND 
DRAINAGE, 

Leeds Univ. (England). School of Economic Stud- 
ies. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A 
W85-00278 



6D. Water Demand 



ESTIMATED USE OF WATER IN THE 
UNITED STATES IN 1980, 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Water Resources 
Div. 

W. B. Solley, E. B. Chase, and W. B. Mann, IV. 
Available from Distr. Br., USGS, 604 S. Pickett 
St., Alex., Va. 22304. U.S. Geological Survey Cir- 
cular 1001, 1983. 56 p, 13 Fig, 22 Tab, 119 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Estimated U.S. water use, 'Water 
use. Water use efficiency, 'Consumptive use, 
Water demand, 'Estimating, Irrigation water. Mu- 
nicipal water. Domestic water. Industrial water, 
Water reuse. Conjunctive use. United States. 

Water use in the United States in 1980 was estimat- 
ed to be an average of 450 bgd (billion gallons per 
day) of fresh and saline water for offstream uses- 
an 8-percent increase from the 1975 estimate and a 
22-percent increase from the 1970 estimate. Aver- 
age per capita use for all offstream uses was 2,000 
gpd (gallons per day) of fresh and saline water, and 
1,600 gpd of fresh water; this represents a slight 
increase since 1975. Offstream uses include (1) 
public supply (domestic, public, commercial, and 
industrial uses), (2) rural (domestic and livestock 
uses), (3) irrigation, and (4) self-supplied industrial 
uses (including thermoelectric power). From 1975 
to 1980, public supply use increased 15 percent to 
34 bgd, rural use increased 14 percent to 5.6 bgd, 
irrigation use increased 7 percent to 150 bgd, and 
self-supplied industrial use increased 8 percent to 
260 bgd. Within the industrial category, thermo- 
electric power generation mcreased 9 percent to 
210 bgd, whereas other self-supplied industrial uses 
remained approximately constant at 45 bgd. Total 
fresh water consumed- that part of water with- 
drawn that is no longer available for subsequent 
use- by these offstream uses increased 7 percent to 
100 bgd, with irrigation accounting for the largest 
part of water consumed, estimated at 83 bgd. Esti- 
mates of withdrawals by source indicate that from 
1975 to 1980, total groundwater withdrawals in- 
creased 7 percent to 89 bgd, and total surface- 
water withdrawals increased 9 percent to 360 bgd. 
Total saline-water withdrawals increased by about 
2 bgd to 72 bgd, of which 71 bgd was saline 
surface water. Reclaimed sewage amounted to 
about 0.5 bgd in 1980, an 11-percent decrease from 
1975. Water used for hydroelectric power genera- 
tion, an instream use, remained unchanged from 
1975 at 3,300 bgd. This is in contrast to the increas- 
ing trend from 1950 to 1975. Although 1980 esti- 
mates of water use were higher than the 1975 
estimates for all offstream categories, trends estab- 
lishing during the periods 1970 to 1975 and 1975 to 
1980 indicate a general slackening in the rate of 
increase of total withdrawls in comparison to the 
period 1965 to 1970. (USGS) 
W85-00042 



RESOURCES OF THE TUG HILL REGION, 

State Univ. of New York Coll. of Environmental 
Science and Forestry, Syracuse. 
A. Eschner, J. Osinski, D. Howe, and S. Shupe. 
Report prepared for the Temporary State Commis- 
sion on Tug Hill, February 1984. p 86-119, 5 Fie, 
14 Tab, 28 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Precipitation, 'Aquifers, 'Rainfall, 
♦Snow accumulation, 'Annual distribution, 



Water Demand — Group 6D 

'Water quality. Regional development. Surface 
water, Stream gages. Water sampling. Groundwat- 
er availability, Groundwater quality, 'New York, 
Tug Hill region. 

Few areas in New York State receive more pre- 
cipitation than the Tug Hill region. The average 
annual precipitation for the study area during the 
period 1963-1974 was 45.18 inches, with some por- 
tions receiving in excess of 54 inches. Precipitation 
is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year; 
average monthly totals range from 7.2 percent 
(March) to 10.8 percent (November) of the annual 
value. The annual snow accumulation ultimately 
provides most of the region's usable water in sur- 
face streams or groundwater aquifers. Municipal 
and industrial pollution, as well as sediment and 
agricultural pollution, occur mostly on the fringes 
of the region. Relatively high quality ground- 
water is available throughout the region. In a large 
portion of the area, its yield is very low; however, 
in some places, such as the area around Camden, 
aquifers have enormous capacity and potential 
yield. Use of water is relatively low when com- 
pared to the total annual amount available. An 
expanded regional program of streamgaging is rec- 
ommended, including reactivation of the recently 
inactive Deer River gage, planned in conjunction 
with the development of explicit regional resource 
management objectives. Also recommended is a 
comprehensive groundwater survey, primarily in 
Jefferson and Lewis Counties where information is 
limited; a design sampling network and schedule to 
better define the water quality of the region's 
water bodies and aquifers; and additional snow 
survey courses. (Garrison-Ommiplan) 
W85-00044 



INVESTIGATION OF THE CARRYING CA- 
PACITY OF THE MONOCACY RIVER AS A 
SCENIC AND RECREATIONAL RESOURCE, 
VOLUME III. THE MONOCACY RIVER-- 
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SITUATION AND 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROTECTING 
THE RIVER RESOURCE, 

Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Recrea- 
tion. 

F. R. Kuss, and K. Schaub. 

Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190222, 
Price codes: A08 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche. 
Maryland Water Resources Research Center Pub- 
lication No. 67, December 1982. 141 p, 5 Fig, 30 
Tab, 21 Ref, 1 Append. OWRT Project No. A- 
041-MD (3), Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-2122. 

Descriptors: River basin development. River sys- 
tems. Rivers, Watersheds, 'Recreation demand. 
Boating, Fishing, Swimming, Camping, Camp 
sites. Riparian rights. Management planning. Water 
quality. Wildlife habitats, 'Monocacy River, 
'Maryland, Piedmont, 'Scenic rivers, 'Carrying 
capacity. 

The Monocacy River Valley of central Maryland 
is recognized as a significant cultural and historic 
resource of national importance. Designated as a 
scenic river by the state in 1977, this study de- 
scribes the existing physical, biological and cultural 
resources of the river and valley; how different 
segments of the public view the system and its 
preservations; makes an assessment of future de- 
mands for river-oriented recreation in the counties 
through which the river courses, and recommends 
a conceptual plan for the preservation of the river 
corridor. In Volume III the demand for and supply 
of recreational facilities in the three Maryland 
counties which encompass the Monocacy River 
Valley are analyzed. Based on trends in reported 
participation rates and population projections to 
1990, canoeing, hiking, and nature walks will show 
net increases in demand up to 1990 in the three 
counties. Demand for camping, fishing, and swim- 
ming facilities will plateau or show modest growth 
during the period. To facilitate future planning 
efforts which utilize existing institutional means for 
protecting the river resource and surrounding 
lands; to encourage the cooperation of the riparian 
land-owners in maintaining the scenic quality of 
the corridor; to initiate area-wide program plan- 
ning to improve water-quality, and to provide im- 



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Field 6— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 



Group 6D — Water Demand 

proved wildlife habitat in the corridor area, a 
management plan for the Monocacy River is pro- 
posed. 
W85-00073 



IMPACT OF LAKE MICHIGAN ALLOCA- 
TIONS ON THE CAMBRIAN-ORDOVICIAN 
AQUIFER SYSTEM, 

Illinois State Water Survey Div., Champaign. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 

W85-00343 

6E. Water Law and Institutions 



NATIONAL WATER SUMMARY 1983- HY- 
DROLOGIC EVENTS AND ISSUES. 

Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Water Resources 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6B. 

W85-00035 



WATER SUPPLY SOURCE PROTECTION 
RULES AND REGULATIONS PROJECT, 

State Univ. of New York Coll. of Environmental 

Science and Forestry, Syracuse. 

R. D. Hennigan. 

Final Report, March 1981. 178 p, 8 Fig, 22 Tab. 

Descriptors: *Administrative regulations, ♦Admin- 
istrative agencies, 'Water supply systems, *Legal 
aspects, 'Water policy, 'Public policy. Public 
health, Policy making. Competing use. Potential 
water supply. Contamination, 'New York. 

A comprehensive review of the New York State 
public water supply rules and regulations program 
was conducted beginning with notification of 4,000 
interested persons in the public sector. The review 
covered program development and administration, 
the nature and extent of water resources utilization 
for public water supply purposes, related environ- 
mental protection programs, current issues and 
possible contaminants. Among the recommenda- 
tions are that the State Department of Health 
should enact rules and regulations for all public 
water supply sources in cooperation with the 
water supply owners and the local health depart- 
ment. This would help produce an effective water 
supply source protection program. In addition, 
county health agencies and district health agencies 
should be given the responsibility for regular and 
special inspections so they may be of assistance to 
water supply systems serving fewer than 5,000 
people. The county or district health agency 
should make annual inspections of the watersheds 
of larger systems, and should be responsible for 
enforcing voluntary compliance. The responsibility 
for enforcement of involuntary or forced compli- 
ance should be transferred from local boards of 
health to regional health offices. The report also 
recommends various amendments to the public 
health law. The study found that there is no provi- 
sion in law to protect surface or ground water 
resources from contamination. (Garrison-Omni- 
plan) 
W85-00046 



WATER IN AMERICA 1983, A REPORT BY 
THE OFFICE OF WATER POLICY, DEPART- 
MENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 

Office of Water Policy. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6B. 

W85-00057 



REDUONG THE FEDERAL ROLE IN WET- 
LANDS PROTECnON, 

P. Wakefield, 

Environment, Vol. 24, No. 10, p 6-13, 30-33, De- 
cember, 1982. 8 Fig, 98 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Wetlands, 'Regulations, 'Federal ju- 
risdiction. State jurisdiction. Legislation, Decision 
making. Planning, Policy, Resources management. 

A growing awareness that wetlands are both eco- 
logical and economic resources has encouraged a 



stronger commitment to wetlands management 
through slate and federal legislation and regula- 
tion. The major federal provision for wetlands 
protection. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, 
has been put high on the priority list by the Presi- 
dential Task Force on Regulatory Relief The 
debate currently reflects the larger question of the 
proper role of the federal government in wetlands 
protection. The National Wetlands Inventory 
Project, directed by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
(FWS) was first established in 1974 and expanded 
by the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Water Act 
to provide comprehensive, scientifically deter- 
mined data about the extent and characteristics of 
the nation's wetlands. Although a preliminary in- 
ventory report calls for further study by an inter- 
disciplinary team of scientists to determine the 
causes and implications of the trends in wetlands 
gains and losses, the potential importance of the 
inventory for regulatory use is clear. New propos- 
als designed to reduce the regulatory burdens cre- 
ated by 404 include: reducing 404 jurisdiction to 
traditionally navigable waters; reduce permit proc- 
essing time; transfer more permitting authority to 
the states; expand the use of general permits; and 
reduce conflicting or overlapping policies and re- 
sponsibilities. The Clean Water Act is itself due for 
Congressional reauthorization. Even so, any slow- 
downs in the flow of regulatory changes are likely 
to be only temporary. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00275 



COLORADO RIVER, RIVER OF CONTROVER- 
SY, 

Center for Natural Resource Studies, Berkeley, 

CA. 

R Coats 

Environment, Vol. 26, No. 2, p 7-13, 36-39, March, 

1984. 10 Fig, 22 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Management, 'Colorado River, 
'Legal aspects. Agriculture, Fishing, Wildlife, Sa- 
linity, Decision making. Planning, Legislation, 
Regulation, Water supply development. 

The Colorado River Working Symposium: Man- 
agement Options for the Future was convened for 
the purpose of stimulating, in a neutral forum, 
freewheeling discussions of the severity of Colora- 
do River problems and of possible solutions. The 
cornerstone of the body of the law known as the 
Law of the River is the Colorado River Compact. 
The upper basin states began in 1920 to push for a 
compact that would secure a water supply for their 
own development. Provisions and the lack of pro- 
visions in this compact are discussed. Through the 
years conflicts with the states of Arizona and Cali- 
fornia as well as international conflicts with 
Mexico apose. Problems with salinity control, legal 
and institutional obstacles to diverting and utilizing 
saline groundwater, relocation of industrial and 
municipal outfalls, Indian water rights, wilderness 
values and instream uses, agricultural vs other uses, 
and efficiency vs equity are discussed. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00276 



PERMIT FEES FOR NEW JERSEY'S SURFACE 
AND GROUNDWATER DISCHARGERS, 

New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection, 

Trenton. 

P. R. Yeany. 

Environmental Forum, Vol. 2, No. 9, p 21-25, 

January, 1984. 3 Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater management, 'Legis- 
lation, 'Permits, 'New Jersey, Regulations, 
Groundwater pollution. Wastewater disposal, 
Landfills, Waste disposal. 

Nearly two years ago the New Jersey Dept. of 
Environmental Protection adopted regulations es- 
tablishing the Pollutant Discharge Elimination 
System for the state (NJPDES). Concerning 
groundwater, the NJPDES Regulations estab- 
lished a system of permits for a variety of pollution 
sources including sanitary landfills, land applica- 
tion of waste sludges and septage, underground 
injection wells, surface impoundments, infiltration- 
percolation lagoons, and community septic sys- 
tems. Permit fees were to be used to fund the 
program. Not only do the fees support the pro- 



gram, as they are designed in relation to environ 
mental factors, the fees enwjurage reduction o 
environmental harm caused by the discharges. Tin 
NJPDES Surface Water Budget is presented 
along with a breakdown by discharge category 
Examples are ofTered of compliance sampling in 
spections listed by permit number, supplying thi 
name of the facility and giving the results of th/ 
sampling study. Various issues have been raised ii 
response to the fee schedules. (Baker-IVIj 
W85-O0281 



INADVERTENT I.NCOME REDISTRIBUTIOP 
EFFECTS OF STATE WATER DEVELOPMENl 
nNANCING, 

Utah Water Research Lab., Logan. 
D. H. Hoggan, J. M. Bagley, and K.. R. Kimball. 
Growth and Change, Vol. 14, No. 4, p 32- 3< 
October, 1983. 7 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources development, 'Fi 
nancing, 'Income distribution, 'Utah, Governmen 
supports. Loans, Social aspects. 

Governmental financing of water developmen 
projects typically has income redistribution objec 
tives. Income transfers are accomplished throug] 
direct grants between units and levels of govern 
ment, interest foregone by a higher level of gov 
ernment, sharing of certain costs among units an 
levels, or other forms of direct and indirect subsid 
ultimately derived from general lax revenues. Ej 
amples of inadvertent redistribution are offeree 
using three programs of state financial assistanc 
for water projects in Utah. Utah's Revolving Cot 
slruction Fund was created in 1947 and is us© 
mainly to finance irrigation projects such as th 
construction of small reservoirs, the lining c 
canals, installation of pipeline conveyance system; 
and the repair of existing irrigation facilities. Th 
Cities Water Loan Fund, a second revolving func 
was created in 1975 in response to two problem; 
the need of fast growing communities In energ 
resource development areas to expand and in 
prove their potable water supply and, the need c 
many small communities to improve their wate 
systems to meet increasingly stringent health stanc 
ards. The Water Resources Conservation and Dt 
velopment Fund, a third fund, was created in 197 
in the wake of an 1 8-month drought and a feden 
water policy reevaluation and subsequent projec 
hit list that created some concern among wester 
water officials. To initiate and sustain any goven 
mental program requires social justification. Frf 
quent reevaluation is needed to guarantee that oui 
comes remain congruent with the intended socii 
purpose. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00367 



6F. Nonstructural Alternatives 



FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT HANDBOOI 

Flood Loss Reduction Associates, Palo Alto, CA 
Available from Supt. of Documents, GPO, Was! 
ington, D.C. 20402. Water Resources Counc 
Report, Washington, DC, September 1981. 89 i 
19 Fig, 3 Tab, 30 Ref 

Descriptors; 'Flood plain management, 'Hanc 
books. Flood plains, 'Flood protection, *Floo 
loss mitigation. Flood plain zoning, Nonstructun 
alternatives. Technical assistance, Financial assis 



A concerted effort is under way to stem th 
growth of flood losses. This handbook summarizf 
the problem and points out what can be done. It 
intended to help local officials, public intere: 
groups and concerned citizens in assessing th 
problems in their area and initiating approprial 
and effective management of the floodplain. Th 
handbook treats both riverine and coastal floo< 
plains. It describes a full range structural and noi 
structural measures to reduce flood losses an 
maintain the natural values of the floodplain. Th 
handbook provides step-by-step guidance for di 
veloping a floodplain management program. It als 
identifies the range of technical and financial assis 



66 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 6 



Ecologic Impact Of Water Development— Group 6G 



ance available for preparing and implementing 

such programs. 

W85-00059 



IMPROVEMENT OF WATER ACCOUNTING 
\T PUMPING STATIONS, 

ifu. K. Zhukov, and I. S. Sarzhinskii. 
4ydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 5 p 
189-291, November, 1982. 4 Fig. Translated from 
jidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 5, p 48-49 
Aay, 1982. 

descriptors: 'Pumping plants, 'Water measure- 
nent, *Water storage. Accounting, Water short- 
ge, Uzbekistan, Water distribution. Metering. 

)ue to the shortage of irrigation water in Uzbekis- 
ui, improving the system of accounting and dis- 
ributing water resources is becoming more and 
lore urgent. Reliable operation of water account- 
ig devices at pumping stations is vital to this task, 
"he simplest, most reliable, and at the same time 
ighly accurate method of water accounting is the 
ariable difference method in which the difference 
f piezometric heads is measured at two selected 
oints of the walls of the pressure conduit. This 
lethod is most effective when the conduits have 
bows. When designing pumping stations, it is 
jcessary to specify in the design pressure leads for 
Md flowmeters on elbows of pressure pipes and 
:gment orifice plates in the cases where there are 
3 elbows. It is necessary beforehand to provide 
ir and assemble devices facilitating the measure- 
ent of discharges when testing pumps and cali- 
ating flowmeters. (Baker-IVI) 
'85-00464 

G. Ecologic Impact Of 
Water Development 

JOJECTED EFFECTS OF PROPOSED CHLO- 
[DE-CONTROL PROJECTS ON SHALLOW 
ROUND WATER -PRELIMINARY RESULTS 
)R THE WICHITA RIVER BASIN, TEXAS, 

Jological Survey, Austin, TX. Water Resources 

!V. 

ir primary bibliographic entry see Field 5G 
85-00026 



lEASANT (PHASIANUS COLCHICUS) HABI- 
il SUITABILITY MODEL, 

ashington State Univ., Pullman. Dept. of Agri- 
Itural Economics. 

C. Matulich, J. E. Hanson, and I. Lines, 
'ailable from the National Technical Information 
rvice, Spnngfield, VA 22161 as PB84 190438, 
ce codes: A05 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche! 
ishington Water Research Center Report 55 
'vember 1983. 83 p, 33 Fig, 58 Ref OWRT 
Jject No. B-086-WASH (2), Contract/Grant 
i. 14-34-0001-9160. 

scriptors: 'Habitat suitability, Index, Environ- 
ntal effects, 'Wildlife management, 'Pheasant, 
'ashmgton. Literature review. Model studies, 
lumbia Basin Irrigation Project. 

breeding and winter habitat suitability index 
»I) model is developed for the rin^-necked 
asant (Phasianus colchicus). The HSI model 
nework follows the Habitat Evaluation Proce- 
es (HEP) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wild- 
Service. Overall habitat suitability is defined in 
ns of seasonal habitat, species life requisites and 

environmental attributes that quantify each 
er type's potential for satisfying specific life 
uisites. A review of literature on pheasant habi- 
requirements is presented, followed by a gener- 
^ear-round HSI model. This general model is 
1 modified to account for habitat characteristics 
lie East High area of the Columbia Basin Irriga- 

Project, Washington. 
5-00062 



=T:CTS OF URBANIZATION ON PHYSICAL 
BITAT FOR TROUT IN STREAMS, 

itana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Biology 
. White, J. D. Wells, and M. E. Peterson. 



Available from the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA 22161, as PB84 190131, 
Price codes: A03 in paper copy, AOl in microfiche! 
Montana Water Resources Research Report No 
139, Bozeman, October 1983. 48 p, 8 Tab, 6 Fig 18 
Ref, 1 Append. OWRT Project No. A-134-MONT 
(1), Contract/Grant No. 14-34-001-2128. 

Descriptors: 'Trout, 'Stream, Fisheries, Habitat, 
'Channel improvement. Fish populations. Bank 
stabilization. Shoreline cover. Fish management, 
'Montana, Urban streams, Nonurban streams, Wy- 
oming Habitat Quality Index. 

Non-urban were more favorable than urban stream 
sections as habitat for trout and held more trout. 
The major habitat difference was amount of in- 
stream solid overhead hiding cover. Urban land 
modifications had created unnaturally straight, 
narrow channels with high, unstable banks with 
little of the undercuts and woody debris that pro- 
vide shelter for fish. Urban and non-urban sections 
did not differ significantly with respect to water 
velocity, dissolved nitrate, or amount of pools or 
water turbulence. Per unit stream length, non- 
urban sections averaged 54% more trout larger 
than 20 cm (8 inches) and 74% greater total trout 
biomass than urban sections. In both urban and 
non-urban areas, trout abundance as kg/ha was 
generally below the level predicted by the Wyo- 
ming Habitat Quality Index (HQI). This could 
have been due to effects of angling or other un- 
measured factors, to measurement errors or to 
inapplicability of the HQI method to the areas 
studied. There is evidence that altering the HQI 
method to consider solid overhead hiding cover 
and pool-turbulence hiding cover as separate varia- 
bles rather than as a total cover index will enhance 
predictiveness. Implications for urban stream fish- 
ery management are discussed. 
W85-00070 



INFLUENCE OF A REDUCTION IN FLOW ON 
A MOUNTAIN RIVER: THE ASTON (ARIEGE) 
(INFLUENCE D'UNE REDUCT^ION DE DEBIT 
SUR UN TORRENT DE MONTAGNE- 
L' ASTON (ARIEGE)), 

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 
Toulouse (France). Centre d'Ecologie des Res- 
sources Renouvelables. 
E. Chauvet. 

Annales de Limnologie, Vol. 19, No 1 d 45-49 
1983. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 17 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Aston, 'Ariege, 'France, 'Dam ef- 
fects, 'Mountain streams, 'Trout, Environmental 
effects. Population dynamics. Species diversity, 
Chironomids, Spawning, Immature growth stages! 

Although a number of dams exist in the Pyrenees 
Mountains, little is known about the ecological 
effects of such structures on mountain streams. In 
1956, a dam was constructed on the Aston, a 
branch of the Ariege at Riete. The reservoir has an 
area of 75,000 sq m and a capacity of 800,000 cu m. 
The flow reduction downstream of the dam (100 1/ 
s minimum instead of 2 cu m/s on the average 
upstream) has not produced any notable change in 
the chemical properties of the water. There has 
been a degradation in the biological diversity of 
the benthic fauna downstream of the dam, with a 
predominance of chironomids. The trout popula- 
tion was reduced by 10% and its biomass by 25% 
downstream of the dam. The reduction in current 
velocity and the surface area of the stream are 
probably responsible for this decrease. The trout 
populations are unbalanced, with a large propor- 
tion of old fish. The area immediately downstream 
from the dam is subject to sudden variations in 
flow and to turbidity during discharge, and so is 
unfavorable for reproduction and young fish 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00091 



UPSTREAM MIGRATION BY YOUNG PIG- 
MENTED FRESHWATER EELS (ANGUILA 
AUSTRALIS AUSTRALIS RICHARDSON) IN 
TASMANIA, 

Tasmanian Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart 

(Australia). 

R. D. Sloane. 



Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Re- 
search, Vol. 35, No. 1, p 61-73, 1984. 6 Fie, 1 Tab 
22 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Fish behavior, 'Hydroelectric 
plants, 'Migration, 'Eels, 'Tasmania, 'Australia, 
Seasonal variation. Temperature effects, Turbines, 
Solar radiation. Fisheries. 

In view of the importance of elver migrations, 
serving to replenish eel stocks in inland waterways, 
the Tasmanian Inland Fisheries Commission has 
undertaken a pilot scheme to transfer elvers up- 
stream at major hydroelectric dams that provide 
an impass to upstream eel migrations. During late 
spring and summer, upstream migrations by young 
pigmented freshwater eels can be seen at stream 
barriers in Tasmania. The elver runs at two major 
hydroelectric dams, Trevallyn and Meadowbank, 
were sampled regularly during the period 1977- 
1981 and migrations at a number of smaller stream 
barriers throughout Tasmania were also studied. 
Migrating elvers were short-finned eels, A. a. aus- 
tralis; only a single specimen of the long-finned eel, 
A. reinhardtii Steindachner, was recorded. Elvers 
sampled at inland stream barriers were both larger 
and older than those found nearer the sea, indicat- 
ing that eels migrate farther upstream for several 
years in succession. Eels involved in upstream mi- 
gration were shorter than 25 cm, having spent up 
to 10 years in fresh water. Day length, water 
temperature and river flow all contribute to the 
initiation and control of elver migration. At Tre- 
vallyn Power Station it was apparent that the run 
of elvers was determined by turbine output rather 
than by any natural environmental influence. The 
combined loadings of No. 1 and No. 2 turbines 
have been correlated with the elver catch and it is 
obvious that the major catches correspond to low 
flows through the power station tailrace. No clear 
evidence for any relationship between lunar days 
and elver runs was noted. The number of elvers 
involved in annual migrations at major hydroelec- 
tric dams in Tasmania is substantial: the largest 
migration occurs at Trevallyn, where between 
3,000,000 and 5,000,000 elvers take part each year. 
These elvers represent a considerable stocking po- 
tential and could be used to expand the local wild 
eel fishery. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00131 



MITIGATING EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL RIF- 
FLES AND POOLS ON THE FAUNA OF A 
CHANNELIZED WARMWATER STREAM, 

International Joint Commission-United States and 

Canada, Columbus, OH. 

C. J. Edwards, B. L. Griswold, R. H. Tubb, E C 

Weber, and L. C. Woods. 

North American Journal of Fisheries Management 

Vol. 4, p 194-203, 1984. 8 Fig, 7 Tab, 20 Ref 

Department of the Interior Contract 14-16-00080- 

738. 

Descriptors: 'Channelization, 'Aquatic animals, 
'Olentangy River, 'Ohio, Fish, Invertebrates, 
Population diversity. Population dynamics. Riffles, 
Pools, Environmental effects. Sport fishing. 

The effect of stream channelization on macroinver- 
tebrates, fish, and the sport fishery was studied in 
the Olentangy River at Columbus, Ohio. Macroin- 
vertebrate abundance, diversity indices, standing 
stock in the benthos, and drift were significantly 
lower in a channelized area than in either a natural 
area or a channelized area mitigated with artificial 
riffles and pools. The common groups of fishes 
found in the Olentangy River included important 
game species such as sunfishes, crappies, basses, 
and catfishes. In general these fishes were signifi- 
cantly more abundant in the unchannelized and 
mitigated areas, whereas nongame fish, fish that 
are bottom and detritus feeders, predominated in 
the channelized areas. Composition of the sport 
fishing catch and catch rates accurately reflected 
the predominant fish community in each area 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00203 



a 

I 

<s 

It 

tt 



67 



Field 6— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 

Group 6G — Ecologic Impact Of Water Development 




EFFECTS OF INCREASING SNOWPACK ON A 
SUBALPINE MEADOW IN THE UINTA 
MOUNTAINS, UTAH, U.S.A., 

Native Plants, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2C. 

W85-00236 



IMPACT OF LAND-USE ON THE ACID AND 
TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF PRE- 
CIPITATION IN THE NORTH CENTRAL U.S., 
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Dept. of Civil and 
Mining Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2K. 
W85-00243 



RIVERS: OUR VANISHING HERITAGE, 

National Audubon Society, Washington, DC. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 
W85-00282 



EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM ARTinCIAL 
FLOODING ON A NORTHERN BOTTOM- 
LAND HARDWOOD FOREST COMMUNITY, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Natural Re- 
sources. 

R. A. Malecki, J. R. Lassoie, E. Rieger, and T. 
Seamans. 

Forest Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, p 535-544, 1983. 2 
Fig, 3 Tab, 20 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Water management, 'Flooding, 
•Forests, 'New York, 'Plant communities, Wild- 
life habitats, Bottomlands, Trees, Maple, Oak, Ash, 
Elm, Water level fluctuations, Foliar stress. 

A water management program was begun in 1965 
at the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge in 
central New York to evaluate the feasibility of 
seasonally flooding bottomland hardwood forests 
to encourage their use by waterfowl. Two 120-ha 
bottomland hardwood impoundments were sub- 
jected to at least 12 years of continuous spring 
flooding (i.e., mid-March to late June). Mean water 
depth during flooding was 27-30 cm. There was 
little change in the composition of the major tree 
species present. Tree seedling survival favored red 
maple (Acer rubrum), a species capable of repro- 
ducing vegetatively as well as by seed germination, 
over that of red ash (Fraxinus Pennsylvania), 
swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor) and American 
elm (Ulmus americana). Among the herbaceous 
species, arrow arum (Peltandra virginica), swamp 
loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus), and Bidens spp. 
increased dramatically in mean density and fre- 
quency of occurrence, whereas less flood and 
shade tolerant species such as ferns were reduced. 
Growth rates of the major tree species in the 
impoundments were slower than those of trees 
samples in a nearby bottomland hardwood stand 
with natural water level fluctuations. Evidence of 
foliar stress in the overstory canopy of the flooded 
impoundments was apparent from analysis of aerial 
infrared transparencies. This was especially noted 
in one impoundment which retained water for a 
longer period due to soil type, topography, and 
dike design. The successful continuance of such a 
management scheme depends upon the recognition 
of the need to limit the duration of flooding, to 
provide for nonflooding years, to allow seedling 
establishment and to maintain the vigor of the 
existing plant community. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00291 



SMALL HYDROELECTRIC STATIONS AND 
THE ENVIRONMENT (ENVIRONMENT ET 
PETITES USINES HYDROELECTRIQUES), 

Conseil Superieur de la Peche, Clermont-Ferrand 

(France). 

R. Cuinat, and Ph. Roussel. 

Houille Blanche, No. 4/5, p 243-247, 1981. 2 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Environmen- 
tal effects, 'France, Mountains, Water resources 
development. Regulations, Resources develop- 
ment. 

In France, due to the increase in the price of oil, 
the value of other energy sources, such as small 
hydroelectric plants, ha.s increased. The placement 



of new small hydroelectric plants in certain moun- 
tainous regions may lead to the destruction of the 
last natural zones in those regions. Thus the lasting 
effects of these structures may be out of all propor- 
tion to the power derived from the installation. 
The effects of small hydroelectric power stations 
on the environment are not significantly different 
from those of larger installations. The current reg- 
ulations which deal with such installations do pro- 
vide for a number of constraints on operators 
which are based on the size of the project and the 
quality of the environment. These constraints give 
priority to protecting the aquatic environment, and 
particularly the aquatic fauna as well as the coun- 
tryside. A program has been established for the use 
of the waters in each hydrographic basin, to ensure 
balanced energy development that enables other 
uses of water to be preserved. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00381 



COLONIZATION AND SUCCESSION OF 
BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN A 
NEW RESERVOIR, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., Blacks- 
burg. Dept. of Entomology. 
J. R. Voshell, Jr., and G. M. Simmons, Jr. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 112, No. 27-39, 1984. 2 Fig, 5 
Tab, 46 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Benthos, 'Colonization, 'Succession, 
'Invertebrates, 'Reservoirs, 'Postimpoundment, 
'Lake Anna, 'Virginia, Environmental effects. 
Sedimentation, Detritus, Dam effects, Spatial dis- 
tribution. 

Lake Anna, a mainstream impoundment in Virgin- 
ia, was constructed to provide cooling water for a 
nuclear powered electricity generating facility. 
The reservoir began filling in January 1972 and 
reached normal pool level in November 1972; the 
reservoir filled more quickly than expected be- 
cause of flooding induced by a hurricane. Benthic 
macroinvertebrates were sampled for the first 
three years after filling by means of artificial sub- 
strates placed on the bottom and retrieved with 
SCUBA. Lake Anna was well colonized by 
benthic macroinvertebrates during the summer 
season immediately after impoundment. The total 
density of organisms increased in each of the first 
three years. Major changes in the fauna occurred 
between the first and second years, but the changes 
between the second and third years were more 
subtle. The first colonizers appeared to be depend- 
ent upon the components of the former ecosystem 
for food and habitat. As autochthonous factors 
began to regulate succession, diversity increased 
and the dominant species shifted to an assemblage 
of second colonizers. These factors included: de- 
composition of terrestrial vegetation and detritus 
leaving bare substrate, sedimentation, improved 
food quality of the organic matter in the sediment 
because of ingestion and egestion by the organisms 
themselves, increased plankton populations, and 
appearance of macrophytes. As the second colo- 
nizers became firmly established in the third year, 
distinct patterns of spatial distribution began to 
appear among species with similar niches. Herba- 
ceous vegetation and coarse detritus from the ter- 
restrial system stimulate the early colonization, and 
pre-impoundment basins should be prepared with 
this in mind. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00425 



USE OF THE CHANNELS OF FLATLAND 
RIVERS FOR INTERBASIN WATER TRANS- 
FER, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 8B. 
W85-00452 



ARTIFICIAL SEISMICITY, CONDITIONS AND 
POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF OCCURRENCE 
OF DAM EARTHQUAKES, 

N. I. Kalinin, and I. P. Kuzin. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 
295-303, June, 1982. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 13 Ref Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 
12-16, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Earthquakes, 'Dam construction, 
'Toktogul Reservoir, Reservoirs, Safety, Water 



68 



resources development, Tectonics, Seismic proper- 
ties. 

Examples are given of seismic activity caused by 
dam construction and reservoir filling. Observa- 
tions in the zone of the Toktogul reservoir began 
1 1 years before the start of filling. Spatial distribu- 
tion of seismicity and its temporal variations were 
studied in the entire region (150 by 120 km), in the 
reach of the reservoir (40 x 70 km), and in the 
immediate vicinity of the dam (R = 15-20 km). 
Variations of seismic activity in 1972-76 in the 
immediate zone of the reservoir were clearly dis- 
tinguished against the background of a general 
decline of seismic activity of the region. The 
number of relatively weak earthquakes increased 
by 2.5 to 4.0 times. Migration of the epicenters 
occurred toward the dam and lower pool. The 
earthquakes began to group along the Naryn River 
channel and Karasu fault. The range of depths of 
the foci narrowed from 0-15 km to 0-5 km, and 
more than 50% of the tremors began to occur at 
depths of 0-5 km. The cyclic nature of the seismic 
activity correlated with the rate of variation of the 
reservoir water level with a correlation coefficient 
of 0.59 and a two month lag time. The rise of the 
reservoir level above 100 m at the end of 1977 was 
followed by a marked relative increase in the 
number of weak earthquakes at the dam site. 
During triggering of induced earthquakes an inter- 
action of several factors related to different struc- 
tural features probably occurs. The action of the 
surcharge propagates almost instantaneously, 
whereas the thermoelastic stresses and pore pres- 
sure are redistributed in depth for years. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W8 5-00466 



CHANGE IN THE ICE AND THERMAL 
REGIME OF THE VILYUI RTVER IN THE 
LOWER POOL OF THE VILYUI I-II HYDROS- 
TATION, 

S. N. Nazarenko, and N. B. Sakharova. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 8, p 
431-435, August, 1982. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 1 Ref. Trans- 
lated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 
8, p 23-26, August, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources development, 'En- 
vironmental effects, 'Vilyui River, Hydroelectric 
plants. Thermal pollution. Ice, Temperature. 

A comparison of the thermal discharges of the 
Vilyui River at the site of the Vilyui hydroelectric 
station during the natural period and years of oper- 
ation of the hydrostation gives a picture of the 
redistribution of the thermal runoff that involved 
changes in the thermal and ice regime of the river 
at a great distance from the hydrostation. The 
changes in water temperature, time of freezeup and 
breakup, ice thickness, and levels of the ice period 
on a 200-1000 km stretch from the hydrostation 
were traced. Under natural conditions winter 
water levels gradually decreased as the discharges 
decreased. With the operation of the plant, an 
increase of the winter water levels was noted and 
traced on a stretch more than 1000 km long. A 
noticeable decrease of the water temperature in the 
summer months was noted on a stretch up to 800 
km long, and an increase of temperature in the 
spring and fall months in a stretch 600 km long. 
Disturbances of the ice regime of the river do not 
extend farther than 400 km, in which case migra- 
tion of the ice edge occurs in the 35-60 km stretch 
closest to the hydrostation and the formation of 
secondary polynyas in the ice cover is noted on 
riffle stretches at a distance up to 200 km. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00480 



7. RESOURCES DATA 
7A. Network Design 



EVALUATION AND DESIGN OF A STREAM- 
FLOW-DATA NETWORK FOR CONNECTI- 
CUT, 



RESOURCES DATA— Field 7 



Geological Survey, Hartford, CT. Water Re- 
sources Div. 
L. A. Weiss. 

Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 36, 
Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford, 
1983. 30 p, 12 Fig, 8 Tab, 24 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Surface water, 'Statistics, 'Network 
design, 'Hydrologic data collection, 'Regression 
inalysis, Peak flow. Low flow. Average flow. 
Drainage area, Geology, Rainfall, Hydraulic ge- 
ametry. Stochastic hydrology. Gaging stations, 
•Connecticut, Bayesian analysis, Streamflow-data 
letworks. 

\ method of evaluating the transferability of 
itreamflow information by regional regression 
malysis, intercorrelation of streamflow data, and 
3ayesian analysis was applied in Connecticut to 
ieveral flow variables. The mean flow was chosen 
o represent the availability of water as a resource 
or development; the 2-year, 10-year, 50- year, and 
OO-year recurrence intervals of the annual peak 
eries were chosen to represent flooding potential, 
ind the 7-day and 30-day mean low flows for the 
1-year and 10-year recurrence intervals were used 
o represent lowflow potential. The results indi- 
;ate: (1) that the standard errors of estimate of the 
egression models are good approximations of the 
aedian true average errors of prediction of the 
Jayesian distributions of estimates of inaccuracy; 
nd (2) for the streamflow variables used, little 
mprovement can be expected in the regression 
elations by collecting more streamflow data. Im- 
iroved regression models would be required to 
ignificantly reduce the errors. Future streamflow- 
ata networks should contain only stations re- 
uired for the design or operation of water-re- 
purces projects, monitoring long-term trends or 
iparian demands, the investigation of water re- 
aurces, and support of water-quality investiga- 
ons and flood-warning systems. (USGS) 
^'85-00052 



B. Data Acquisition 



PPLICATION OF LANDSAT IMAGERY TO 
LOOD STUDIES IN THE REMOTE NA- 
lANNI KARST, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, 
ANADA, 

reorgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Geography, 
or primary bibliographic entry see Field 2A. 
('84-00024 



EMOTE SENSING OF SUBSURFACE WATER 
ESOURCES IN THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, 

aribbean Research Inst., St. Thomas, VI. 

I. J. Canoy. 

echnical Report No. 14, September 1983. 21 p, 3 

ig, 4 Tab, 30 Ref OWRT Project No. A-016-VI 

), Contract/Grant No. 14-34-0001-1150. 

lescriptors: 'Remote sensing, Groundwater avail- 
)ility. Soil-water-plant relationships. Subsurface 
'aters, 'Groundwater exploration. Virgin Islands, 
quifer location. 

ocation of areas for groundwater exploitation has 
;en a long standing problem in the Virgin Islands. 
I response to this need a project was designed to 
iefly assess the possibility of using plant pigments 
irveyed from aircraft or satellites to locate 
luifers. The results of this project indicate that: 
) plant pigments can indeed be used to detect soil 
oisture changes, (b) the chlorophyll/carotinoid 
tio IS especially useful, (c) technical difficulties 
event the type of remote sensing tried from 
;ing useful. Recommendations are made for 
sign changes. 
■85-00065 



EHAVIOUR OF TURBINE, VORTEX AND 
LECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETERS, 

ranfield Inst, of Tech. (England). Dept. of Fluid 
igineering and Instrumentation. 
Baker, and J. Deacon. 

bemical Engineer, Vol. 401, p 13-15, March, 
'84. 5 Fig, 4 Ref 



Descriptors: 'Flowmeters, Testing, Mechanical 
equipment. Turbine flowmeters. Vortex flow- 
meters. Electromagnetic flowmeters. Two-phase 
flow. 

Some recent tests on commercial flowmeters in 
air/water vertical upward flows are reported. 
Comparison is made with other published data. 
Results are presented which aim to give likely 
error envelopes for meter performance when a 
two-phase flow of low void fraction is present. 
The error being assessed is the error in the meas- 
urement of volume flow of the mixture. The tests 
indicated that the response of turbine meters in 
two-phase air/water flows, even at low void frac- 
tions, is unpredictable and liable to error; that for 
vortex flowmeters, vortex shedding appears to be 
stable up to about 10% air/ water but that the 
bubbles may trigger the sensing elements leading 
to positive errors; and that electromagnetic flow- 
meters are likely to perform well even in quite 
severe two phase flow regimes. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00198 



TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY: SIMUL- 
TANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF SOIL WATER 
CONTENT AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVI- 
TY WITH A SINGLE PROBE, 

Agricultural Research Service, Riverside, CA. Sa- 
linity Lab. 

F. N. Dalton, W. N. Herkelrath, D. S. Rawlins, 
and J. D. Rhoades. 

Science, Vol. 224, p. 989-990, June, 1984. 2 Fig, 6 
Ref 

Descriptors: 'Soil water, 'Measuring instruments, 
'Conductivity, Soil properties, Pore water. Salini- 
ty. 

Two parallel metallic rods were used as a wave 
guide to measure the dielectric constant and elec- 
trical conductivity of soils having different electri- 
cal conductivities but the same water content. 
Measurements showed that the two parameters 
were sufficiently independent to permit simultane- 
ous determinations of water content and bulk elec- 
trical conductivity. Only recently has the bulk 
medium electrical conductivity been used to esti- 
mate the pore-water electrical conductivity. Even 
in the best instances, two separate measurements 
are needed to determine soil water content and 
pore-water electrical conductivity. When time 
domain reflectometry is used in conjunction with 
known relations between medium electrical con- 
ductivity and soil water electrical conductivity, it 
provides a powerful new tool in soil water re- 
search because a single measurement can yield 
both soil water content and soil water salinity. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00220 



MICROPROCESSOR-BASED DATA MONI- 
TORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A 
CONTINUOUS ION EXCHANGE PLANT, 

Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Chemi- 
cal Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 3A. 
W85-00251 



VADOSE ZONE MONITORING CONCEPTS 
FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES, 

Kaman Tempo, Santa Barbara, CA. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 5A. 

W85-00314 



BOREHOLE COLLECTOR FOR IN-SITU 
CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUND WATER, 

Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA. 
J. E. Harrar, and E. Raber. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 479-481, July- 
August, 1982. 1 Fig, 1 Tab, 5 Ref. DOE contract 
W-7405-ENG-48. 

Descriptors: 'Water sampling, 'Groundwater, 
Chemical analysis. Dissolved oxygen, Hydrogen 
ion concentration. 

An apparatus has been designed for collection of 
groundwater samples in locations of limited water 



69 



Data Acquisition — Group 7B 

flow when atmospheric contamination must be 
avoided. The apparatus impounds water for in-situ 
measurement of dissolved oxygen, pH, and Eh 
(and subsequent chemical analyses) with a mini- 
mum of alteration in chemical composition. The 
collector system comprises a commercially avail- 
able packer assembly installed in the 3-inch diame- 
ter, 10-ft deep borehole. This allows the borehole 
itself to act as the container for the water. The 
oxygen probe, which is a commercially available 
electrochemical device, functions accurately with- 
out water flow or oxygen consumption. (Moore- 

W85-00328 



EVALUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC 
METHODS FOR RAPID MAPPING OF SALT- 
WATER INTERFACES IN COASTAL 
AQUIFERS, 

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Ge- 
ology. 

M. T. Stewart. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 5, p 538-545, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 10 Fig, 3 Tab, 8 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Saline-freshwater interfaces, 'Map- 
ping, 'Electromagnetic methods, 'Coastal 
aquifers. Saline water intrusion. Conductivity, 
Remote sensing. Terrain conductivity, Florida. 

In coastal areas salt-water intrusion represents a 
significant threat to water quality in coastal aquifer 
systems. The electromagnetic (EM) method evalu- 
ated in this study proved to be rapid, very inexpen- 
sive, and it yields results which agree well with 
geologic and geochemical surveys using direct 
sampling. The instrument reads directly in conduc- 
tivity units and the depth of investigation is con- 
stant for a particular spacing and orientation of the 
receiver and transmitter coils. Data can be ob- 
tained and interpreted by personnel with little 
technical training. Data interpretation normally in- 
volves producing terrain conductivity contour 
maps, but quantitative solutions can be obtained 
where the geoelectric section can be reasonably 
approximated by a two-layer section. Some prob- 
lems were experienced with interference. Howev- 
er, interference sources usually were very localized 
and could be avoided. This study, conducted in 
two areas of Florida, demonstrates that the EM 
conductivity method is very useful for rapid, inex- 
pensive ground-water surveys where the objective 
is to locate zones of conductive pore fluids at 
depths less than 30-40 meters. Although interpreta- 
tion is indirect and qualitative, neither data aquisi- 
tion nor interpretation require special training. 
This characteristic of the EM method makes it 
very suitable for use by agencies where highly- 
trained technical personnel are not available. (Au- 
thor's abstract) 
W85-00330 



APPLICATION OF RESISTIVITY SURVEYS 
TO REGIONAL HYDROGEOLOGIC RECON- 
NAISSANCE, 

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Ge- 
ology. 

M. Stewart, M. Layton, and T. Lizanec. 
Ground Water, Vol. 21, No. 1, p 42-48, January- 
February, 1983. 9 Fig, 1 Tab, 11 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Resistivity, 'Surveys, 'Geohydro- 
logy, 'Florida, Sounding, Water depth. Geophys- 
ics, Groundwater, Dissolved solids, Karst. 

Vertical electrical soundings using DC resistivity 
methods have been completed along over 60 miles 
of survey lines in southwest Florida. The resistivi- 
ty soundings were obtained in order to outline 
major hydrogeologic features as part of a regional 
hydrogeologic investigation covering approximate- 
ly 400 square miles. The two significant hydrogeo- 
logic features which can be effectively mapped on 
a regional scale by DC methods are the presence 
of shallow, high resistivity limestones associated 
with late Tertiary reef complexes, and the approxi- 
mate depth to waters with total dissolved solids 
concentrations well above the potable water limits. 
An aquifer evaluation test indicates that these units 
have high transmissivities and are potential high 



a 
> 

{•6 

If 
it 

3 




Field 7— RESOURCES DATA 
Group 7B — Data Acquisition 



I 



yield aquifers. Both the low quality waters and the 
karstic limestones can be distinguished on the resis- 
tivity cross sections from their bulk resistivity 
values. Compared to traditional curve-matching 
techniques the automated procedure is much faster 
and produces equivalent solutions. Contouring re- 
sistivity versus depth for closely spaced soundings 
lessens the problem of equivalence by averaging 
adjacent sounding solutions. Direct interpretation 
programs for smaller computers and progammable 
calculators require additional interpretation effort, 
but produce more consistent and theoretically 
sound solutions than empirical methods. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00357 



DIRECT ACQUISITION OF RAINFALL DATA 
ON SITE (SAISIE DIRECTE SUR LE SITE DE 
L'INFORMATION PLUVIOGRAPHIQUE), 

Centre National de Machinisme Agricole du Genie 
Rural, des Eaux et des Forets, Paris (France). 
R. Ferrero, and G. Galea. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 7/8, p 471-478, 1981. 
6 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Rain gages, *Rainfall, •Automation, 
*Data acquisition. Data processing. On-site data 
collections. Meteorological data collections. 

Due to human and mechanical restraints, data on 
rainfall accumulated over variable time intervals 
could not previously be exploited, without major 
bias, beyond an hour-long time interval for inte- 
grating rain intensity. These restraints have been 
alleviated with the development of an automated 
rainfall data collection and data analysis system 
that codes conditions directly on-site on magnetic 
cassette tape using off-line coders. The recorder 
has six input channels and a flexible layout using a 
single digital input channel served by the six elec- 
tronic meters of six 'strappe' channels; observation 
time is six minutes and each record contains 26 
bytes. Layout is in accordance with ECMA norms 
341. Each of the six meters accumulates the im- 
pulses generated during six minutes at each tilt of 
the cup. After 36 minutes, the contents of the 
meters are transfered in a single block to magnetic 
storage. Data processing involves the use of a 
cassette deck and software designed on TEK- 
TRONIX 16 K (read-in) and on IRIS 80 (process- 
ing), which are themselves integrated in the basic 
processing programs on hydrology and therefore 
articulated with the subsequent automatic process- 
ing. The system meets the conditions for acquisi- 
tion and processing of rainfall data at an experi- 
mental catchment basin: temperature range of -75 
C to 40 C; autonomy (power source for three 
inonths and cassette recording for 2.5 months); a 
six minute observation time which yields good 
knowledge of rainfall conditions over shorter peri- 
ods (seven observation periods of two seconds to 
sixty minutes); and negligible time drift which 
guarantees adequate synchronization of rainfall 
events acquired by the various sensors. (Collier- 
IVI) 
W85-00388 



HYDROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT USING A 
PUBLIC TELEPHONE SYSTEM (TELEME- 
SURE HYDROLOGIQUE PAR RESEAU TELE- 
PHONIQUE COMMUTE), 

Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la- 

Neuve (Belgium). Dept. de Genie Rural. 

E. Persoons, and J. Laurent. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 7/8, p 479-485 1981 

7Fig, 7Rer 

Descriptors: *Hydrologic data collections, ♦Te- 
lemetry, 'Rainfall, 'Meuse, 'Belgium, *Data ac- 
quisition, Automation, River forcasting. Data in- 
terpretation. Rain gages. Meteorological data col- 
lections, Flood forecasting. 

A telemetering system using the public telephone 
system was designed for hydrological measure- 
ments. It includes a central call unit which dials 
the phone numbers and measures the messages, and 
on-site phone receivers. These receivers require no 
local power. The latter have the advantages of 
requiring no external source of input and of trans- 
mitting data in pure analogue mode. Data are 



either instantaneous or memorized locally. At the 
call-center, a central set managed by micro-proces- 
sor enables calls to be sent out either automatically 
or manually; it can receive and measure the analog 
data received from the automatic receivers; and it 
can process this data in order to transform it into 
directly usable values which are then transferred to 
a mass memory. The receivers are compatible with 
all analog or digital receivers. The information is 
returned at a precision of around 0.1 %. Eight 
microprocessor calling sets and more than 200 field 
sets are in use on a permanent basis in Belgium. 
The Hydrological Study Service (HSS) equipped 
its measurement network with 65 telelimnimeters 
and 15 pluviographs. Using this network, the HSS 
was able to follow the flooding of the Meuse on 
July 20th and 21st, 1980 to a level recorded only 
once every hundred and fifty years; this real-time 
information enabled the duty officer to take the 
necessary precautions. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00389 



7C. Evaluation, Processing and 
Publication 



HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, SPECIFIC 
YIELD, AND PUMPAGE -- HIGH PLAINS AQ- 
UIFER SYSTEM, NEBRASKA, 

Geological Survey, Lincoln, NE. Water Resources 

Div. 

R. A. Pettijohn, and H. H. Chen. 

USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 82- 

4014, 1983. 3 Maps, 15 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Great Plains Province, 'Nebraska, 
'Groundwater, 'Aquifer, 'Hydraulic conductivi- 
ty. Specific yield, Pumpage, Application rates, Hy- 
drologic data, 'Maps, 'High Plains aquifer system. 
Water-level decline. Irrigated acres. Irrigation-well 
development. 

Hydrologic data used to evalute the ground-water 
potential of the High Plains aquifer system in Ne- 
braska are presented on maps showing the hydrau- 
lic conductivity and specific yield of the aquifer 
system and the volume and distribution of water 
pumped for irrigation from the aquifer system 
during 1980. The High Plains aquifer system un- 
derlies 177,000 square miles in parts of eight states, 
including 64,770 square miles in Nebraska. It con- 
sists of the Ogallala Formation and Tertiary and 
Quaternary deposits that are saturated and hydrau- 
lically connected to the Ogallala. The hydraulic 
conductivity of the aquifer system varies from 
greater than 200 feet per day in parts of the North 
Platte, Platte, Elkhorn, and Republican River val- 
leys to less than 25 feet per day in the northwest- 
ern part of the state. Specific yield of the aquifer 
system ranges from 10 to 20 percent in most of the 
state and averages 16 percent. The estimated 
volume of water recoverable from the aquifer 
system in Nebraska is 2,237 million acre-feet. 
Inches of water withdrawn from the aquifer 
system during 1980 varied from less than 1.5 in the 
sandhills of north-central Nebraska to more than 
12 in the Platte River and Blue River basins. This 
withdrawal represents about 6,703,000 acre-feet of 
ground water. (USGS) 
W85-00032 



CONVEYANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 
NUECES RIVER, COTULLA TO SIMMONS, 
TEXAS, 

Geological Survey, Austin, TX. Water Resources 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 

W85-00033 



Descriptors: 'Municipal wastes, 'Spray irrigation, 
'Groundwater, 'Monitoring, Hydrologic data. 
Well data, 'Florida, 'Flondan aquifer, Leon 
County. 

Tlie effects of spray irrigation using municipaJ 
wastewater effluent on a ground-water system (in 
particular, on the water of the Flondan aquifer) 
were investigated. The area irrigated was 4 miles 
southwest of Tallahassee, Florida, on an area cov- 
ered in part by pine forest and in part by selected 
grasses and forage crops. Hydrologic and geologic 
data were collected from 1972 to 1981. Hydrologic 
data include ground-water levels, water quality, 
and spray-irrigation rales. Ground-water level 
measurements were made at 60 wells. Water-qual- 
ity samples were collected at 1 municipal 
wastewater effluent site, 3 springs, 17 soil sites, and 
64 wells. Water-quality data were obtained from 
physical, chemical, and bacteriological analyses. 
Geologic data include geophysical logs and litho- 
logic descriptions of 34 wells. (USGS) 
W85-0004O 



WATER-RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS OF 
THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN 
KANSAS-FISCAL YEARS 1981 AND 1982, 

Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

J. F. Kenny, and L. J. Combs. 
Available from the Ofss, USGS, Box 25425 Fed 
Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Open-File Report 
83-932, 1983. 87 p, 9 Fig, 5 Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater, Aquifers, 'Stream- 
flow, Water quality. Water investigations, 
'Kansas. 

One of the primary missions of the U.S. Geological 
Survey in Kansas is to investigate the occurrence, 
quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of 
surface and groundwater throughout the State. 
Primary activities include the systematic collec- 
tion, analysis, and interpretation of hydrologic 
data, evaluation of water demands, and water- 
resources research. Hydrologic investigations are 
conducted through four basic types of projects: (1) 
data-collection programs, (2) local or areal investi- 
gations, (3) statewide or regional investigations, 
and (4) research projects. These projects are 
funded through cooperative agreements with State 
and local agencies, transfer of funds from other 
Federal agencies, and direct Federal funds. Forty- 
two water-related projects were funded during 
fiscal years 1981 and 1982 in Kansas. This report 
describes for each of these water-resources investi- 
gations the problem that initiated the study, the 
objectives of the project, and the approach de- 
signed to achieve this objective. Information on 
data-collection stations in Kansas is presented in 
maps and tables. A list of reports approved for 
publication by the U.S. Geolo^cal Survey, its 
cooperators, or technical and scientific organiza- 
tions during fiscal years 1981 and 1982 is also 
provided. (USGS) 
W85-00041 



HYDROLOGIC DATA FROM AN AREA 
SOUTHWEST OF TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA, 
WHERE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLU- 
ENT IS APPLIED BY SPRAY IRRIGATION, 

Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL. Water Re- 
sources Div. 
M. C. Yurewicz. 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed 
Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Open-File Report 
83-769, 1983. 153 p, 9 Fig, 6 Tab, 9 Ref 



8. ENGINEERING WORKS 
8A. Structures 



STRESS-DEFORMATION PREDICTIONS FOR 
THE LG 4 MAIN DAM, 

Societe d'Energie de la Bale James, Montre 

(Quebec). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 8D. 

W85-00141 



SAND DAM, 

C. Y. Li, and J. Yague. 

Civil Engineering, Vol. 54, No. 6, p 46-49, June, 

1984. 2 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Dam design, 'Sand dams, 'Earthl 
dams, 'La Vueltosa Dam, 'Rio Caparo, 'Venezu-f 
ela. Design criteria. Dam foundations. Foundation J 
piping. Embankments. 



70 



ENGINEERING WORKS— Field 8 



The La Vueltosa Dam is located in Rio Caparo 
bordering the southeast states of Barinas and 
Merida. At 135 m high, the dam is part of the 1,250 
Mw Urbante-Caparo hydrodevelopment scheme 
undertaken by the government in Venezuela. The 
foundation and abutment rock consists of soft and 
friable interbedded sandstone and siltstone, moder- 
ately pervious with occasional open fissures and 
cracks. The soft rock foundation would not permit 
construction of a high concrete dam. An innova- 
tive sand embankment dam was selected. Sand, 
being highly erodible, pervious and liquifiable, is 
usually considered an inferior material for con- 
structing a dam. To quard against embankment 
piping, the sand fill is completely confined to pre- 
vent migration of its fines by seepage flows in any 
direction. There is a clay and filter blanket over 
the entire foundation rock, a quadruple layer chim- 
ney drain downstream of the dam axis, and sand 
Emd gravel zones on outside dam slopes. To guard 
against foundation piping, there are multiple de- 
fense lines to control seepage through the founda- 
tion and abutments; a long seepage path, consolida- 
tion and curtain grouting, extensive drainage cur- 
tains in both abutments, and a complete drainage 
5lanket under the downstream shell. (Baker-IVI) 
iV85-00157 



HIYDRAULIC CIRCUIT DESIGN AND ITS EF- 
FECTS ON THE CIVIL ENGINEERING FEA- 
rURES OF LOCKS (LA CONCEPTION DES 
:iRCUITS HYDRAULIQUES ET SES REPER- 
:USSIONS SUR LE GENIE CIVIL DES 
iCLUSES), 

^or primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 
V85-00371 



.OCXS ON THE WIDE-GAUGE RHONE WA- 
ERWAY (LES ECLUSES D'UNE VOIE A 
JRAND GABARIT: LE RHONE), 

'or primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 
V85-00372 



!FFECr OF LOCK-CHAMBER WATER 
)EPTH AND WATER-SAVING BASINS ON 
OCK-OPERATING TIME (INFLUENCE DU 
lOUILLAGE DANS LE SAS D'UNE ECLUSE 
:T DE la PRESENCE DE BASSINS D'E- 
ARGNE SUR LA DUREE D'ECLUSAGE), 
. Michel, 
[ouille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 115-120, 1981. 10 Fig. 

)escriptors: *Navigable waters, *Locks, Trans- 
ortation. Efficiency, Design criteria, Locking 



ycles. Mathematical models. 

Tie transport capacity of a navigable waterway is 
etermined at least in part by the locking cycles. A 
)cking cycle includes four boat movements - two 
itries and two exits, four gate operations - two 
penings and two closures, plus filling and empty- 
ig the lock chamber. The transport capacity of a 
'aterway is therefore increased by shorter lock 
perating cycles. Plans for a future waterway link 
5tween the Saone and Rhone include a mathemat- 
al model study of lock filling and emptying con- 
itions, allowing for adjacent canal reach dimen- 
ons and up to three water saving basins to make 
3 for a possible water deficiency in the dividing 
:ach, and a scale model study of the handling 
:ope and possible movements of modern pusher 
lits. (Baker-IVI) 
'85-00373 



OCK-FILLING AND EMPTYING WAVES 

ND LEVEL VARIATIONS IN CANAL 

EACHES (ONDES ET MARNAGES DANS LES 

[EFS DUS AU REMPLISSAGE ET A LA VI- 

ANGE DES ECLUSES), 

Michel. 

ouille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 135-140, 1981. 9 Fig. 

escriptors: *Waterways, *Locks, *Canals, 
Vaves, Water level. Design criteria. Pumps, 
lone River, Rhine River, Canal du Nord, Mathe- 
atical models, Planning. 

le transit time required to pass through the locks 
a waterway determines the transport capacity of 



that waterway. Transit time in turn depends par- 
ticularly on the lock chamber filling and emptying 
speeds. Conditions in the adjacent canal reaches 
must be carefully considered in attempting to ma- 
nipulate lock chamber filling and emptying times. 
Locking waves should preferably not exceed 0.30 
m in height, with slopes of less than 1/1000. As the 
wetted cross-section of the canal decreases, these 
problems become increasingly critical. A mathe- 
matical model and in-situ studies on the Canal du 
Nord were both used in planning the design of the 
future Saone-Rhine waterway link. Many sections 
of this link are planned primarily around naviga- 
tional requirements and thus the effect of lock 
operation on the canal reaches was of paramount 
concern. Water saving basins and booster pump 
stations will be supplied for some of the locks on 
this new waterway in order to make up for the 
deficiency in supplies to the dividing reach. Also 
included in the mathematical model studies were 
several parameters which affect the level vari- 
ations in the reaches such as locking, pump oper- 
ation, and traffic. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00374 



SMALL HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATIONS 

IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (LES PE- 

TITES INSTALLATIONS HYDROELETRI- 

QUES DANS LES PAYS EN VOIE DE DEVE- 

LOPPEMENT), 

J. Francou. 

Houille Blanche, No. 4/5, p 237-242, 1981. 3 Fig. 

Descriptors: *Developing countries, *Hydioelec- 
tric plants, *Energy, Water resources develop- 
ment. Topography, Cost analysis. 

The most immediate solution to satisfying the need 
for electricity by small industries or isolated cen- 
ters is the use of a diesel generator. The drawbacks 
to this solution are well known in countries which 
do not produce oil. Small hydroelectric installa- 
tions constitute an alternative under suitable cir- 
cumstances which may prove to be extremely cost 
effective. The topography, hydrology and techni- 
cal qualifications of the community in question 
must all be considered in examining each case in 
question on its individual merit. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00380 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STATE OF 
STRESS AND STRAIN OF THE GRAVITY 
DAM AT THE KURPSAI HYDROELECTRIC 
STATION, 

G. Yu. Berdichevskii, and Yu. P. Kornev. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 1, p 1- 
7, January, 1982. 6 Fig, 1 Tab, 6 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 1, p 7- 
11, January, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Stress analysis, *Dam construction, 
*Dam stability, *Kurpsai Hydroelectric Station, 
♦USSR, Dams, Design criteria. Gravity dams. Hy- 
droelectric plants. 

The Kurpsai hydroelectric station is being con- 
structed on the Naryn River 40 km downstream 
from the Toktogui hydrostation. An analysis was 
made of the characteristics of the state of stress and 
strain of the dam. Through various calculations 
determinations were made of the distribution of the 
external hydrostatic load between the vertical ele- 
ments and system of horizontal elements regarded 
as beams under shear or a transverse force in the 
case of a monolithic dam or only under a trans- 
verse force for the offset dam. The seismic load 
was determined for independent cantilevers in con- 
formity with construction specifications and regu- 
lations. The load distribution obtained was used in 
calculations of the stability and stress strain state of 
the dam. For checking the stability of each section 
the shearing load was assumed equal to the sum of 
the corresponding cantilever load and reaction of 
the horizontal element at the common support 
point with the cantilever. The stability of the struc- 
ture was also checked experimentally. The experi- 
ments showed that a gravity dam of an unsectiona- 
lized design in a canyon has increased stability to 
shear compared to the stability of the highest sec- 
tion in the case of its independent work. An in- 
crease in stability was found to be due to the 



Structures — Group 8A 

occurrence of a longitudinal force which is the 
reaction of the channel sections to elastic displace- 
ments of the bank section downslope, and the 
formation within the dimensions of the dam of a 
secondary arch as a consequence of zero tensile 
strength across the joints and the occurrence of 
thrust increasing the restraining force at the dam 
contact. The occurrence of zones of tensile stresses 
across the concrete-rock contact causing decom- 
pression of the contact zone of rock under the 
upstream face of the bank sections is a result of the 
three-dimensional behavior of the dam. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00427 



OPTIMIZATION OF SITE SURVEYS BASED 
ON PRELIMINARY DESIGN ANALYSIS, 

Yu. A. Fishman. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 2, p 59- 
65, February, 1982. 4 Fig, 8 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotechnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 2, p 11-15 
February, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Construction, *Design criteria, 
*Sites, Dam construction, Planning, Decision 
making. 

The effectivess of hydrotechnical construction de- 
pends on the interrelation between its surveys and 
designing. The traditional approach to planning 
surveys is inadequate. Not simply is a close contact 
between designing and surveys needed, but also 
their mutual overlapping, with the use of the so- 
called feedback principle, without which it is diffi- 
cult to expect to obtain optimal results. One of the 
most effective ways of optimizing surveys is found 
at the junction between surveys and designing and 
consists of conducting calculations and designing 
studies for analyzing the effect of geological fac- 
tors on the preliminary designs, which makes it 
possible to reveal the most important factors and to 
arrange the types of surveys according to the 
degree of their significance for the given hydro- 
static and necessary detail of investigation. It is 
necessary to introduce into design and survey 
practice a preliminary calculated design analysis at 
the stage of contract and, especially, detail designs, 
making it possible to establish the most optimal 
composition, scope, and method of surveys. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00435 



CALCULATION OF THE THREE-DIMEN- 
SIONAL STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF AN 
EARTH-ROCK DAM, 

L. N. Rasskazov, and A. A. Belyakov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 2, p 66- 
77, February, 1982. 6 Fig, 14 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 2, p 6-22 
February, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Dam stability, 'Stress analysis, 
*Earth dams, Rockfill dams. Canyons, Mathemati- 
cal models. Design criteria. 

The design and construction of high earth-rock 
dams require a comprehensive study of their state 
of stress and strain and the effect of various topo- 
graphic, construction, and technological factors on 
the operational capability and reliability of these 
structures. In recent years calculations of the stress 
strain state of earth dams under conditions of the 
two dimensional problem have been so successful 
and the computational programs so economical 
that investigations based on the solution of series of 
two-dimensional problems with the use of factor 
analysis were undertaken. When solving two-di- 
mensional problems, many factors (mainly topo- 
graphic) are not examined. A study of the three- 
dimensional state of stress and strain of earth dams 
provided additional information on the behavior of 
the dam and permited a more realistic evaluation 
of its performance. The behavior of an earth-rock 
dam in a canyon with a site coefficient equal to 2 is 
characterized by a substantial arching effect be- 
tween the canyon walls and, since the level of 
normal stresses in the core is low, it is desirable to 
take technical steps to increase the crack resistance 
of the core. The results of solving the three-dimen- 
sional problem confirm the intense decrease of 



71 



i 



Field 8— ENGINEERING WORKS 
Group 8A — Structures 

horizontal displacements in the dam core, noted in 
on-site observations. A canyon shape curved in 
plan substantially increases the stability of a dam. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00436 



DYNAMICS OF THE FORMATION OF AN ICE 
PRISM ON RESERVOIR SLOPES OF A 
PUMPED-STORAGE STATION, 

V. M. Kondrafev, M. N. Rubanik, V. F. 
Kanarskii, and P. D. Gavrish. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 3, p 
132-137, March, 1982. 5 Fig, 8 Ref. Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 3, p 
14-16, March, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Pumped storage, ♦Reservoirs, *Ice 
prism, 'Kiev Reservoir, *USSR, 'Slopes, Stream- 
flow, Wind, Waves, Weather, Design criteria, 
Freezing. 

The on-site investigations being conducted at the 
Kiev pumped-storage station include observations 
of the state of the dike slopes of the reservoir, 
weather conditions, and wind wave and ice re- 
gimes. In all cycles of fluctuations of the water 
level in the pumped storage reservoir under condi- 
tions of negative air temperatures and positive 
water, concrete and soil temperatures of the slope, 
a redistribution of stresses occurs in the prism of 
layered ice, which at first is accompanied by vis- 
cous plastic and elastic deformations and then by 
the development of cracks alternately in the upper 
and lower zones of the prism working according to 
the accordion principle, which gives rise to the 
characteristics of the structure and mechanical 
strength of the ice in different prism zones. The 
formation of the multilayered ice prism is consider- 
ably promoted by the alternation of drawdown and 
pumping. The wind and presence of ice in the 
broken zone had a considerable effect on the rapid 
cooling of the exposed parts of the slope and ice 
prism and also on the freezing rate on the slope 
and ice prism. During a rise and drop of the water 
level at slow rates there occurs periodic wetting of 
the vertical face of the prism, freezing of ice on it, 
and freezing of individual floes driven from the 
broken zone or circulating water to it. Such rela- 
tionships may be used as grounds for developing as 
a first approximation a method of designing revet- 
ments of dike slopes of pumped storage reservoirs 
for the effect of ice. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00441 



ON-SITE OBSERVATIONS AT THE ATBASHI 
HYDROELECTRIC STATION, 

I. N. Sakharov, A. N. Zhirkevich, V. Ya. 
Chichasov, and A. G. Zyryanov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 4, p 
189-195, April, 1982. 5 Fig, 3 Tab, 5 Ref Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 4, p 
6-10, April, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Reservoirs, 
'Flushing, 'Atbashi hydroelectric station. Spill- 
ways, Membranes, Films, Storage reservoirs, Sedi- 
ments, Ice. 

The Atbashi hydroelectric station with an installed 
capacity of 40,000 kW began operation early in 
1970. The total capacity of its reservoir is 9.58 
million cu m, the useful capacity of 4.34. million cu 
m at normal pool levels of 154 m and the dead 
storage level is 145 m. Since there is an excess of 
sediment and spongy ice lumps for proper oper- 
ation of the hydrostation, deep annual flushing 
with complete drawdown of the reservoir during 
recession of the flood is necessary. Flushing was 
planned in stages with alternation of a partial rise 
of the water level in the reservoir and discharge of 
the water for washing out the deposits formed in 
the lower pool. Periodic deep flushing is supple- 
mented by constant flushing in the summer and fall 
by discharging surplus water at the 145 m dead 
storage level. The optimal flushing discharge 
should be 0.4-0.6 of the total discharge of the 
spillway at the normal pool level. Duration of 
flushing should be no more than 24-90 hr. In the 
ca.se of flushing by repeated cycles, filling should 
be done to the normal pool level and this level 
maintained for 10-12 hr. During flushing there 



were no substantial secondary adverse phenomena 
either in the lower pool or on the structures of the 
hydrostation. During flushing the chamber of the 
radial gate of the spillway, the gate itself, floors, 
and enclosures are covered with a layer of mud 
from several millimeters to several centimeters 
thick, which in the cold season freezes and ham- 
pers operations. Increased seepage through the 
grout curtain in the rock walls is leading to dis- 
charge of seepage waters on the downstream 
shoulder of the dam. Drainage should be installed 
in the downstream slope of the dam with discharge 
of the water below the depth of freezing. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00448 



HYDROCHEMICAL METHODS IN INVESTI- 
GATION OF SEEPAGE IN THE FOUNDATION 
OF STRUCTURES OF THE IRKUTSK HYDRO- 
ELECTRIC STATION, 

M. D. Nikolaeva, and V. P. Kalenov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 4, p 
203-209, April, 1982. 1 Fig, 4 Tab, 9 Ref. Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 4, p 
14-18, April, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Seepage, 
'Measuring, 'Irkutsk Hydrostation, Subsurface 
water. Chlorides, Carbon dioxide. Carbonates, 
Concrete, Cracks. 

Hydrochemical methods of investigating the seep- 
age flow under conditions of the Irkutsk hydrosta- 
tion should be used in combination with traditional 
methods of observing the condition of the struc- 
tures. As indicators of the seepage flows and sub- 
surface waters it is possible to use, along with 
mineralization of the water, the content in water of 
chloride ions and the sum of the derivatives of 
carbonic acid carbon dioxide, which in certain 
cases give a more accurate idea about the seepage 
flow in the foundation when determining the effect 
of water on concrete of the structures and grout 
curtain. Having distributed the content of the indi- 
cator in the piezometers along the equipotential 
lines of the seepage flow net, one obtains a clear 
picture of the distribution of seepage flows and 
subsurface waters in the foundation and body of 
the structures. The seepage flow net obtained by 
calculation or on the electrohydrodynamic analo- 
gy instrument does not always correspond to the 
actual picture of seepage, which somewhat reduces 
the accuracy of the proposed method. The prelimi- 
nary conclusions about the mechanism of interac- 
tion of the seepage flow with concrete of struc- 
tures require further refinement by setting up 
broader hydrochemical investigations of seepage, 
including seepage through cracks in the concrete. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00450 



EXPERIENCE IN RESTORATION OF THE 
SPILLWAY DISSIPATOR OF THE HEAD HY- 
DROELECTRIC STATION OF THE CHIR- 
YURT SEQUENCE, 

S. E. Bravarnik. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 4, p 
234-238, April, 1982. 3 Fig. Translated from Gi- 
drotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 4, p 50-52, 
April, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Spillways, 
'Restoration, 'Dissipators, Earth dams. Dam con- 
struction, Chir-Yurt Resevoir, Reservoirs. 

The Chir-Yurt No. 1 hydroelectric station was 
constructed in 1962. At the dam site the maximum 
discharge over the course of many years was ob- 
served after the hydrostation was put into oper- 
ation and amounted to 2120 cu m/sec. The earth 
dam has a wide central loam core and gravel 
shoulders, height of 37.5 m, and crest length of 450 
m, creating a head of 32 m. The gates of the waste 
outlets are operated by chain mechanisms with a 
lifting capacity of 2 x 150 tons. The other gates are 
operated by a gantry crane with a capacity of 2 x 
75 tons. In 1976 the sediments were flushed from 
the Chir-Yurt reservoir, totaling about 3 million 
cubic m of sediments being washed into the lower 
pool. Inspection in 1977 revealed the position of 
the dissipator bottom in its upper chamber did not 



correspond to the design. The foundation slab* in 
the upper chamber of the dissipator had been 
ripped from their placet and shifted 1.5 trj 2 m in 
plan and the height position of the central slabs 
was considerably below design. Operators should 
not violate the rules of operating gates established 
in designs on the basis of hydraulic investigations. 
An increase of the resistance of uplift and with- 
drawal of the apron slabs of the bottom of a 
dissipator should be achieved primarily by anchor- 
ing them to the foundation, which also saves con- 
struction materials. Protection of the surface of 
slabs and blocks of a dissipator from abrasion it 
achieved by placing on the slab surface a wear- 
resistant layer of high grade, heavily reinforced, 
well compacted and cured concrete prepared with 
strong crushed rock. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00456 



NEW TYPE OF STILLING BASIN (SEVAN 
CASCADE IN ARMENIA), 

S. M. Isaakyan. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 
333-335, June, 1982. 2 Fig. Translated from Gidro- 
tekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 32-33, June, 
1982. 

Descriptors: 'Stilling basins, 'Design criteria, 
'Sevan Cascade, 'Armenia, Settling basins. Basins, 
Conduits, Scour, Deflectors. 

A new design for a stilling basin is suggested for 
use in the transition section between pools of free- 
flow conduits with different hydraulic parameters. 
The primary area of use of this design is a lower 
pool of unlimited width having an erodible bottom 
and a small length along the flow. The design 
presented, in addition to the usual rectangular 
basin, has a deflector along the upper edge of the 
basin. The dimensions of the basin of the new 
design are smaller compared to a basin without a 
deflector. The advantage of the new design con- 
sists in the more concentrated dissipation of kinetic 
energy of the nappe and more uniform distribution 
of the water over the width of the lower pool, thus 
protecting the lower pool from the scouring action 
of the flow. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00472 



NEW PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF ENGI- 
NEERING-GEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 
FOUNDATIONS OF LARGE DAMS, 

A. A. Borovoi, A. A. Varga, L. A. Molokov, I. A. 
Parabuchev, and L. V. Tohnachev. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 7, p 
401-405, July, 1982. 1 Tab, 16 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 7, p 37-40, 
July, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources development, 
•Evaluation, 'Dam foundations. Dam construc- 
tion. Foundations, Hydraulic engineering. Remote 
sensing. Surveys. 

Research is currently being performed to develop 
a set of scientifically founded methods and techni- 
cal procedures for optimizing surveys. These in- 
clude the expansion of the area of use of remote- 
sensing methods, in jluding satellite and aerial land- 
scape surveying, for substantiating engineering ge- 
ological mapping, studying seismotectonic struc- 
tures and landslide hazardous areas and observing 
the character and extent of alterations of the envi- 
ronment in the zones of influence of reservoirs; the 
provision of the maximum information content of 
each prospect hole with the use of the arsenal of 
field methods; optimization of the system of engi- 
neering-geological testing as a whole on the basis 
of scientifically founded principles; the increase of 
the role of geophysical methods in survey works; 
the wider use in survey practice of quick field 
methods of investigating soils and rocks; a further 
increase of the role of quick methods in experimen- 
tal seepage studies, automation of monitoring oper- 
ations and processing of the results of hydraulic 
testing of boreholes; and the use of hydrochemical 
methods of investigations during drilling and 
regime observations for obtaining important addi- 



72 



ENGINEERING WORKS— Field 8 



onal characteristics for solving a wide range of 
ngineering-geological problems. (Baker-IVI) 
/85-0O477 



lECHANICAL EQUIPMENT OF GATE 
HAMBERS OF HIGH-HEAD SPILLWAYS, 

F. Kochanov, and S. V. Farmakovskii. 
[ydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 8, p 
63-469, August, 1982. 1 Fig, 4 Tab, 4 Ref. Trans- 
ited from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 

p 45-50, August, 1982. 

lescriptors: 'Mechanical equipment, *Design cri- 
iria, *Spillways, Hydraulic engineering. Gates. 

or the first time in design practice mechanical 
quipment of a gate chamber of a deep spillway 
is been designed with a vertical lift and radial 
;gulating gates for passing discharges up to 2250 
J m/sec at heads up to 200 m with an area of an 
iitlet being closed up to 50 sq m. The variant with 
1 emergency-guard slide gate with an upstream 
e-shaped contour of the seal located on the gate 
id a main slide gate with an upstream flat closed 
jntour of the seal located on the casing was taken 
; the main variant when developing the specifica- 
ans. The high velocity jet is diverted from ele- 
ents of the downstream part of the chamber at all 
jenings of the main gate by appropriate selection 
■ the orifice dimensions and shapes of the lower 
ige of the upstream skin plate of the main gate, 
'hen designing the number of bays of the gate 
lamber it is advisable to strive for the creation of 
andard-size mechanical equipment in order to 
iprove its quality, increase operating reliability 
id increase the rate of construction works. The 
troduction of the developed equipment on the 
version tunnels on the I and II levels of the 
ogun hydrostation makes it possible to reduce the 
)st of the gate chambers by 3.2 million rubles and 
unify the mechanical equipment of the spillways 
' the hydrostation. (Baker-IVI) 
'85-00484 



XPERIENCE IN THE OPERATION OF 
VERFLOW BUTTRESS DAMS UNDER 
EVERE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS, 

ar primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 
'85-00486 



IVERSION OF STREAM THROUGH HY- 
ROELECTRIC STATIONS WITH HIGH 
AMS DURING CONSTRUCTION, 

. K. Kuz'min. 

ydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 9, p 
9-424, September, 1983. 3 Fig. Translated from 
idroteckhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 9, p 1-5, 
;ptember, 1983. 

escriptors: 'Dam construction, 'Diversion chan- 
:1s. Tunnels, Spillways, Powerplants, Hydroelec- 
ic plants. 

lie scheme of diverting the flow according to 
;ps of construction of especially high dams is the 
5is of the site organization plan and also has a 
bstantial effect on the design and layout of the 
ain structures of a hydrostation. The best scheme 

constructing a dam is that for which stream 
version is carried out through one level of spill- 
ays, later used as the service level. If it is impossi- 
e to accomplish this scheme, it is necessary to 
ovide the possibility of operating a lower level of 
illways until the higher level is completely ready 
r passing the flow, including floods. Designs of 
illway gates of high dams, including the materi- 
> used in them, should be tested on simpler and 
is important structures. The layout of even tem- 
>rary gates should provide the possibility of 
pair of the movable parts and seals. The configu- 
tion of the spillway channels and the location of 
e regulating gates should be designated so as to 
iminate or limit the possibility of the occurrence 

conditions for the development of cavitation 
ocesses. The best solution in this case is to locate 
e regulating gate at the outlet of the pressure 
irt of the spillway. The scheme of dissipating the 
lergy of the flow in a stilling basin at heads of 
ore than 120 m also has substantial shortcomings 



complicating the preparation of the structures for 

stream diversion. (Baker-IVI) 

W85-00487 



SEEPAGE IN THE FOUNDATION OF THE 
KRASNOYARSK DAM, 

A. P. Epifanov, V. A. Ulyashinskii, V. K. 
Semenov, and V. B. Idel'son. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 9, p 
425-428, September, 1982. 2 Fig, 3 Tab, 1 Ref. 
Translated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, 
No. 9, p 6-8, September, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Seepage, *Dam foundations, 'Kras- 
noyarsk Dam, Piezometers, Drainage wells. Foun- 
dations, Dam stability, Monitoring, Drainage 
system. 

The Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric static, has been 
operating since 1967. The foundation of ihe dam is 
composed of strong jointed granites, including in- 
dividual veins of porphyrites, vogesites, and syen- 
ites. Zones of tectonic crushing with a thickness up 
to 3 m run under the first column of sections 12-18 
and 42-49. In the bank sections the heads measured 
by piezometers as a whole exceed the allowable 
values, but considering the absence of negative 
consequences of bypass seepage the observed 
values of the heads in these sections do not cause 
hazards. An analysis performed with the data from 
a large number of piezometers at the site and drain 
wells shows that intensification of seepage process- 
es is not observed as a whole for the structure. The 
tendency toward an increase of the piezometric 
head noted for individual piezometers and toward 
an increase of discharge noted for drain wells has a 
local character. Rearrangement of the foundation 
associated with its inhomogeneity is still continu- 
ing, which is indicated by the observed tendencies 
toward change in the piezometric heads and dis- 
charges. Observations and seepage monitoring in 
the dam foundation should therefore be continued. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00488 



EXAMPLES OF A COMBINED LAYOUT OF 
HYDROSTATIONS UNDER CONFINED 
MOUNTAINOUS CONDITIONS, 

O. V. Sitnin. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 9, p 
467-470, September, 1983. 5 Fig. Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No.9, p 38-41, 
September, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Mountains, 
'Diversion structures. Construction, Dam con- 
struction, Streamflow, Earth dams. Canyons, Tun- 
nels. 

Hydropower construction under mountainous con- 
ditions is hampered by the complex terrain, re- 
moteness and difficult accessibility of the construc- 
tion site, and the absence of transportation and 
power lines. The organization of the passage of the 
streamflow in many cases predetermines the design 
of the main structures and layout of the hydrosta- 
tion as a whole. Two layouts are presented of 
hydrostations for mountainous conditions which 
solve the problem of passing diverted and operat- 
ing flows by combining various functions in one 
structure. In one scheme a layout with an earth 
rock dam is suggested for the site of a station 
located in a V-shaped canyon with a slope steep- 
ness of 20-30 degrees in the absence of floodplain 
stretches. In the second example a station is locat- 
ed in a narrow canyon-type gorge with steep rock 
banks. Water is fed to the units of the hydrostation 
by bank tunnel penstocks or by penstocks in the 
body of the dam. The layout of a shift-type hy- 
drostation with the use of a diversion tunnel as the 
operating spillway and penstock has a number of 
advantages compared with other layouts possible 
for this site. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00495 



TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE OF THE USSR IN 
THE CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC 
STATIONS ABROAD, 

N. A. Lopatin. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 10, p 

481-487, October, 1983. 1 Tab. Translated from 



73 



Structures — Group 8A 

Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 10, p 1-6, 
October, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Hydraulic engineering, 'Hydroelec- 
tric plants, 'Argentina, 'Peru, 'Vietnam, Dam 
construction, Hydraulic structures. Developing 
countries. Regional development. 

In the Soviet Union the development of hydro- 
power engineering is being accomplished generally 
on the basis of constructing large integrated hydro- 
power developments. Detailed engineering sur- 
veys, thorough analysis and consideration of all 
possible acting factors in the calculation schemes 
of the structures, and conducting of model investi- 
gations has lead to a high reliability of the Soviet 
structures. The activities of the Soviet design orga- 
nizations in hydraulic engineering undertakings in 
other parts of the world are described including 
the the Gabcikovo-Nad'maros hydropower 
system, the Euphrates hydrostation, Al-Hadithah 
hydrostation, Al-Baas Dam, the Hao-binh hydro- 
power development on the Da River in Vietnam, 
the Salto Grande hydroeletric station in Argentina, 
Olmos hydro complex in Peru, and the Chapeton 
hydropower development on the Parana River in 
Argentina. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00498 



SOME TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
GATE CONSTRUCTION ABROAD, 

V. Ya. Martenson. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 10, p 
487-495, October, 1983. 3 Fig, 4 Tab, 21 Ref 
Translated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, 
No. 10, p 6-12, October, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Dam construction, 'Reviews, 
'Gates, Grooves, Mechanical equipment. Design 
criteria. Cavitation, Vibration. 

Increasing attention is being devoted to increasing 
the reliability of outlet works and gates as a very 
important aspect of dam construction. For this 
purpose, types of gates, grooves, and mechanisms 
already checked in practice are used on newly 
constructed dams, and the main efforts of designers 
are aimed at improving their designs and layouts 
on structures. A trend is noted toward a substantial 
reduction of the number of types of gates being 
used. Serious attention is also being devoted to 
methods of preventing cavitation and vibration. 
An individual drive for each gate, generally elec- 
trohydraulic, having a number of operational ad- 
vantages compared with cranes is gaining greater 
popularity. Reliability factors are considered also 
in the operating instructions which stipulate the 
need for periodic testing of the mechanical equip- 
ment. One of the current trends is a more cautious 
approach to the use of gates with high design 
parameters, considering that failures of a large gate 
substantially reduce the discharge capacity of the 
dam. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00499 



ARCHITECTURE OF FOREIGN HYDROELE- 
TRIC STATIONS, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6B. 
W85-00500 



CUTOFF WORKS AT THE HAO-BINH HY- 
DROSTATION IN VIETNAM, 

N. V. Imitriev, and I. G. Gal'perin. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 10, p 
21-25, October, 1983. 4 Fig. Translated from Gi- 
drotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 10, p 21-25, 
October, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Dam con- 
struction, 'Cutoffs, *Da River, 'Vietnam, *Hao- 
bih. Construction, Flood control, Powerplants, 
Earth dams. 

The hydraulic structure of the Da River in the 
region of Hao-binh city in Vietnam will be a large 
flood-control and power development consisting 
of an earth dam 125 m high and 700 m long, a 
service spillway for a discharge of 3800 cu m/sec, 
a hydroelectric station with eight units having a 



IK' 

■i 

it 
3 



Field 8— ENGINEERING WORKS 
Group 8A — Structures 



total capacity of 1926 MW, and, in the future, 
locks. The site of the dam is V-shaped with a 
channel width of 250 m and slope steepness of 25- 
30 degrees. There is almost no floodplain and the 
width of the valley at the normal pool level is 700- 
800 m. Permeability coefficients of the fine and 
medium grained sands vary from 31.0 to 63.8 m/ 
day, and those of the gravel-pebble deposits vary 
from 83.5 to 390.0 m/day. After creating the reser- 
voir with a NPL of 215 m, the barrier zone will 
include: the slideprone mass of the Elephant Ridge 
on the side of the right bank abutment of the dam; 
an earth dam with a central loam core; the main 
concrete structures - spillway and underground 
powerhouse - in the left bank abutment of the dam 
on the left bank, the karstified limestones of the 
Chai-Nhianh massif; and on the left bank, in the 
future, the upper single lock. Work in each of these 
areas is described. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00501 



EXPERIENCE IN OPERATING THE STRUC- 
TURES OF THE MANSOUR EDDAHBI HY- 
DROPOWER DEVELOPMENT, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4A. 
W85-00502 



DOKAN HYDROELECTRIC STATION IN 
IRAQ, 

A. K. Fink, and I. D. Ostrizhnov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 10, p 
519-522, October, 1983. 5 Fig. Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 10, p 30-32, 
October, 1982. 

Descriptors; 'Hydroelectric plants, 'Design crite- 
ria, *Dokan hydroelectric station, *Iraq, Concrete, 
Hydraulic engineering, Cranes, Dam foundations. 

The design of the Dokan hydroelectric station 
corresponds for the most part to the traditional 
designs of reservoir stations. Distinctive features 
include: the construction in the right bank abut- 
ment of the station to the assembly area of a 
reinforced concrete trestle in the zone of one unit 
for delivering equipment by gantry crane to the 
floor of the generator room in the zone serviced by 
the bridge crane of the station; the layout of the 
powerhouse and administration production build- 
ing is based on a combination of the massive 
volume of the generator room and more openwork 
structure of the building; sectionalization of the 
foundation slab of the draft tubes by joints from 
the piers, their anchorage by means of anchors in 
the rock mass, and relief of seepage and uplifting 
forces on the foundation slabs by means of relief 
wells; the ceiling of the turbine room resting 
through a reinforced concrete cone on the turbine 
stator; and construction in the rock surfaces of the 
end abutments of systems of vertical and inclined 
drainage ditches which were covered by channel 
iron when concreting the end walls of the station - 
this makes it possible to drain the water flowing 
through cracks into the rock mass during showers. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00503 



ENGINEERING-GEOLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF 
THE CHALK STRATA OF THE TABQA HY- 
DROELECTRIC STATION ON THE EUPHRA- 
TES RIVER WITH CONSIDERATION OF OP- 
ERATING DATA, 

V. A. Moshchanskii, and I. A. Parabuchev. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No 10 p 
36-38, October, 1983. 6 Ref Translated from Gi- 
drotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 1, p 36-38, Oc- 
tober, 1983. 

Descriptors: •Hydroelectric plants, 'Dam con- 
struction, 'Euphrates River, 'Syria, Alluvial soil. 
Chalk, Permeability, Seepage, Dam foundations. 

The hydropower development at As-Saurah in 
Syria has a multiple purpose and is one of the 
largest hydraulic structures in the Near East. In 
the foundation of the powerhou.se of the hydro- 
electric station and floodplain-channel dam occur 
only Oligocene chalks covered by a thin layer of 
modern alluvium which was removed both in the 
zone of the foundation pit for the powerhouse and 



from under the central part of the earth dam. The 
greatest difficulties for siting the powerhouse 
arose, owing to the presence in the chalk strata of 
bentonite interlayers, for which the design strength 
after a thorough laboratory and field study was 
determined. The facility has been in operation 
more than 6 years under a full head and the design 
has been proved to be completely stable. The 
permeability of the chalk strata was estimated from 
the results of pumping and injection tests. Perme- 
ability of the chalks proper is extremely small. On- 
site observations of seepage on the floodplain 
channel part of the earth dam show that the seep- 
age line behind the dam core for all five piezome- 
tric monitoring cross sections exceeds by only 1.0 
m the lower pool level, and the gradient to the 
head in the alluvial interlayer behind the dam core 
are about 0.0016-0.0020. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00506 



GROUTING WORKS IN THE FOUNDATION 
OF THE DAM OF THE AL-HADITHAN HY- 
DROPOWER DEVELOPMENT ON THE EU- 
PHRATES RIVER IN IRAQ, 

N. V. Dmitriev, and L. I. Malyshev. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 10, p 
534-542, October, 1983. 6 Fig, 1 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 10, p 
41-47, October, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Grouting, 'Earth dams, 'Dam con- 
struction, 'Euphrates River, 'Iraq, Dolomites, Soil 
properties. Sand, Gravel, Construction materials. 
Concrete, Permeability, Dam foundations. 

The combined earth dam with a central part of the 
dolomites, shoulders of sand-gravel materials, and 
an asphaltic concrete cutoff wall has a maximum 
height of 57 m, base width of 325 m, and crest 
width of 20 m. A grout curtain with a depth up to 
100 m and total length in plan of about 16 km is 
provided for in the foundation and bank abutments 
of the dam, and a drainage system is provided in 
the base of the downstream shoulder of the dam. 
The parameters of the grout curtain (depth, 
number of rows, and spacing of the grouting 
holes), technology of performing the works, and 
criteria of the quality of grouting ensure reliability 
of the structure. The groutability of the rocks 
along the front and over the depth of the curtain is 
substantially different. A high effectiveness and 
density of grouting is achieved in layers of the Ana 
suite; grouting is less dense in the rocks of the 
Euphrates and Baba suites owing to the presence 
of pore permeability. The rocks on the completed 
sections of the curtain are well grouted, solidity of 
the curtain is provided, and the actual specific 
water absorption in cross sections of the curtain 
are less and the effective thickness of the curtain is 
greater than those calculated according to the 
design. Grouting and hydraulic testing in the frac- 
tured porous dolomites of the Euphrates suite are 
possible only with a gradual increase of pressure 
and limitation of the injection rate. The permissible 
rate of 20-80 I/min depends on the particular geo- 
logical conditions and on the condition of the 
rocks and their surcharge. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00507 



8B. Hydraulics 



GRAVITY CURRENT UPSTREAM OF A 
BUOYANT INFLUX IN AN OPEN-CHANNEL 
FLOW: A NUMERICAL STUDY, 

Clarkson Coll. of Technology, Potsdam, NY. 
Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. 
D. T. Valentine, and T. W. Kao. 
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 140, p 303-327 
March, 1984. 17 Fig, 1 Tab, 23 Ref NSF grants 
NSF 77-01496 and CEE-83-08405. , 

Descriptors: 'Open channels, 'Channel flow, 
'Flow profiles, 'Gravity currents. Diffusion equa- 
tions, Navier-Stokes equation, Froud number. 
Laminar flow. Buoyant fluids. Cooling water sys- 
tems. Boundary layers. Velocity. 

The establishment of an upstream intrusion of a 
buoyant fluid discharged into an open-channel 
flow of uniform density and finite depth is studied 



numerically using the full Navier-Stokes and diffu- 
sion equations. The problem is po&ed as an initial 
boundary-value problem for the laminar motions of 
a Boussinesq fluid The equations are integrated 
numerically by finite-difference methfxls. The flow 
patterns produced are controlled by the influx of 
buoyancy; therefore they are characterized by an 
inflow densimetric Froude number. A comparison 
with available experimental data provides favor- 
able support to the theoretical predictions. The 
critical value of densimetric Froude number of the 
source of a vertically downward inflow at the free 
surface of a channel is determined. For densimetric 
Froude number less than critical, an intrusion is 
established on the upstream side of the source. 
Because dissipative mechanisms associated with 
viscosity take a finite time to intervene, the intru- 
sion starts as an inviscid gravity current with a 
propagation speed greater than the surface velocity 
of the stream. The front speed is proportional to 
the phase velocity of long internal waves. Subse- 
quently, the front decelerates as the interfacial 
friction, and, if applicable, the boundary frictional 
forces increase simultaneously with mass entrain- 
ment across the interface. TTie current slows down 
towards a two-zone equilibrium: (1) the zone en- 
compassing the current behind the frontal zone, 
where a 'steady state is approached with respect to 
the inertial frame of reference; (2) the frontal zone, 
where the upstream speed approaches a steady 
speed of frontal advance, albeit small. The up- 
stream intrusion alters the flow pattern of the 
ambient stream dramatically. A significant feature 
of both the upstream and downstream currents is 
the presence of surface convergence with concom- 
itant downwelling near the fronts. As the upstream 
front decelerates, wavelike disturbances are excit- 
ed just behind the front at frequencies characteris- 
tic of internal waves. As the front approaches 
steady state, these disturbances appear to be 
damped. This problem has practical implications in 
the design of once-through cooling-water systems 
for power plants taking their cooling water from 
rivers. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00175 



TURBULENT NON-BUOYANT SURFACE 
JETS, 

Alberta Univ., Edmonton. Dept. of Civil Engi- 
neering. 

N. Rajaratnam, and J. A. Humphries. 
Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, p 
103-1 15, 1984. 8 Fig, 2 Tab, 14 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Jets, 'Diffusion, 'Turbulence, Lakes, 
Rivers, Stagnant waters. Thermal pollution, Strati- 
fication, Mixing, Plumes. 

An experimental study was performed on the diffu- 
sion of plane and bluff turbulent surface jets. For 
plane surface jets, it was found that its length scale 
grows at the same rate as a plane wall jet with its 
velocity scale being about 0.9 times the corre- 
sponding value for the plane free jet. For bluff 
surface jets, the vertical length scale increases at 
about the same rate as bluff wall jets whereas its 
transverse length scale grows at about half the rate 
of the corresponding bluff wall jets. The velocity 
scale decays inversely with the longitudinal dis- 
tance, but the constant in the velocity scale rela- 
tion is somewhat higher than that for the corre- 
sponding free circular jet. By studying the diffu- 
sion of relatively simpler non-buoyant plane and 
bluff surface discharges into deep stagnant sur- 
roundings, the effects of density differences and 
freestream influences could be separated out. The 
results can be used as a basis for studying the 
influence of the source Richardson number for 
buoyant discharges and the influence of the Rich- 
ardson number plus the ratio of the velocity of the 
surface discharge to that of the freestream while 
dealing with a moving ambient. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00195 



NON-BUOYANT AND BUOYANT CIRCULAR 
SURFACE JETS IN COFLOWING STREAMS, 

Alberta Univ., Edmonton. Dept. of Civil Engi- 
neering. 
N. Rajaratnam. 



74 



ENGINEERING WORKS— Field 8 



Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, p 
117-140, 1984. 17 Fig, 2 Tab, 3 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Jets, *Turbulence, *Conowing 
streams. Stream flow. Velocity, Channels, Thermal 
pollution, Buoyant surface jets. Circular jets. 

One method of discharging thermal effluents into 
rivers is to use circular surface jets discharging in 
the same direction as the river flow (surface jets in 
a coflowing stream). Based on an experimental 
study on the diffusion of circular turbulent buoyant 
surface jets in coflowing streams of large width 
and depth, it was found that the velocity distribu- 
tion in the center plane as well as in the planes 
containing the maximum velocity with respect to 
the freestream are similar. The velocity scale as 
well as the vertical and transverse length scales 
have been analyzed using the excess momentum 
thickness as the length scale and the source Rich- 
ardson number as a parameter. The variation of the 
velocity scale is not affected to any significant 
extent by the buoyancy effects whereas the trans- 
verse spreading rate is increased and the vertical 
spreading is almost zero for longitudinal distances 
greater than a few times the momentum thickness. 
Some preliminary observations have also been 
made on the effect of shallow depths in the chan- 
nel on the diffusion of the buoyant surface jets. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00196 



STUDY OF THE BEHAVIOR OF BOATS AND 

UNITS UNDER CROSS-CURRENT AND WIND 

ACnON AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE FOS- 

RHONE CANAL LINK (ETUDE DE L'EVOLU- 

TION DES BATEAUX ET CONVOIS SOUMIS 

AUX COURANTS TRAVERSIERS ET AU 

VENT, A L'ENTREE DU CANAL DE LIAISON 

FOS-RHONE), 

J. Megard, and P. F. Demenet. 

Houille Blanche, Vo. 2/3, p 151-158, 1981. 8 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Navigable waters, *Water resources 
development, 'Fos-Rhone Canal Link, Water- 
ways, Decision making, Planning, Model studies. 

A river link between the industrial and harbor 
areas at Fos-sur-Mer close to the Mediterranean is 
to be provided by a scheme to develop the Rhone 
for navigational purposes. Studies are underway of 
the various river engineering problems which will 
be encountered in carrying out the scheme. A 
model study was made of the intake configuration 
of the canal to the Rhone in order to prevent the 
canal entrance from silting up with sand and to 
ensure suitable velocity distributions in the en- 
trance for shipping. These two requirements 
proved to be somewhat contradictory and a com- 
promise solution was finally adopted which met 
the necessary requirements for navigation. Calcula- 
tion and graphical methods were used to investi- 
gate unit manuverability on the basis of flow veloc- 
ity patterns determined by model studies. Due 
allowance was made for both unit characteristics 
and wind action. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00378 



EFFECT OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS ON 
HYDRAULIC RESISTANCES OF A CHANNEL, 

N. B. Bekimbetov, and K. I. Baimanov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 1, p 37- 
39, January, 1982. 7 Fig. Translated from Gidro- 
tekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 1, p 29-31, Janu- 
ary, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Hydraulic resistance, 'Channels, 
•Suspended sediments, *Amu Darya, Sediments, 
Canals, Scouring, Turbidity, Irrigation canals. Hy- 
draulic roughness. 

Investigations of the kinematic structure of the 
flow and effect of the content of suspended sedi- 
ments in the flow on the hydraulic resistance were 
carried out in a number of unlined canals of the 
basin of the Amu Darya River. The distribution of 
the longitudinal flow velocities was measured at 6 
points on the vertical. Water samples were taken 
for determining the turbidity along the vertical as 
well as near bottom turbidity. With a decrease of 
flow, a large amount of sediment accumulated in 



the near-bottom zone while suspended sediments 
passed both into a traction state and into bottom 
deposits. In canals of the Amu Darya irrigation 
system, in the absence of scouring and silting, the 
value of the roughness coefficient with increasing 
dimensions, decreases and has a certain value char- 
acterizing a stable state of the canals, whereas, in 
the presence of scouring, conversely, the value of 
n increases. With a decrease in dimensions of the 
canals the value of n also increases owing to the 
nonuniform roughness of the bottom and effect of 
the side walls. Near bottom turbidity and various 
operating regimes of the canals were interrelated. 
In channels with a rough bottom the intensity of 
transport by turbulent fluctuations increases and 
the dimensionless velocity gradient decreases with 
increases in the height of the roughness projec- 
tions. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00431 



DETERMINATION OF THE HYDRAULIC 
ROUGHNESS OF A VEGETATED FLOOD- 
PLAIN, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2E. 
W85-00437 



CALCULATION OF THE SEEPAGE OF RES- 
ERVOIR DIKES OF PUMPED-STORAGE STA- 
TIONS, 

P. D. Gavrish, V. M. Kondrat'ev, M. N. Rubanik, 
V. F. Kanarskii, and V. K. Rudakov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol.16, No. 3, p 
143-148, March, 1982. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 5 Ref Trans- 
lated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 
3, p 20-22, March, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Dikes, 'Design criteria, 'Pumped 
storage. Slope stability. Seepage, Stability, Slopes, 
Mathematical equations, Free surfaces. 

When designing reservoir dikes with daily regula- 
tion of the water volume the problem of calculat- 
ing the seepage stability of the slopes of these 
structures arises. To solve this problem it is neces- 
sary to predict the dynamics of the free surface of 
the seepage flow in the earth dike under conditions 
of considerable daily fluctuations on the water 
level in the reservoir. The seepage flow in dikes of 
daily storages in the period of drawdown of the 
water levels from the normal pool level to the 
dead storage level and standing of the water at the 
dead storage level can be schematized in the form 
of an extended groundwater mound. In plan the 
mound represents a strip located inside a homoge- 
neous bed not bounded over the length of the 
structure and bounded over the width by the reser- 
voir, drainage, grout curtain, or other type of 
boundary contours. The character and rate of 
mound spreading depend on the soil properties, 
initial size of the mound, boundary conditions, and 
other factors. Mathematical equations are derived 
the solution of which provides the rate of spread- 
ing of the groundwater mound in dikes of daily 
storages and predicts the character and effective- 
ness of the action of the water of the mound on the 
slope as a function of the design of the structure. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00444 



EFFECT OF THE RESERVOIR FILLING 
REGIME ON THE STRESS AND STRAIN 
STATE OF AN EARTH-ROCK DAM, 

Yu. K. Zaretskii, and V. V. Orekhov. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 3, p 
155-160, March, 1982. 3 Fig, 6 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 3, p 
26-29, March, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Earth dams, 'Design criteria, 'Res- 
ervoir operation. Stress analysis, Stress-strain 
curves. Deformation, Clay. 

When substantiating the selection of a rational 
design of an earth-rock dam in relation to the 
geotechnical properties of the local construction 
materials and construction technology and condi- 
tions, its stress and strain state should be predicted. 
Such a prediction is especially important for deter- 
mining the crack resistance of watertight elements 
of the dam, deformations of the dam in the con- 



Hydraulics — Group 8B 

struction and operating periods, and also in cases 
when systematic deep drawdown of the reservoir 
is carried out. For a more complete consideration 
of the properties of clay soils which serve as the 
material of watertight elements and are multiphase 
systems the reported calculated predictions are 
based on solving equations of the theory of con- 
solidation, which examines processes of long term 
consolidation of saturated soils. From the analysis 
it is concluded that the effect of the loading trajec- 
tory associated with the reservoir filling regime is 
substantial on the behavior of an earth rock dam. 
This factor is taken into account in the frameworks 
of the theory of plastic gain in strength in calcula- 
tions of the state of stress and strain on earth dams 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00445 



USE OF THE CHANNELS OF FLATLAND 
RIVERS FOR INTERBASIN WATER TRANS- 
FER, 

Ya. R. Polyakov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 4 p 
217-220, April, 1982. 1 Tab. Translated from Gi- 
drotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 4, p 23-24 
April, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Floodplains, 'Channels, 'Interbasin 
transfers, 'Water transfer, 'Dnepr-Conbas Canal, 
Canals, Environmental effects. Sedimentation, 
Dredging. 

The construction of the first phase of the Dnepr- 
Donbas canal with intake of water from the Dne- 
prodzerzhinsk reservoir on the Dnepr River and its 
discharge into the Northern Donets River has been 
completed. Many specialized research organiza- 
tions have been engaged in foecasting the conse- 
quences of a change in the hydrological regime of 
the river and hydrogeological setting of the flood- 
plain. The passage of increased dry-weather dis- 
charges in individual stretches of flatland rivers has 
a favorable effect on the development of flora and 
fauna of the floodplain. In the case of interbasin 
water transfer, a decrease of bottom sediments will 
occur due to the discharge of clarified water, 
which in the future will lead to a further increase 
of the channel capacity. The use of channels of 
flatland rivers for interbasin transfer without per- 
forming dredging works produces a substantial 
economic effect. The theoretical investigations and 
development works performed and also the 
planned full-scale investigations can be used when 
working out interbasin water transfer projects with 
the use of the channels of existing rivers. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00452 



REFLECTION OF A SURGE FROM A VERTI- 
CAL WALL, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2E. 
W85-00454 



MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE IN PRES- 
SURE CONDUITS BY MEANS OF SEGMENT- 
ED CONSTRICTORS, 

B. M. Levin, and A. N. Lopatin. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 
317-323, June, 1982. 6 Fig, 1 Tab, 11 Ref Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 
24-27, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Orifice flow, 'Pressure conduits. 
Measuring, Flow, Orifices, Discharge, Resistance. 

Systematic investigations of segmented constric- 
tors were conducted, the use of which is prospec- 
tive for measuring the discharge of suspension 
transporting flows in large-diameter water lines 
operating in hydraulic and drainage systems and at 
large pumping stations of reclamation systems. The 
experiment was conducted with segmented orifices 
with a sharp inlet edge in smooth pipes with a 
diameter of 105 and 143 mm by the angle pressure 
lead method. On the basis of the experimental data 
the initial discharge coefficient was determined as 
a function of the relative area of the orifice m in 
the range 0.5 is less than or equal to m which is less 
than or equal to 0.957. The confidence interval is 



75 






Field 8— ENGINEERING WORKS 



Group 8B — Hydraulics 

plus or minus 0.75% with a 95% confidence level. 
An advantage of segmented orifices is the possib- 
lity of using them at large values of m, up to 0.957. 
The flow resistances in this case are small, and the 
orifice installed in the upper half of the pipe sec- 
tion unimpededly passes the solid suspension. The 
manufacture, installation, and dismantling of the 
orifices with large m are uncomplicated also for 
large diameter pipes. Blunting of the inlet edge has 
less effect on the readings of the segmented orifices 
than on the readings of normal orifices. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00469 



NEW METHOD OF DETERMINING THE 
STABLE CROSS SECTION OF A CHANNEL IN 
COHESIONLESS SOILS, 

Yu. A. Ibad-Zade, M. Ya. Krupnik, and E. A. 

Asadullaeva. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 

335-341, June, 1982. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 8 Ref Translated 

from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 

34-37, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: •Channels, 'Cohesionless soils, Soil 
properties, Stability analysis, Mathematical studies, 
Suspended sediments. 

The method for calculating a stable cross section 
of a channel was obtained on the assumption of the 
absence of sliding of soil particles on the canal 
bottom. Adhering to this principle, the form of a 
stable channel cross section is constructed. The 
forms of the channel were calculated for the Kara- 
Kum and Upper Karabakh canals on the Minsk-32 
computer. The results showed that Ibad-Zade's 
method, the tractive force method, and the pro- 
posed method give a relatively good convergence 
with the actual profile. The divergence between 
the transverse profiles constructed by these meth- 
ods and the actual profiles did not exceed 6-7% on 
average. The method described in the article can 
also be extended to inhomogeneous soils of a canal 
in which a suspended load will be transported. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00473 



EFFECT OF BREAKING WAVES ON STRUC- 
TURES WITH AN INCOMPLETE VERTICAL 
PROnLE, 

O. Yu. Birskaya, and G. D. Natal'chishin. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 
354-357, June, 1982. 2 Fig, 1 Tab, 2 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 
45-47, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Waves, *Breakwaters, 'Hydraulic 
structures, Construction, Vertical distribution, 
Dam construction, Coastal zone management. 

Structures with an incomplete vertical profile over 
which water is allowed to flow due to lowering 
the elevation of the top are sometimes used in the 
construction of breakwaters and coast protection 
works. In the standards, there are no recommenda- 
tions for determining the wave loads and coeffi- 
cient of wave suppression when breakers act on 
structures having an incomplete vertical profile. 
Investigations were conducted in a wave flume 
measuring 30 x 1.4 x 1 m, where at a scale of 1:30 
the profile of the sea bottom from the water line to 
a depth of 12.0 m was prepared. The model of the 
breakwater was installed at a depth of 10 m, 100 m 
from the water line. An equation was derived 
which can be recommended for determining the 
coefficient of wave suppression by a structure with 
an incomplete vertical profile. To determine the 
wave loads from breaking waves on structures 
with an incomplete vertical profile, one can use the 
appropriate recommendations of SNiP 11-57-75 
with consideration of the described corrections 
with respect to calculating the horizontal and up- 
lifting forces of the wave pressure. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00474 



DETERMINATION OF WATER PRESSURE IN 
PRESSURE TUNNELS AND CONDUITS 
UNDER A SEISMIC LOAD, 

D. N. Kila,soniya, and G. P. Mamradze. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 
357-364, June, 1982. 4 Fig, 2 Tab, 9 Ref Translated 



from Gidroteckhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 
47-51, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Seismic properties, 'Pressure, 'Tun- 
nels, 'Conduits, Construction, Mathematical equa- 
tions. Decision making, Water pressure, Comput- 
ers. 

During seismic oscillation of the ground a dynamic 
water pressure occurs in pressure tunnels or con- 
duits which in certain cases exceeds the value of 
the static pressure. It evidently has also a substan- 
tial effect on the seismic stress state of the tunnel 
lining and adjacent ground. The problem of deter- 
mining the seismic pressure of water in pressure 
tunnels and underground conduits was investigat- 
ed. Oscillations of water pressure in a pressure 
system are described by water hammer equations 
which for a system performing seismic oscillations 
is presented. Within the scope of the two-dimen- 
sional problem of elasticity theory and on the basis 
of the finite-element method, a method and pro- 
gram were developed for computer calculation of 
the seismic stress state of a tunnel lining with 
consideration of the seismic water presssure pre- 
liminarily determined as a result of numerical cal- 
culations. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00475 



OUTLINE OF AN INCLINED HEAD WALL OF 
A DEWATERING OUTLET, 

Ya. R. Berman. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 8, p 
459-462, August, 1982. 2 Fig, 6 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 8, p 
41-43, August, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Flow, 'Water pressure, Head wall. 
Multiphase flow, Concrete dams. Drainage, Irriga- 
tion, Pressure, Conduits, Tunnels. 

The two dimensional problem of flow of an ideal 
incompressible weightless fluid past an inclined 
head wall is examined. Under conditions of a real 
flow the problem of flow past the head wall is 
three dimensional, since outlets have comparative- 
ly small transverse dimensions. The use of project- 
ing piers at the head wall leads to a plane-parallel 
flow at the entrance of the outlet. The flow can be 
considered as two dimensional both in the head 
wall and in the initial section of the conduit. Pro- 
posed outlines of head walls with inclined pressure 
faces have greater compactness than elliptical head 
walls. The recommended method makes it possible 
to reduce laboratory investigations to a check of 
the result found by calculation. It is possible to find 
the dimensions of the head wall from the minimum 
dimensions of the gate closing the inlet opening. 
The method of calculating the coordinates of head 
walls proposed here can be used when designing 
the openings of dewatering outlets, diversion out- 
lets of concrete dams, head walls equipped with 
projecting piers such as the head wall of the diver- 
sion tunnel of a hydrostation and head walls of 
closed conduit offtake regulators of irrigation and 
drainage systems. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00483 



OPTIMIZATION OF THE nLLING AND 
DRAWDOWN REGIMES OF A REGULATING 
RESERVOIR OF THE KUBAN' CASCADE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 3B. 
W85-0O485 



PARAMETERS OF LOCAL SCOUR IN THE 
REGION OF A SINGLE CYLINDRICAL PIER 
AND FACTORS DETERMINING THEM, 

N. D. Kanarskii. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 9, p 
457-462, September, 1983. 3 Fig, 11 Ref Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 9, p 
30-34, September, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Scour, 'Fluid mechanics, 'Piers, 
Flow, Bridges, Towers, Foundations, Stability, 
Soil types. Velocity, Bed erosion. 

Causes of the formation of local scouring near 
structures of the pier type have been investigated. 
They appear to be caused by two types of separa- 



tion; three-dimenisional, producing scour proper; 
and two-dimensional, a consequence of which is 
sucking of the soil scour particles into the low 
presssure zone behind the body. An analysis of the 
phenomenon of local scour in the region of a single 
cylindrical pier with the use of methods of similari- 
ty and dimensional the<jry made it possible to 
establish the form of the dimensionless equations 
determining the noneroding velocity and dimen- 
sions of the scour pocket near the pier. Formulas 
were obtained for determining the noneroding ve- 
locity and for the parameters of local scour which 
are valid for conditions of medium and coarse 
grained sands and circular cylindrical piers. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O493 



8C. Hydraulic Machinery 



GUIDELINES FOR EFTiaENCY SCALING 
PROCESS OF HYDRAULIC TURBOMA- 
CHINES WITH DIFFERENT TECHNICAL 
ROUGHNESSES OF n.OW PASSAGES, 

Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt (Germany, 

F.R.). 

J. Osterwalder, and L. Hippe. 

Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, p 

77-102, 1984. 22 Fig, 14 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Pumps, 'Turbines, 'Scale effects, 
'Hydraulic roughness, 'Model studies, Pumped 
storage. Corrosion, Mechanical equipment. 

Pumps and turbines of radial to semi-axial flow are 
considered. Such pumps are frequently used in 
water power and pumped storage plants. The scal- 
ing process as described is known in the literature 
and is presented in an abridged form in an easily 
intelligible way. To simplify practical application, 
clearly set out diagrams are used which permit a 
quick determination of efficiency scaling. The fun- 
damental laws are briefly reviewed with reference 
to the relevant bibliography in order to provide a 
better understanding. Of particular interest is the 
relation between the efficiency loss due to rough- 
ness and an economically justifiable extent of sur- 
face finishing of flow passages. Another important 
criterion is the surface roughness characterized by 
the term hydraulically smooth. Relevant numerical 
data can easily be determined on the basis of 
suitable diagrams. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00194 



DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF CHECK VALVES, 

City Univ., London (England). Thermo-Fluids En- 
gineering Research Center. 
D. Thorley. 

Chemical Engineer, Vol. 402, p 12-15, April, 1984. 
4 Fig, 4 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Valves, 'Testing, 'Check valves, 
Mechanical equipment. Design criteria. 

The important features of good check valve design 
are deduced and criteria for selecting low-loss, 
non-slam valves are su3gested. For arduous condi- 
tions of service such as those associated with high 
head, multi-pump duty it is suggested that in the 
interests of avoiding check valve slam the follow- 
ing criteria should be applied when selecting a 
suitable non-return valve: low inertia of the 
moving parts; short travel distance/angle and; air- 
or coil-spring assistance of closure, commencing at 
about 70% of the rated flow. Further controlled 
tests are needed to compare different valve types 
having previously tuned each one to give its opti- 
mum performance in the selected test facility. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00199 



EVALUATING AND IMPROVING EXISTING 
GROUND-WATER SYSTEMS, 

California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 4B. 
W8 5-003 19 



76 



ENGINEERING WORKS— Field 8 



ECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF 
ATED WEIRS ON NAVIGABLE WATER- 
AYS (EVOLUTION TECHNOLOGIQUE DES 
ARRAGES MOBILES SUR LES VOIES NAVI- 
ABLES), 
I. A. Petitjean. 
ouille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 141-144, 1981. 3 Fig. 

escriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Waterways, 
Veirs, Reviews, Barriers, Dams, Gates, Design 
iteria. Construction, Hydraulic engineering, 
uices, Sluice gates. 

brief historical review of technical develop- 
ents dealing with navigable waterways is offered, 
uring the past ten years two particular types of 
;ir were most frequently employed on water- 
jys. These were: flap-gate weirs (economical for 
lice widths up to 30 m and gates less than 5 m 
jh); and segment gate weirs with or without an 
erspill flap (for gate heights over 5 m but sluice 
dths only up to 20 m). Each type of closure is 
nsidered for its particular advantages and disad- 
ntages and various design improvements of each 
er the past decade are reviewed. Other techno- 
;ical developments are briefly noted including 
lergency stoplogs, fixed components, construc- 
n methods and automation. (Baker-IVI) 
85-00375 



INSTRUCTION OF A GATED WEIR ON A 

^TERWAY CARRYING HEAVY TRAFFIC 

DNSTRUCTION D'UN BARRAGE MOBILE 

R UNE VOIE NAVIGABLE A FORT 

AFIO, 

Lefoulon. 

uille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 145-148, 1981. 2 Fig. 

scriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Waterways, 
eirs, 'Marckolsheim Barrage, 'Rhine River, 
nstruction. Design criteria. Hydraulic engineer- 
, Gates. 

istruction stages for the Marckolsheim barrage 
the Rhine River are reviewed. Out of difficul- 
which arose during this engineering project, 
eral changes in construction methods were in- 
ited during the construction of the next bar- 
E, built at Rhinau. As these changes proved to 
satisfactory, particularly for navigation require- 
its, they have since been adopted into the 
idard practices for barrages built downstream 
n Rhinau. These changes make the gated weir 
;icularly suitable for any navigable waterway 
■ying heavy traffic. (Baker-IVI) 
5-00376 



FED WEIRS: TECHNOLOGICAL DEVEL- 
VIENTS AND AUTOMATION (LES BAR- 
3ES MOBILES. EVOLUTION TECHNOLO- 
>UE ET AUTOMATISATION), 

lorand. 

lille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 149-150, 1981. 

criptors: 'Waterways, 'Weirs, 'Automation, 
iputers. Navigable waters. Gates, Hydraulic 
neering, Planning, Decision making. Flow, 
'es, Stability. 

possible operating conditions were taken into 
lunt during the design stages for the automatic 
rol equipment at the Rhone River develop- 
t sites, each of which is equipped with gated 
s. This includes from low water conditions to 
lighest known high water discharges. Automa- 
did not entail any major technological changes 
pt in those instances where operating reliabil- 
leeded to be improved. It is suggested that 
: attention be given to situations in which weir 
ation is controlled by computer. When pro- 
iming automatic control equipment particular 
ition must be given to hydraulic problems such 
ow, waves, and stability. In order to ensure 
rate adjustment, particularly under transient 
litions, it is usually essential to have available 
isive major hydraulic measurements. (Baker- 

-00377 



IMPACT LOADS OF SHIPS ON STRUCTURES 
(PROBLEMES DES CHOCS DE BATEAUX SUR 
LES OUVRAGES), 

P. Dubois, P. Cornier, J. Mamet, and M. Corbie. 
Houille Blanche, No. 2/3, p 159-168, 1981. 12 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Locks, 'Safety, 'Impact load, 
'Ships, Rhone River, Navigable waters, Water- 
ways, Regulations, Piers, Hydraulic engineering. 

Safety equipment used in the Compagnie Nationale 
du Rhone locks is reviewed. Systems for stopping 
downstream-bound boats in the bottom of locks 
are described. Such a need arose with the coming 
of a new generation of boats using the Rhone, 
including pusher units in 1975 and river/sea 
freighters in 1978. Brief descriptions are offered of 
techniques applied for locks at Bollene, Monteli- 
mar, Sablons, Vaugris and Avignon. Local river 
traffic conditions played a large part in designing 
the pier seatings and foundations of bridges across 
diversion canals of the Rhone. In harbor areas 
bridges were designed with allowance for possible 
pier impact loads as under current regulations. On 
sections possibly carrying traffic, bridge design of 
piers was done according to probable traffic, with 
provision for subsequent addition of impact protec- 
tion equipment. A description is included of a 
study by the Institut de Recherches de la Con- 
struction navale, prepared for the French Trans- 
port Ministry's Service Central des Ports Mari- 
times et des Voies Navigables to determine the 
impact load of a pier hit by a ship. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00379 .' F V ) 



MICRO HYDROELECTRIC STATIONS WITH 
POWERS UNDER 100 KW (MICROCEN- 
TRALES HYDROELECTRIQUES D'UNE PUIS- 
SANCE INFERIEURE A 100 KW), 

Ch. Petit. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 4/5, p 249-257 1981 

12 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric power, 'Hydroelec- 
tric plants, 'Turbines, Electric power production. 
Hydraulic turbines, Kaplan turbines. 

In order to respond to the growing demand for 
low-power micro hydroelectric stations, the firm 
Leroy Somer has developed the HYDROLEC 
range of micro stations. These hydroelectric sets 
comply with two essential objectives: simplicity 
and reliability. Their design simplifies problems of 
installation, use, and maintenance. The range 
covers heads of one to 25 m and turbined flows of 
100 to 2500 L/s; the electrical powers per unit 
vary according to the type from between two to 50 
kW. The installed power can be multiplied by 
placing several microstations in parallel. In the 
standard version, the sets deliver three-phase low- 
voltage AC current: 380 V at 50 Hz or 460 V at 60 
Hz. The sets form a single block; their reduced 
weight and volume simplify transport and installa- 
tion. They use Kaplan turbines with blades adjusta- 
ble when stationary. Continuous control of flow is 
obtained by manual alteration of blade angle. 
Series H units (one to 10 m of head, two to 50 kW) 
are compact hydroelectric sets that operate sub- 
merged in the downstream spillway channel. This 
arrangement offers numerous advantages; there is 
no superstructure and they are unaffected by flood 
conditions and the prevailing weather. The whole 
is designed with continuous concern for simplicity 
and reliability; the construction is robust using 
tried technologies; parts are calculated for a work- 
ing life of 100,000 hours, and maintenance is virtu- 
ally zero. The set can be installed in any position, 
behind a power penstock or directly in a water 
chamber. (Author's abstract) 
W85-0O382 



Hydraulic Machinery — Group 8C 

Descriptors: 'Hydroelectric power, 'Hydroelec- 
tric plants, 'France, Electric power production. 
Economic efficiency. Energy recovery. Economic 
aspects. Navigation dams. Return flow. 

Economic and technical aspects of energy recov- 
ery, which is the alternative to simple discharge of 
the reserve flow in major hydraulic projects, are 
examined. New small, low cost installations linked 
to existing equipment have become economically 
justified; the projects of Electricite de France 
(EDF) and Compagnie Nationale du Rhone 
(CNR) represent a production of 280 million kWh 
and a power of nearly 50,000 kW. Illustrations of 
recent EDF developments are: the Strasbourg 
return plant (IMW, 8 GWh); the return plant at 
Nepes, downstream of the St. Etienne Cantales 
dam (2.8 MW, 8.7 GWh); and the project for 
equipping the navigation dams on the Moselle (32 
MW, 180 GWh). Recent CNR developments are 
Chautagne (2 sets, 1.6 MW, 9.6 GWh/y); Belley (1 
set, 0.7 MW, 4.8 GWh/y); Bregnier Cordon (2 
sets, 4.4 MW, 33.8 GWh/y); St. Pierre de Boeuf; 
Lavours; Charmes; and Pierre Benite. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00383 



RECOVERY OF HYDRAULIC ENERGY- 
SMALL INSTALLATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH 
MAJOR HYDRAULIC PROJECTS (RECUPER- 
ATION D'ENERGIE HYDRAULIQUE: PE- 
TITES INSTALLATIONS D'ENERGIE ASSO- 
CIEES A DE GRANDS PROJETS HYDRAULI- 
QUES), 

J. P. Rouyer, and C. Le Plomb. 
Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No 4/5, p 259-268, 1981 
10 Fig. 



THERMAL ENERGY FROM THE SEA: STA- 
TIONS USING THE CLOSED THERMODY- 
NAMIC CYCLE (ENERGIE THERMIQUE DES 
MERS: LES CENTRALES A CYCLE THERMO- 
DYNAMIQUE FERME), 
R. Thiennot. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 4/5, p 323-330 1981 
1 1 Fig, 1 Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Thermal energy, 'Seawater, 'Tahiti, 
Heat transfer, Thermodynamics, Electric power- 
plants. Hydraulic machinery. Site selection. Water 
temperature. 

In intertropical regions, the surface of the sea is at 
a temperature of about 28 C. At depths of about 
10(X) m, the water temperature is about 4 C. The 
surface water to a depth of 20 or 30 meters repre- 
sents an immense reserve of stored solar energy. A 
closed cycle thermodynamic energy plant designed 
for Tahiti is evaluated. Closed-cycle stations on 
land sites are found to be perfectly feasible. The 
cold-water conduit constitutes a very important 
element in the system. The hydraulic problems 
posed by its siting are described in principle. 
(Moore-IVI) ^ 

W85-00385 



HYDRAULIC PROBLEMS POSED BY 

DIRECT-CYCLE TES STATIONS OFFSHORE 

(PROBLEMES HYDRAULIQUES POSES PAR 

LES CENTRALES ETM A CYCLE DIRECT AU 

L/iRGE), 

Societe Grenobloise d'Etudes et d'Applications 

Hydrauliques (France). 

M. F. Gauthier, and J. Zaoui. 

Houille Blanche, Vol. 36, No. 4/5, p 331-333, 1981 

1 Fig. 

Descriptors: 'Hydraulic equipment, 'Offshore, 
'Powerplants, 'Thermal energy. Heat transfer. 
Electric power production. Floating powerplants. 

For an open-cycle floating thermal-energy from 
the sea (TES) power station, the hydraulic prob- 
lems involve three aspects: the conditions for aspi- 
ration of hot and cold sources and the risks of 
recirculation; the internal hydraulics of circuits 
installed on a mobile platform and the coupling of 
the different circuits; and the influence of sea con- 
ditions. These three problems are presented and 
the specific aspects of this type of project under 
development by the CGE-Alsthom-Atlantique- 
ETPM Group are discussed. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00386 



EFFECT OF OPERATING HYDRAULIC TUR- 
BINES AT LOW HEADS ON WEAR OF BLAD- 
ING ELEMENTS, 

N. N. Kozhevnikov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 1 p 40- 

43, January, 1982. 3 Fig, 5 Tab, 3 Ref Translated 



n 



Field 8— ENGINEERING WORKS 



Group 8C — Hydraulic Machinery 

from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 1, p 
37-40, January, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Turbines, 'Low head, 'Wear, Cavi- 
tation, Hydraulic equipment. Pressure head, Vibra- 
tion. 

When solving the problem of starting up units at 
head substantially lower than the minimum permis- 
sible with respect to cavitation conditions, it is 
necessary to perform a power and economic analy- 
sis to select the most rational variant, such as the 
use of permanent or temporary runners, permanent 
generators at the rated rotational speed or tempo- 
rary ones with a reduced speed. The indicated 
analysis should take into account the duration of 
operation of the units at low heads, the expected 
rate of cavitation erosion, vibration of the support- 
ing parts of the unit as a consequence of increased 
pressure fluctuations in the flow, and other factors 
affecting the selection of the optimal variant. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00432 



PROBLEMS OF RELIABILITY OF MECHANI- 
CAL EQUIPMENT OF HYDRAULIC STRUC- 
TURES, 

I. V. Martenson. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 2, p 56- 
58, February, 1982. Translated from Gidrotekhni- 
cheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 2, p 10-11, February, 
1982. 

Descriptors: 'Mechanical equipment, 'Design cri- 
teria. Monitoring, Prediction, Reliability, Gates. 

When designing mechanical equipment such as 
gates for hydraulic structures it is necessary to take 
into account not only the one-time expenditures on 
its production and assembly but also its operational 
reliabilty, maintenance, annual costs for upkeep 
and repair of equipment, labor efficiency, and 
working conditions of the operating personnel. 
One way to increase the reliability of mechanical 
equipment is to develop standard criteria of its 
condition, such as longevity, technical life, no- 
failure operation, maintainability, etc., which 
permit a confident determination of the actual reli- 
ability indices and prediction of its operational 
capability. For developing the criteria, determining 
numerical reliabily indices of operating equipment, 
and determining the regularities of the change of 
these indices with time or as a function of the 
actual cumulative operating time of the equipment, 
it is necessary to generalize the available data and 
collect missing data on the actual condition of 
mechanical equipment, its operation, and repair. 
To increase the quality of evaluating the technical 
condition of mechanical equipment it is necessary 
to develop on the basis of technical diagnostic 
principles a method of evaluating the actual condi- 
tion of equipment and instructions on predicting its 
further operational capability. It is necessary to 
design portable diagnostic and monitoring and 
measuring equipment for conducting inspections in 
a volume sufficient for an objective evaluation of 
the condition and for predicting the actual reliabi- 
liy indices of mechanical equipment. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00434 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OPERATION OF 
THE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT OF THE 
DAM OF THE KRASNOYARSK-2 HYDRO- 
ELECTRIC STATION, 

S. V. Seleznev, S. M. Klimov, and O. B. Vaulina. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 2, p 
101-104, February, 1982. 1 Fig, 2 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 2, p 
38-40, February, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Mechanical equipment, 'Design cri- 
teria. Dam construction. Spillways, Hydroelectric 
plants. Gates, Ice. 

On the basis of experience gained in the operation 
of the mechanical equipment of a hydroelectric 
station dam, a number of recommendations are 
made which could be beneficially taken into ac- 
count when designing analogous hydrostations. 
For hydrostations with a small storage capacity of 
the reservoir located under harsh climatic condi- 



tions it is often necessary to provide for the possi- 
bility of passing ice through spillway outlets of the 
dam and to take into account dynamic ice loads 
when designing mechanical equipment. For repair- 
ing the spillway part of the dam it is expedient to 
use caisson gates, and for newly designed hydros- 
tations to provide for fixed parts of the guard gate. 
Low-cycle fatigue and stress concentration can be 
one of the possible causes of destruction of the 
gates. The existing methods of determining the 
load on the wheel supports of the service gates 
give a sufficient margin ensuring their long-term 
operation. The method of determining the load on 
the side guides of the gates with two points of 
suspension requires correction. It is recommended 
that a gantry crane be provided for servicing the 
mechanical equipment of overflow dams having 
two or more outlets. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00438 



ASSEMBLY OF THE PENSTOCKS OF THE 
SHAMBA HYDROELECTRIC STATION, 

G. A. Polonskii. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 3, p 
115-122, March, 1982. 5 Fig, 1 Tab. Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 3, p 2- 
6, March, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Penstocks, 'Design criteria, Pipe- 
lines, Materials, Steel, Hydroelectric plants. 
Cranes. 

The Shamba hydroelectric station is the second 
reach of the Vorotan series of hydroelectric sta- 
tions. The pressure conduit of the Shamba hydros- 
tation starts from an intake located in the Toloros 
reservoir. From the reservoir the water flows into 
a single line diversion pipeline and penstock. Sev- 
eral progressive technical procedures were used in 
the construction of the facility. A decrease in the 
consumption of metal due to using high-strength 
steel in the manufacture of the pipes saved 300 tons 
of steel. The designed t's and y's provided a mini- 
mum number of assembly units and thereby in- 
creased the technological efficiency in the manu- 
facture and assembly of the pipe. The technology 
for assembling pipes in a 212 m deep vertical shaft 
and in horizontal tunnels with a small annular was 
developed for the first time. Self-propelled mecha- 
nisms, which made it possible not only to deliver 
links to the assembly site over a distance of 1.5-2 
km, but also to adjust them for assembly, were 
used for the first time. The pipe was assembled in 
the 212-m vertical shafts by means of a 40/10 ton 
gantry crane, and emergency and construction 
hoists, which provided complete safety of the 
works. Newly developed suspended platforms 
were also used for the vertical shaft instead of 
labor intensive, material consuming scaffolding 
over the entire height of the shaft. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00439 



EFFECT OF THE OUTLET ANGLE BETA-2 ON 
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW SPECTFIC- 
SPEED CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS, 

V. I. Veselov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 5, p 
267-273, May, 1982. 13 Fig, 4 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 5, p 21-25, 
May, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Pumps, 'Design criteria, 'Centrifu- 
gal pumps. Pumping plants, Hydraulic equipment. 

An increase of head, delivery, and efficiency of 
pumps promotes a decrease in the ude of metal, 
electric power, and floor space of pumping sta- 
tions. For low specific-speed pumps, changing the 
geometry of the vaning of the impeller increases 
the head considerably without a decrease of pump 
efficiency. The major feature changed is the outlet 
angles of the vanes which are increased to values 
where 90 degreees < or = beta-2 < or = 130 
degrees. Short intermediate vanes are installed in 
the passages between the main vanes. For centrifu- 
gal pumps with a volute and diffuser whose impel- 
lers have a different number of main vanes, the 
most rational move is to install three intermediate 
vanes in each vane passage with a change in the 
direction of the flow by the main vane toward an 
increase of the outlet angle on diameter D2 for 



fecal pumps and pumps with short vanes. TTie 
of the new impeller design is particularly effec 
for high rotative-speed pumps. For multistage 
mersible pumps with a guide vane apparatus at 
inlet and axial outlet, the optimal variant it 
installation of one intermediate vane with a iUu 
the change in the flow direction. All tests v 
conducted without modifying the casing 
branch pipes, which leaves room for a fur 
increase of the head developed by pumps with 
new type of impeller. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00460 



8D. Soil Mechanics 



VALIDITY OF DENSITY-LIQUID LIMIT P 
DICTIONS OF HYDROCOMPACnON, 

Water and Power Resources Service, Sacrame 

CA. Mid-Pacific Region. 

N. P. Prokopovich. 

Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Ge 

gists. Vol. 21, No. 2, p 191-205, May, 1984. 13 

4 Tab, 30 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Compaction, 'Hydrocompacl 
'Density-liquid limit, 'San Joacquin Valley, •( 
fomia, Stability, Soil properties, Subsidence. 

Hydrocompaction, which can cause severe dan 
to canals, dams, pipelines, roads, and building 
one of the most destructive forms of subside 
The reliability of density-liquid limit for delir 
ing between stable areas and areas potentially 
ceptible to hydrocompaction is investigated, 
evaluation was based on some 10,700 samples 
tained from more than 1,100 test holes in the w 
central part of the San Joaquin Valley in Cal: 
nia. The apparently logical and simple den: 
liquid limit method for prediction of areas susc< 
ble and nonsusceptible to hydrocompaction yi 
nonreliable results. The method should not be i 
for practical engineering purposes in this area, 
validity of the method in other areas shoulc 
carefully verified prior to usage. The poor reli 
ity of the method can be attributed to either 
poor quality of field and laboratory data oi 
mistaken theoretical assumptions. The basic 
sumption of the method is that susceptibilit; 
hydrocompaction requires the pore volume of 
disturbed sediments to be large enough to hold 
volume of water needed to bring the sediment 
the liquid limit condition. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00136 



PREDICnONS OF FUTURE SUBSIDE!" 
ALONG FRIANT-KERN CANAL IN CALIFi 
NIA, 

Water and Power Resources Service, Sacrame 

CA. Mid-Pacific Region. 

N. P. Prokopovich. 

Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Ge 

gists. Vol. 21, No. 2, p 215-228, May, 1984. 15 

1 Tab, 16 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Subsidence, 'Canals, 'Construcl 
'Friant-Kem Canal, 'California, Prediction, C 
rehabilitation. Groundwater level, Tectoi 
Costs. 

The Friant-Kem Canal is 244.3 km long, mc 
concrete lined, and formed an early key facilit 
the Central Valley Project of the Bureau of Re 
mation. The Canal extends from Friant Dam to 
Kern River near Bakersfield in the southeas 
part of the San Joaquin Valley in California, 
diversion capacity is 170 cu m/sec. About 48.3 
of the alignment, between mileposts 95 and 125 
on the periphery of the major Tulare-Wasco 
siding area. Postconstruction subsidence within 
reach locally exceeded 1.5 m. The exact cause 
subsidence along the canal are not known. Mo 
probably caused by a distant irrigational overd 
of confined ground water aquifer systems. 1 
tonic movements are also possible. In general 
postconstruction ground water levels along 
canal are rising. In 1976-77 interference from 
sidence caused a 26.67 km long reach of the c 
to be rehabilitated. Also necessary was the rai 
of three subsided pumping plants in 1979-81, 
total cost of about $4,700,000. While the qualit 



78 



ENGINEERING WORKS— Field 8 



ire levelings along the canal is doubtful due to 
apparent instability of reference bench marks, 
recommended that systematic measurements of 
th of water be conducted at check structures 
selected bridges in the standstill canal. In 1979- 
iuch measurements indicated the possibility of 
le local tectonic uplift and downwarp. Al- 
igh the existence of land subsidence along the 
int-Kem Canal was realized during its con- 
ction, apparently no design modification to 
ipensate for future subsidence was made at that 
;. Continuous construction-postconstruction 
lidence along the canal locally exceeded 1.37 
and eventually interfered with normal canal 
ration and maintenance. The approximate cost 
anal rehabilitation to the present time has been 
It $4,700,000. (Baker-IVI) 
)-00137 



£SS-DEFORMATION PREDICnONS FOR 
I LG 4 MAIN DAM, 

ete d'Energie de la Baie James, Montreal 

:bec). 

Pare, N. S. Verma, H. M. S. Keira, and A. D. 

!k)nnell. 

idian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, p 

222, May, 1984. 12 Fig, 1 Tab, 7 Ref 

;riptors: *Stress analysis, *Rockfill dams, *De- 
ation, *Quebec, *La Grande River, Earth 
i, Abutments, Strain, Hydraulic fracturing, 
ling. Dam design. Curvature. 

main dam at LG 4 is situated 463 km from the 
th of the La Grande River in the James Bay 
ory, northern Quebec, about 1000 km from 
treal. The dam is composed of 19000000 cu m 
I materials. The design of the dam is charac- 
sd by a zoned earth-rockfiU section based on a 
ious use of the limited quantities of various 
rials available, a 70 m high abutment in the 
valley with a steep inclination of about 55 
;es, and a 50 m high section of the dam with 
lis curved in the downstream direction. De- 
I stress-deformation analyses were carried out 
le critical sections of the dam using finite 
int methods to verify any presence of arching 
lydraulic fracturing potentials in the nonplas- 
1 core. The analysis indicated that only minor 
ng may be expected between the core and the 
ent sand and gravel zones, especially in view 
le modified compaction requirements. The 
s of curvature of 700 m of the dam axis in the 
idary valley is sufficient to avoid adverse ef- 
of downstream curvature on the tangential 
es in the core. Near the steep abutment, al- 
;h no arching is indicated in terms of the 
DUtion of the major principal stress, some 
ness is indicated by the reduction of the 
• principal stress within the plane of the longi- 
il section. The simple analytical approach has 
satisfactory in providing the answers to the 
on related to the performance of the dam in 
ritical areas of zone interfaces, steep abut- 
, and reverse curvatures. (Baker-IVI) 
30141 



IZONTAL DRAINS TO STABILIZE CLAY 

'ES, 

ito Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Civil Engineer- 

Lau, and T. C. Kenney. 
lian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, p 
19, May, 1984. 10 Fig, 11 Ref National Sci- 
and Engineering Research Council of 
la grant A4543, Ministry of Natural Re- 
;s, Ontario, grant GR-7. 

iptors: *Drainage systems, *Slope stabiliza- 
*Clay, Slopes, Stability, Permeability, Soil 
rties. Slope stability, Piezometry, Hydraulic 
ary. 

horizontal drains were installed in a natural 
lope and the piezometric heads in the slope 
monitored with piezometers. The measured 
;ions of piezometric levels at the test site 
1 by the installation of horizontal drains dem- 
te that horizontal drains can be used to im- 
the stability of clay slopes. In clay soils 
5 small values of coefficient of consolidation 



the piezometric levels at depths greater than about 
7 m below the ground surface are stable and are 
insensitive to changes of hydraulic conditions at 
the ground surface. It follows that reductions of 
piezometric levels at these and greater depths due 
to horizontal drains may be considered as perma- 
nent reductions that are independent of precipita- 
tion and other climatic events. Estimates were 
made of changes of piezometric level resulting 
from installation of horizontal drains based on con- 
solidation theory, the computer program TRUST, 
soil properties, and hydraulic boundary conditions 
determined througn field measurements. Compari- 
sons between estimated and measured values 
showed good agreement, indicating that the 
method of prediction is sufficiently reliable to use 
for design. The effectiveness of horizontal drains 
to improve the stability of clay slopes depends on 
drain spacing, drain diameter, and drain location 
with respect to the critical slip zone. It also de- 
pends on the drains remaining pervious to ground- 
water, a subject not investigated in this study. 
Most slopes have different soil hydraulic and geo- 
metric characteristics and therefore the design of 
drainage systems to improve slope stability should 
be done on an individual basis. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00143 



HORIZONTAL FTIOST HEAVE THRUST 
ACTING ON BUTTRESS CONSTRUCTIONS, 

Academia Sinica, Lanzhou (China). Lanzhou Inst. 

of Glaciology and Cryopedology. 

T. Changjian, and S. Zongyan. 

Engineering Geology, Vol. 18, 259-268, 1981 3 

Fig, 4 Tab, 2 Ref 

Descriptors: *Frost heaving, *Frost thrusting, 
*SoiI water, *Buttresses, Soil temperature. Freez- 
ing, Silt, Clay. 

In cold regions, many buttress constructions suffer 
from inclination, horizontal displacement, crack- 
ing, shear fracture, and concave sinking of the 
foundations due to the freezing of the soil and rick 
which have been retained by these constructions. 
From the results of mea:,urements at actual engi- 
neering sites and from model tests in the laborato- 
ry, it is clear that (at the time of freezing) the 
horizontal frost heave force of the the soil body at 
the restraining wall is quite large. Its amplitude is 
closely related to the material composition and the 
water content of the in-filling soil body, and also to 
the degree of deformation of the construction. 
When the water content of the soil is less than its 
plastic limit, the horizontal frost heave thrust of 
soil does not appear. When the water content of 
the soil is greater than its plastic limit, the frost 
heave thrust increases with increasing water con- 
tent and when the water content is a little over its 
liquid limit, it reaches a maximum value. The hori- 
zontal frost heave thrust of soil varies with temper- 
ature; it increases as the temperature falls, until it 
reaches a maximum value at about -7 degrees C. 
The distribution of the horizontal frost heave 
thrust along the lateral surface of the structure is 
not always uniform; its value is greatest at the 
middle, less at the bottom, and least at the top. 
Frost heave thrust varies according to the content 
of fine silt clay particles. The higher its content, 
the greater the horizontal frost heave thrust. The 
maximum value generally appears at the place 
where the depth is about 60-80% of the depth of 
frost penetration. The amplitude of horizontal frost 
heave thrust has minimum values of 0.3-0.4 kg/sq 
cm, but it is generally between 1-3 kg/sq cm, with 
maximum values between 4.1-4.2 kg/so cm 
(Moore-IVI) ^ 

W85-00274 



DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR EARTH 
LININGS FOR SEEPAGE CONTROL, 

Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, AZ. 
Water Conservation Lab. 
H. Bouwer. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 531-537, Septem- 
ber-October, 1982. 6 Fig, 13 Ref 

Descriptors: *Linings, ♦Earth linings, 'Seepage 
control, *Design criteria. Pond liners, Channel 
liners. Permeability coefficient. Head, Unsaturated 
flow, Clay, Wastewater ponds. Water pollution 
control. 



Soil Mechanics — Group 8D 

Darcy's equation and unsaturated-flow theory are 
used to calculate flow through earth linings that 
are placed in ponds or channels to reduce seepage. 
The procedure utilizes the relation between unsatu- 
rated hydraulic conductivity and pressure head of 
the underlying material as calculated from the 
measured saturated hydraulic conductivity and the 
relation between water content and pressure head. 
The method enables the selection of the liner 
(thickness and hydraulic conductivity) that will 
keep seepage below a certain maximum limit. Since 
the hydraulic conductivity of clays is affected by 
the cationic composition and the salt concentration 
of the soil solution, the chemical composition of 
the liquid moving through the liner must be taken 
into account. This applies also to other chemicals, 
including solvents and other organic compounds 
that may be in the water. Travel times of water 
from the surface impoundment to the underlying 
ground water are calculated from the seepage rate 
and the corresponding water content in the vadose 
zone. Accumulation of solids (mine taihngs, for 
example) can further reduce the seepage from the 
pond. Proper design of wastewater ponds also 
requires analysis of the response of the underlying 
ground water (mound buildup) and the movement 
of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. In 
view of the high costs of earth liners, prediction of 
the seepage is necessary to make sure that the 
selected lining material, the thickness of the liner 
itself, and the method of construction will produce 
the desired results. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00329 



CALCULATION OF THE EFFECT OF SEISMIC 
LOADS ON EARTH DAMS BY THE LINEAR 
SPECTRAL METHOD, 

A. P. Troitskii, and S. C. Shul'man. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 1, p 13- 
20, January, 1982. 8 Fig, 3 Tab, 17 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 1 p 
15-20, January, 1982. 

Descriptors:^ *Earth dams, *Dam stability, *Linear 
spectral method, *Seismic load. Soil properties. 
Dam foundations. Dam construction. Design crite- 



Certain basic stages of the linear spectral method 
are examined for calculating various types of earth 
dams. Attention is given to the considerations of 
nonlinear deformability of the material, the effect 
of the foundation, and the saturation of soil of the 
dam. The calculation schemes and corresponding 
numerical results show that the'available informa- 
tion on the properties of soil materials and methods 
of calculation permit evaluating the seismic stabili- 
ty of earth dams within the scope of the standard 
method with approximate consideration of the 
most characteristic features for such structures. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00429 



USE OF WEAK ROCKS IN DAM CONSTRUC- 
TION ABROAD, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 8E. 
W85-00433 



CALCULATION OF THE THREE-DIMEN- 
SIONAL STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF AN 
EARTH-ROCK DAM, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 8A. 
W85-00436 



DEVELOPMENT OF A MANUFACTURING 
METHOD FOR PRECAST ELEMENTS OF RE- 
INFORCED-CONCRETE PIPES OF THE ZA- 
GORSK PUMPED-STORAGE STATION USING 
ELECTRIC HEATING OF THE CONCRETE 
MIX, 

N. V. Yudina, A. D. Osipov, V. V. Slozhenikin, 
and T. M. Davydova. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 3 p 
126-131, March, 1982. 4 Fig, 2 Tab, 4 Ref Trans- 
lated from Gidrotekhnickeskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 
3, p 10-12, March, 1982. 



it 
Li 

■an 

< 

< 
s; 

a 

I 

< 

31 

El 



4. 
it 
it 



79 



Field 8— ENGrNEERING WORKS 



Group 8D — Soil Mechanics 

Descriptors: 'Pipes, 'Pumped storage, 'Concrete, 
•Heat treatment. Steel, Reinforced concrete. Pre- 
cast concrete, USSR. 

Construction of the steel and reinforced-concrete 
pipes of the Zagorsk pumped-storage station 
having an inside diameter of 7.5 m and total length 
of 5 km is supposed to be accomplished in a precast 
variant. The precast elements of the pipes - rings 
4.4 m long - will be manufactured in a casting yard 
located near the site of the pipelines and equipped 
with a 200-ton-capacity crane. The volume of con- 
crete of the ring is 44 cu m. It is manufactured in a 
vertical position. Electric heating of the concrete 
mix in buckets immediately before pouring the 
concrete into the mold with subsequent aging of 
the ring formed from the host mix until it acquires 
installation strength, is adopted as the main method 
of heat treatment of the precast elements. Experi- 
ments with additive-free mixes showed that after 
heating at a temperature above 40 degrees these 
mixes set during aging for 2 hr. The duration of 
their vibration to a dense state far exceeded the 
prescribed time of 30 sec. This was grounds for 
rejecting the use of the additive free mixes in 
combination with electric heating. The results of 
investigations of heat treatment with the use of a 
hot concrete mix and also further development of 
this method under production conditions will form 
the basis of the appropriate section of the technical 
specifications for the manufacture of precast ele- 
ments of pipes of the Zogorsk RSS. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00440 



OPERATING CONDITIONS OF EARTH DAMS 
ON UNDERMINED TERRITORIES, 

V. I. Teleshev, V. F. Markevich, and G. Ya. 
Bulatov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 3 p 
149-155, March, 1982. 4 Fig, I Tab, 14 Ref Trans- 
lated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 
3, p 23-26, March, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Dam construction, 'Earth dams, 
'Undermining, Safety, Dam stability. Dam founda- 
tions. Deformation, Design criteria. 

The operating conditions of a dam on undermined 
territories substantially differ from those under or- 
dinary conditions without undermining. This ne- 
cessitates a special approach to the design and 
operation of such dams, since the use of the experi- 
ence of conventional hydraulic engineering is not 
possible. The occurrence of cracks in the founda- 
tion in the case of undermining unloads the soil 
mass adjacent to them. Further deformation of the 
mass occurs due to an increase in the size of the 
primary cracks, practically without the occurrence 
of new ones, which is the main characteristic of 
deformation of earth dams on undermined territo- 
ries. The use of nonsoil materials for watertight 
elements (WTE) of dams cannot completely elimi- 
nate and cannot change the regular mechanism of 
cracking in their body; consequently disruption of 
the contmuity of such elements is possible. The use 
of the indicated nonsoil materials as WTE, in prin- 
ciple, requires further study. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00443 ' 



EXPERIENCE IN CONSTRUCTING RADIAL 
WELLS IN FINE SANDS, 

V. E. Anpilov, Yu. V. Ponomarenko, V. P. 
Lugovoi, V. S. Kuz'kin, and F. S. Malatskovskii. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16 No 3 p 
178-181, March, 1982. 3 Fig, 3 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 3 n 
50-52, March, 1982. ^ 

Descriptors: 'Drainage, 'Test wells, 'Sand, Drill- 
ing, Construction, Silt, Wells, Soil properties. Per- 
meability. 

Industrial tests were performed of radial drainage 
on the subirrigated grounds of a mining and con- 
centration plant composed of fine sands not only to 
determine the effectiveness of the method for 
drammg sands, but also to develop the technology 
of drilling radial wells in .sands and equipping the 
wells with filters to expand the area of their useful- 
ness. The area was composed of inhomogeneous 
fine sands containing discontinuous layers and 



lenses of yellow-gray and light-gray compact clay 
with a thickness from 0.4 to 5.0 m. Ferruginous 
sandstone interlayers were found in the fine sands. 
The sands are deposits of large rivers, oxbows, and 
near channel lakes. The silt fraction in the sands 
was not constant, varying from 0.5 to 25.5%, aver- 
aging 10.2%. Thickness of the fine sands vaired 
from 6-10 to 15-19 m, the permeability coefficient 
varied from 0.5 to 2-8 m/day. Favorable drainage 
results were obtained. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00447 



PROSPECTS OF IMPROVING METHODS OF 
CONSTRUCTING FROZEN-TYPE EARTH 
DAMS, 

G. F. Biyanov, V. I. Makarov, and A. A. 

Plotnikov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 5, p 

239-245, May, 1982. 3 Fig, 1 Tab, 4 Ref Translated 

from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 5, p 5- 

9, May, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Dam construction, 'Frozen ground, 
'Earth dams, Arctic zone, Freezing, Construction, 
Hydraulic engineering, Soil water. 

Current technology for constructing frozen-type 
dams insufficiently takes into account the use of 
the natural conditions found in the Far North. The 
basic difference between frozen and thawed dams 
is that seepage is not permitted through the body 
and foundation of such dams. This is achieved by 
artificial freezing of the soils in the dam core with 
the mandatory condition that the frozen cutoff 
wall in the core be interlinked with the permanent- 
ly frozen soils in the foundation. It is suggested 
that the soil, before freezing, be saturated with 
water until all pores are filled, contrary to curtent 
practices. However, an increase of the soil mois- 
ture content does hamper its artificial freezing. To 
freeze saturated soil it is expedient to construct 
watertight elements from lumps of cooled frozen 
soil placed as layers by drenching with water and 
allowing natural freezing of the layers by turns. 
Any local soil may be used and the natural cold 
becomes a constructive factor, thus reducing costs. 
The possible rate of construction was determined 
along with the possibility of controlling the tem- 
perature regime of the ice-soil elements for the 
purpose of controlling their state of stress and 
strain. The greatest difficulties in formulating the 
problem for study were assigning the boundary 
condition on the surface of the freshly placed 
saturated layer. The real possibility of a compara- 
tive analysis of various designs was demonstrated 
on the basis of numerical modeling of thermal 
processes in structures, their elements, and also 
when performing various technological operations. 
A considerable improvement of designs and meth- 
ods of constructing frozen-type dams by using 
these techniques was substantiated. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00457 ' 



DYNAMIC STRENGTH OF COHESIONLESS 
SOILS, 

A. G. Chemilov, B. D. Chumichev, and Sh. B. 
Mukhamedaminov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 5 p 
248-254, May, 1982. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 12 Ref. Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 5 n 
11-14, May, 1982. ' '^ 

Descriptors: 'Cohesionless soils, 'Soil strength. 
Strength, Dynamics, Soil properties. Earthquakes, 
Hydraulic enginering. Hydraulic structures. Con- 
traction. 

When estimating the dynamic stability of earth 
structures and foundations during earthquakes, de- 
termining the effect of cyclic alternating loads on 
the strength parameters of soil is problematic. 
While vanous studies suggest that soil strength 
parameters are practically independent of the type 
of loading, the method used to process the experi- 
mental data seems extremely important to the final 
outcome. To check the effect of cyclic loading on 
the strength parameters of cohesionless soils, two 
devices for studying the strength and deformation 
characteristics of sand and coarse-fragmental soils 
under static and dynamic loads were created. Each 
device consists of a stabilometer, hydraulic pulsa- 



tor, and a control panel which permit* tmk 
regulating, and monitoring the parameters 
experiments. Despite the practical equality 
ultimate intensities of shear stresses and paraj 
of the yield condition in sialic and cyclic re 
of loading cohesionless soils, an analysis o) 
deformability shows that cyclic loading les 
the development of considerable additional 
ments of both volume and shear strains. The ( 
opment of additional plastic shear strains leac 
considerable decrease of the dynamic shear r 
lus with respect to the static, which is exh 
especially cleariy for loose and moderately 
pact cohesionless soils. An accumulation of 
tional volume strains as a result of cyclic loa 
soils can lead to the development of a consid< 
dynamic pore pressure during cyclic loadii 
soils and, as a consequence, to a decrease of 
live stresses. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00459 



DENSITY OF PLACING SAND^RAVEL 
PEBBLE SOILS IN DAMS, 

S. V. Bortkevich. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16 No 
324-328, June, 1982. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 11 Ref. Traj 
ed from Gidroteckhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, h 
p 28-30, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Cohesionless soils, 'Dam cons 
tion, 'Sand, 'Gravel, 'Nurek Dam, Construe 
Design criteria. Soil types. Soil properties, D 
ty. Hydraulic engineering. 

An analysis of world dam construction prac 
shows that the required relative density of c 
sionless soils in dams is presently J(sub-D) = 
0.9. In order to better define these requiren 
during the construction of the Nurek Dam, in\ 
gallons of the compaction of pebble soils of [ 
cle-size distribution and evaluation of the effe 
the degree of compaction on their mechai 
characteristics were carried out. It is most rati 
to compact gravel-pebble and sand-gravel soi 
dams to a relative density of J(sub-D)=0.8. 
creasing the relative density from this indie 
control level leads to a marked increase in en( 
expenditure on compacting the soil. A lower 
suggested relative density leads to incomplete 
of the strength and deformation properties of 
soi!. Such deviations require adjustments in 
design. It is necessary to consider that the inv 
gated soils, generally, contain silt and clay p 
cles, and therefore have an optimum moisture ( 
tent whose value can be determined experimei 
ly. In the absence of experimental values of 
extreme density, the dry density of gravel-pel 
and sand-pebble and sand-gravel soUs can be 
signed on the basis of their actual values in nat 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00470 



USE OF LOW-STRENGTH SOILS FOR C( 
STRUCTING DAMS, 

V. G. Mel'nik. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 8 
442-452, August, 1982. 4 Fig, 3 Tab, 7 Ref Trs 
lated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, 1 
8, p 31-37, August, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Soil properties, 'Dam constructi 
Hydraulic engineering. Weathering, Argillii 
Siltstone, Shale, Stability, Dam stability, Saft 

Low strength soils can be divided into four clas 
according to their construction properties. 1 
first two classes of these materials have hi 
strength characteristics, practically equivalent 
strong rocks, and are suitable for placement in I 
shoulders of dams without restrictions. Materials 
Class III can be used both in shoulders and 
watertight elements of dams. To obtain high ch 
acteristics of low strength soils it is necessary 
place them in the structure with a high degree 
density, not less than 0.9, which in absolute densi 
figures is 1.85-2.0 tons/cu m, depending on t 
particle size distribution of the soil. The soil shoi 
be placed in the dam by the method of layer-b 
layer rolling in layers of 0.4-0.6 m with an avera, 
optimal moisture content of 8-12% depending ( 



80 



ENGINEERING WORKS— Field 8 
Rock Mechanics and Geology — Group 8E 



content of fine earth. Slope stability of dams on 
rong foundation is provided when the gradient 
he slopes is equal to 2 and flatter. The deforma- 
is of dams of low strength soils depend on the 
fee of compaction, and for a relative density 
Iter than 0.9 the settlements of the construction 
lod will not exceed 6% of the height and of the 
rating period 1%. Weathering of well compact- 
low strength soils of classes I, II, and III has 
;tically no effect on the stability and deformabi- 
of dams constructed of these materials. Weath- 
g occurs only from the surface of the structure 
I depth of not more than 3 m and can be 
nated by a formula which is provided. The 
irience of using argiUites, siltstones, and shales 
*'ed the possibiltiy of their year-round, highly 
:tive placement and in all investigated cases 
le it possible to obtain a substantial savings due 
he use of materials presently available, the 
iction of the distance of hauling soil, a reduc- 
in the volume of the dam in the case of using 
strength materials with high strength charac- 
ics analogous to rocks, and the protection of 
environment from dumping of previously 
ied soils. (Baker-IVI) 
i-00481 



BILUY OF SLOPES OF CONSTRUCTION 
"S IN RUBBLE SOILS, 

'. Kolichko, and A. V. Andrianov. 
rotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 8, p 
♦55, August, 1982. 1 Fig, 2 Tab, 4 Ref Trans- 
I from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 
37-39, August, 1982. 

;riptors: *Slopes, 'Stability, Soil properties, 
e stabihty, Foundation, Roads, Hydraulic en- 
uring. Construction. 

ibstantiated increase in the steepness of slopes 
undation pits and road cuts has a considerable 
t on reducing the time and cost of construct- 
hydraulic structures. The angles of stable 
!S for loose and cohesive soils are usually 
ilated from the data of laboratory investiga- 
, but for coarse-fragmental soils such investi- 
ms are either extremely costly or practically 
ssible. The state of upper slopes of roads and 
I pits of deposits of construction materials 
I'ated at various locations in Uzbekistan, Tadz- 
n, and Kirgiz was analyzed. Several general- 
were revealed as a result of processing the 
on existing slopes in rubble talus and proluvial 
and densely consolidated alluvial gravels. The 
ness of the slopes depends considerably on 
aspect. The steepness of the slopes decreases 
increases in their height, however, up to a 
It of 2-3 m the steepness of slopes is practical- 
iependent of height. The main factors disturb- 
he stability of slopes are erosion, rockfalls, 
collapses, and more rarely landslide phenom- 
In this case the slopes oriented toward the 
1 and northeast are subjected to a greater 
:e to erosion than slopes oriented toward the 
1 and southeast. In addition, higher slopes are 
cted to greater erosion. The erosion processes 
lisplayed most intensely during the first 5-7 
of existence of the slopes, but these processes 
3t have a substantial effect on normal oper- 
of the investigated slopes. (Baker-IVI) 
00482 



iCT OF ARCH SHAPE ON THE PER- 
VIANCE OF A HIGH ROCKFILL DAM, 

Belyakov. 

otechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 9, p 
48, September, 1983. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 5 Ref. 
ilated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, 
, p 19-22, September, 1983. 

riptors: •Rockfill dams, *Dam construction, 
tiing. Canyons, Dam construction, Design cri- 
Hydraulic engineering. Cracking, Stress anal- 



1 constructing high earth dams in narrow 
>ns the danger arises that unloading in the 
body as a consequence of the arching effect 
:en the walls can lead to hydraulic fracturing 
i watertight core. The solution of three-di- 
onal problems of the stress strain state of a 



rockfill dam in a plastic formulation under condi- 
tions of stepwise construction and filling of the 
reservoir permits evaluating the effect of the arch 
shape on the stress state of the dam and crack 
resistance of its core. A dual effect of arching on 
the stress state of the core is noted. The thrust 
occurring increases the level of normal stresses in 
the core and, on the other hand, the transverse 
component of the load from the water pressure of 
the upstream pool on the arched upstream face 
reduces the level of normal stresses near the wall 
abutments. The ocurrence of thrust is more percep- 
tible near the steeper wall and in the lower part of 
a dam, where the distance between walls is less. In 
the upper part of a dam a positive effect of arching 
on crack resistance of the core is not noted. The 
results obtained for a 335 m high dam in a canyon 
with a site coefficient of 2 with a slightly inclined 
core permit recommending optimal arching with a 
rise of 50 m on the crest, which amounts to 0.068 
of the crest length of the dam and corresponds to 
an arch with a central angle of 34 degree j. (Baker- 
IVI) 
W85-00491 



EARTH DAM OF THE AL-HADITHAH HY- 
DROPOWER DEVELOPMENT ON THE EU- 
PHRATES RIVER, 

N. M. Kamnev, N. A. Sonichev, and N. A. 

Malyshev. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 10, p 

530-533, October, 1983. 2 Fig. Translated from 

Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 10, p 38-41, 

October, 1983. 

Descriptors: *Water resources development, *Dam 
construction, *Earth dams, *A1-Hadithah, *Iraq, 
♦Euphrates River, Hydroelectric plants. Power- 
plants, Hydraulicking,. 

Construction of the Al-Hadithah hydropower de- 
velopment on the Euphrates River in Iraq began in 
1977, including an earth dam and hydroelectric 
station combined with an overflow spillway, 
indoor electrical equipment and an administration 
building. The earth dam was designed considering 
the availability of local building materials in suffi- 
cient amounts. The existing large quarries of the 
sand-gravel mixture made it possible to use the 
hydraulicking method of excavation and delivery 
to the dam or to intermediate stockpiles with sub- 
sequent dry placement in the dam. The abutment 
of the mealy dolomites to the sand-gravel mixture 
is made without transition layers. An asphaltic 
concrete cutoff wall is provided for in the central 
dolomite part of the dam separating the central 
dolomite part into upstream and downstream parts. 
The mealy dolomites on compacting with an opti- 
mal water content have good structural bonds due 
to the large content of fine earth. The shoulders of 
the dam are made of sand gravel soils character- 
ized by considerable nonuniformity, with an aver- 
age particle diameter from 0.24 to 16.7 mm, and 
coefficient of uniformity from 4 to 300 and higher. 
A reinforced concrete gallery with inside dimen- 
sions of 4 X 4.5 m is provided for in the foundation 
of the earth dam with a length of 100 m on the 
right bank and 500 m in the river channel. The 
asphaltic concrete cutoff wall rests on the roof of 
the gallery. The variable depth grout curtain under 
the dam is two rows with a distance of 1.5 m 
between rows and a distance of 3 m between holes 
in the rows. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00505 



8E. Rock Mechanics and 
Geology 



GUIDELINES FOR INSPECTION OF DAMS 
FOLLOWING EARTHQUAKES. 

United States Committee on Large Dams, New 

York. 

Report, August, 1983. 40 p, 2 Append. 

Descriptors: *Dam inspection. Earthquakes, 
♦Earthquake engineering. Disasters, 'Earthquake 
damage, 'Dam failure, *Dam breaches. Earth 
movements. Shock waves. Stress. 



This publication was prepared by the Earthquakes 
Committee of the United States Committee on 
Large Dams (USCOLD) to provide a guide for the 
inspection of dams following an earthquake. In- 
spection immediately following an earthquake is 
most crucial to decisions regarding continued op- 
eration of the structure. A foUowup inspection will 
provide more detailed information on structural 
performance under seismic loading. Inspection re- 
quirements for a dam can be made more meaning- 
ful by tailoring them for a specific dam using these 
guidelines. There are two phases to such an inspec- 
tion procedure: (1) an immediate inspection by the 
dam operator (dam tender), and (2) a followup 
inspection by dam engineering professionals. These 
procedures apply if an earthquake occurs or one 
has been reported to have occurred with a Richter 
magnitude of 4.0 or greater within a 1 5-mile radius, 
5.0 or greater within 30 miles, 6.0 or greater within 
50 miles, 7.0 or greater within 80 miles, or 8.0 or 
greater within a 125-mile radius from the site. One 
appendix lists the intensity numbers for the Modi- 
fied Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931 (Abridged); a 
second appendix details inspection checklists to be 
used following an earthquake. 
W85-00043 



METHOD OF CALCULATING THE STABILI- 
TY OF ROCK SLOPES OF HYDRAULIC 
STRUCTURES, 

E. G. Gaziev, and V. I, Rechitskii. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 1, p 30- 
36, January, 1982. 3 Fig, 10 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 1, p 26-29, 
January, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Stability analysis, *Dam construc- 
tion, *Rocks, Safety, Dam stability. Slope stability. 
Mathematical equations. Dam foundations. 

The reliability of rock masses which are the foun- 
dation of structures or the enclosing medium deter- 
mines to a considerable extent the reliability and 
safety of these structures. Methods are proposed 
for calculating and analyzing the stability of rock 
slopes. These methods make it possible to obtain 
reliable results with consideration of the possible 
characters of failure and degrees of reliability of 
the initial information. These methods were widely 
used in practical calculations of the stability of 
rock masses and slopes when planning stabilization 
measures to be used in the reservoirs of the Tolor- 
ossy and Zaramag dams, Akhuryan dam, when 
investigating and designing the lock of the Dnepr-2 
hydroelectric station, and when investigating and 
designing the Middle Enisei storage station along 
with the Southern Ukraine power complex. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00430 



USE OF WEAK ROCKS IN DAM CONSTRUC- 
TION ABROAD, 

M. V. Vitenberg, and V. G. Mel'nik. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 2, p 47- 
56, February, 1982. 9 Fig, 2 Tab, 19 Ref Translat- 
ed from Gidrotechnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 2, p 
4-10, February, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Earth dams, 'Rock properties. Con- 
struction materials. Sedimentary rocks, Metamor- 
phic rocks. Costs, Compaction. 

The requirements imposed on rock material of 
earth dams have changed along with the develop- 
ment of civil engineering techniques for the exca- 
vation and compaction of materials and expansion 
and refinement of knowledge about the behavior of 
soils in dams. The use of low strength sedimentary 
or metamorphic rocks significantly reduced the 
cost of earth dam construction. Soft soils are cur- 
rently finding wide use in dam construction with 
their rational use in many cases permitting not only 
a substantial reduction in cost but also in time for 
constructing the dams. Depending on the proper- 
ties of the initial rock and technology of excavat- 
ing and compacting the material, soils from soft 
rocks (agrillites, siltstone, shales) can be placed in 
various elements of dams including shoulders, tran- 
sition sections, cores, and blankets. The experience 
of using soft soils in dam construction shows that 



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81 



Field 8— ENGINEERING WORKS 



Group 8E — Rock Mechanics and Geology 



such soils compact well and in a compacted state 
have high strength properties, comparable to the 
characteristics of rock fill of strong hard rocks. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O433 



STRENGTH OF INFILLED ROCK nLL, 

O. A. Pakhomov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 4, p 
213-217, April, 1982. 4 Fig, 3 Tab, 6 Ref Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 4, p 
20-23, April, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Construction materials, 'Strength, 
*Rock fill. Earth dams. Testing procedures. 

Investigations of unstrengthened and strengthened 
materials using a large testing device confirmed 
earlier conclusions concerning the effectiveness of 
filling in rock fill for increasing the strength of 
earth masses. Use of noninfilled and infilled round- 
ed stone broadens the area of use of boulders and 
cobble in construction, where presently such mate- 
rial is graded out. The low compressibility and 
high shear strength of infilled rock fill may allow 
its wider introduction into hydrotechnical con- 
struction if strenthening of the shoulders by infill- 
ing is mastered. A wide range of laboratory, field, 
and theoretical investigations is needed. It is 
stressed that filling in rock fill complicates the 
technological process and should be technically 
and economically justified and coordinated with 
the local construction conditions. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00451 



SOME FACTORS AFFECTING VERTICAL DIS- 
PLACEMENTS OF THE FOUNDATION OF 
THE INGURI ARCH DAM, 

G. Kh. Khakimova. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 4, p 
229-233, April, 1982. 3 Fig, 3 Ref Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 4, p 36-38, 
April, 1982. 

Descriptors: *Arch dams, 'Foundation rocks, 
'Vertical displacement. Rocks, Dam construction. 
Hydroelectric plant, Inguri Hydroelectric Station, 
Stress, Foundation. 

The arch dam of the Inguri hydroelectric station 
with a height of 271.5 m and crest length of 758 m 
is being constructed under complex conditions in a 
region characterized by a high background seis- 
micity. The foundation is composed of limestones, 
dolomitized limestones, and dolomites, the beds of 
which have a steep monoclinal dip toward the 
lower pool. Foundation rocks are strong but se- 
verely fractured with moduli of deformation in 
discharge zones from 4-8 GPa and less and in 
zones of natural preservation to 13 GPa and more. 
A rise in the dam foundation during filling of the 
reservoir was noted and studies have shown that 
the rise occurs because under certain hydrogeolo- 
gical conditions the state of stress and strain of a 
rock foundation of a dam depends on the seepage 
forces and this must be taken into account when 
examining the interaction of the dam and founda- 
tion. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00455 



CONSIDERATION OF YIELDING OF A ROCK 
FOUNDATION WHEN CALCULATING ARCH 
DAMS, 

G. K. Gabrichidze, and L. M. Izashvili. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 5, p 
246-248, May, 1982. 3 Fig. Translated from Gidro- 
tekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 5, p 9-10, May 
1982. 

Descriptors: 'Yield equations, 'Arch dams, 
'Foundations, Vogt method, Dam construction, 
Model studies. Rock mechanics. Rocks. 

When calculating various effects of arch dams, the 
well known Vogt method is widely used to ac- 
count for yielding of the rock foundation. The 
basic principles of the method are: the foundation 
is regarded as elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic; 
the displacements of the rock foundation regard- 
less of the shape of the canyon are determined on 



the assumption of the effect of reactive loads on a 
semi-infinite solid; Vogt's formulas in combination 
with the procedure developed by the U.S. Bureau 
of Reclamation are used for determining displace- 
ments of the rock foundation. The first two princi- 
ples have a clear physical significance and the area 
of their use can be determined rather distinctly. 
The procedure for using Vogt's formulas is seen as 
somewhat insufficiently argued in the technical 
literature. A comparison is made with the use of 
Vogt's method showing that consideration of 
yielding of the rock foundation by the method on 
the assumption of an elastic, isotropic, and homo- 
geneous canyon having gently sloping walls gives 
a satisfactory qualitative picture of the distribution 
of the reaction force on the contact of the dam 
with the rock foundation, under the effect of the 
hydrostatic pressure of water. The quantitative 
difference of the results obtained by two methods 
of calculation have reached 60% at some pointi>. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-0O458 



USE OF THE PROBABILISTIC METHOD OF 
CALCULATING STABILITY WHEN DESIGN- 
ING ROCK SLOPES, 

V. I. Rechitskii. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 
312-317, December, 1982. 3 Fig, 8 Ref. Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 
21-24, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Slopes, 'Design criteria. Rocks, De- 
cision making, Hydraulic engineering, Dam con- 
struction. Construction, Stability. 

A new method is proposed for calculating the 
stability of rock slopes based on the use of a 
statistical probabilistic method of processing the 
measurements of orientations of potential shear 
joints and taking as the criterion of stability of 
slopes their reliability value. The practical use of 
the method when designing the rock slopes of 
foundation pits of the Southern Ukraine power 
complex showed the advantages and prospects of 
the probabilistic approach to estimating the stabili- 
ty of masses. In particular, use of the method made 
it possible to design some steeper slopes, which as 
a whole for the complex will permit avoiding 
additional excavation of tens of thousands of cubic 
meters of rock. The results of calculating slope 
stability for various values of the hydrostatic pres- 
sure indicate the need for special investigations to 
determine the shape of the line of seepage in 
masses and the expediency of refining this line 
during excavation. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00468 



CALCULATION OF THE PARTICLE-SIZE DIS- 
TRIBUTION OF BLASTED ROCK, 

R. Ya. Strausman, and V. M. Borychev. 
Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 
328-332, June, 1982. 2 Fig, 4 Tab, 2 Ref. Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 6, p 
30-32, June, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Hydraulic engineering, 'Dam con- 
struction, 'Blasting, Rock fill. Particle size. Explo- 
sives. 

In hydrotechnical construction one of the impor- 
tant requirements imposed on the quality of blast- 
ing is the provision of a prescribed particle-size 
distribution of the blasted rock. This requirement is 
especially important when preparing material for 
filling the shoulders of rock-fill dams, when the 
particle-size distribution of the material should 
meet the conditions of maximum density of placing 
the rock. The existing instructions on calculating 
charge for a prescribed degree of crushing contain 
substantial errors with respect to the values of the 
calculated coefficients and do not consider the 
conditions of distributing the explosive charge in 
the rock mass being blasted. Among the many 
factors influencing the degree of crushing of rocks 
by a blast in the zone of the hole charge, the most 
important is the basic powder factor, which deter- 
mines the amount of energy transmitted to the rock 
on detonating the charge. The optium diameter of 
the hole and the corresponding parameters of the 
arrangement of the charge and the main indices of 



blasting operations, such ak the powder factor ai 
size of the average piece of blasted rock, are dct4 
mined by calculation by the given program I 
conditions of multirow short-delay blattiii 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-O0471 



METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF A 
ON-SITE STATISTICAL POINT ESTIMATIO 
OF THE PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION C 
A ROCK MASS, 

V. A. Kuznetsov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 7, 
420-426, July, 1983. 5 Fig, 3 Tab, 5 Ref. Translat* 
from Gidretekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 7, 
47-50, July, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Rocks, 'Particle size, 'Dam co 
struction. Evaluation, Decision making, Constru 
tion, Hydraulic engineering. 

TTie particle-size distribution is the most importa 
characteristics of a lumpy rock mass, delerminii 
the strength and seepage properties of rockf 
structures and also the effectiveness of blastin 
excavating, transporting, and other mining ai 
construction work. An on-site statistical point es 
mation was devised which can be carried out c 
the surface of blasted rock piles, on the slopes 
dumps, and on the surface of natural rock falls ai 
slides. The method is distinguished by simplicit 
promptness, and comparatively small labor interu 
ty while providing a high accuracy of results. Tl 
main works in the method include selection of tl 
sizes of the fractions being recorded, inspection < 
the rock pile making a diagrammatic represent 
tion of it and selection of the measuring areas ar 
profiles, taking statistical samples, estimates, ar 
auxiliary measurements, and processing and tran 
forming the results. To increase the accuracy ( 
estimating the size distribution it is recommend* 
to originally determine the content of the fractic 
for each measuring area and then to calculate tl 
weighted average value with respect to the vc 
umes of the rock pile corresponding to individa 
areas. The following distortion factors must I 
kept in mind: the armor effect - sieving of the fir 
fractions through larger fractions, leading to i 
overestimation of the content of large fractions i 
the surface layer of the pile; the effect of incon 
plete visibility of the rock lumps during estimatioi 
and local accumulations of oversize in certai 
zones of the pile and segregation of the rock ma 
on steep slopes. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00478 



8F. Concrete 



PERMEABILITY OF GROUT SEALS SUI 
ROUNDING THERMOPLASTIC WEL 
CASING, 

Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Civil Engineering 

C. E. Kurt, and R. C. Johnson, Jr. 

Ground Water, Vol. 20, No. 4, p 415-419, July 

August, 1982. 5 Fig, 9 Ref. OWRT project A-07( 

ALA. 

Descriptors: 'Grouting, 'Permeability coefficieni 
'Well casings, Thermoplastics, Plastics, Cement! 
Calcium chloride, Bentonite. 

An experimental test program was conducted ti 
measure the longitudinal permeability of a groute( 
thermoplastic water well casing system. A nea 
cement grout, with and without calcium chloridi 
or bentonite admixtures, was placed in the annulu 
of a simulated well. Test pressure and specimei 
configuration was shown to influence the meas 
ured coefficient of permeability. A neat grout witl 
a water/cement ratio of 2.0 had a much highe: 
permeability coefficient than the same grout with i 
water/cement ratio of 0.46. Once the bond lin( 
between the grout and casing was broken, th< 
permeability of the system was generally highei 
than for the initial test. Specimens with a bel 
coupling included had a slightly higher permeabil 
ity than specimens with straight pieces of casing 
The effect on permeability of the admixtures in thf 
grout was not conclusive. However, the additior 
of a bentonite slurry to the test water was observec 



82 



ENGINEERING WORKS— Field 8 



to decrease the penneability coefficient when 
tested under low pressure. The penneability coeffi- 
cient of the basic neat grout casing system ranged 
from 0.0002-0.0010 cm/sec at low test pressure. It 
was concluded that the casing has an impact on the 
longitudinal permeability of the system since the 
coefficients of permeability measured were signifi- 
cantly higher than other published values. Howev- 
sr, the coefficients of permeability measured were 
in the range of soils with low permeability such as 
iilts. (Moore-IVI) 
iV85-00321 



Concrete— Group 8F 



:ONCRETING THE DIVERSION DEWATER- 
NG OUTLETS OF THE ZEYA HYDROELEC- 
nWC STATION, 

fa. P. Mirzaev. 

lydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 1 p 8- 
2 January, 1982. 2 Fig. Translated from Gidro- 
ekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. ], p 12-14 Janu- 
ry, 1982. 

)escriptors: "Dam construction, 'Spillways, 
Concrete, "Zeya Hydroelectric Station, *USSr' 
:antilevers, Portals, Hoists, Hydraulic equipment.' 

)uring construction of the Zeya hydroelectric sta- 
on, diversion of the river past the concrete struc- 
ires of the spillway part of the dam was accom- 
lished by a three stage scheme. In the first stage 
le design discharge of 1% probability, equal to 
J,500 cubic m/sec, was discharged through four 
l-m wide bays of the comb and two 8 m wide 
itreme bays. On the upstream and downstream 
ies the comb is closed by slide gates by means of 
gantry crane from the downstream pool and by 
)isting gear from the upstream pool. As the dam 
as created the comb was reconstructed into 10 
watering outlets of the first phase. The use of 
lured concrete with plasticizer GKZh-94 in diffi- 
ilt to access parts of structures, such as the plug 
dewatenng outlets, is effective with respect to 
e conditions of delivering the concrete to the 
icement site and considerably reduces labor ex- 
nditures on its compaction. The overconsump- 
m of cement for poured concrete is compensated 
r by the reduction of labor expenditures on deliv- 
ng the concrete mix to the placement site and its 
mpaction. Under conditions of Siberian rivers 
th large diversion discharges, it is necessary to 
ve several sets of mechanisms and equipment for 
>smg the outlets - hydraulic hoists, cantilevers 
rials, rods, guard gates - for increasing the rate 
construction and eliminating downtimes in un- 
eseen or emergency situations. (Baker-IVI) 
S5-00428 



dicatmg the prospects of using steel fiber-rein- 
torced concrete in the groove elements of gates 
The dependence of the mechanical characteristics 
of steel fiber-reinforced concrete on the character 
of reinforcement was then studied. In all cases 
failure of the steel fiber reinforced concrete speci- 
mens was preceded by the development of a dense 
network of fine cracks. (Baker-I VD 
W85-00446 



E OF STEEL FIBER-REINFORCED CON- 
ETE FOR GROOVE ELEMENTS OF GATES 

R. Freishist, and D. G. Yaroshenko. ' 

drotechnical Construction, Vol. 16 No 3 p 
-177, March, 1982. 3 Fig, 1 Tab, 5 Ref. Trans- 
id from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 
> 49-50, March, 1982. 

icriptors: *Reinforced concrete, 'Steel, *Hy- 
ulic gates. Concrete, Construction, Dams 
;es, Beanngs, Stress. 

! possibility of using steel fiber-reinforced con- 
•e tor the groove elements of gates was exam- 
I dunng investigations of heavily loaded slide 
rings of vertical lift gates at the Nurek hydro- 
tnc station conducted for the purpose of find- 
a rational method of transmitting the load from 

track to the concrete. Prior to this time 
ime-dispersed reinforcement by segments of 
I wire or steel shavings was sometimes used for 
5t concrete for embedded parts of the main 
>ts of radial gates of hydraulic structures. The 
ing capacity of the concrete based under the 
with vanous reinforcement methods was com- 
d dunng the study. The state of stress of the 
;rete base of the groove element under a load 

investigated with two configurations of rails 
lire of the concrete in all cases occurred before 
occurrence of plastic deformation in the rail 

fragments of steel fiber reinforced concrete 
stood a load on the average 30% higher than 
fragments with meshes and 80% higher than 
concrete fragments without reinforcement, in- 



CAST CONCRETES WITH FROSTPROOFING 
ADDITIVES IN UNDERGROUND CONSTRUC- 
TION, --cnLH. 

R. P. Burba, E. M. Glazunov, A. I. Matyukhina 
and M. V. Zaitsev. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16 No 5 n 
283-288 May, 1982. 7 Fig, 3 Ref. Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 5 n 3i--?4 
May, 1982. o .:>, p Ji Jf, 

Descriptors: 'Concrete, 'Construction materials 
Strength, Reinforced concrete. Temperature ef- 
fects, Frost protection. Underground structures. 

Cast concretes with frostproofmg additives are 
most effective when constructing elements with 
unlimited stnking times at negative ambient tem- 
peratures not below minus 15 degrees. Sodium 
nitnte-nitrate and phosphated calcium chloride are 
recommended for cast concrete with fine sands 
Phosphated calcium chloride is most effective in 
cast fine-sand concrete for constructing unrein- 
forced structures in the case of alternating and 
moderately negative ambient temperatures, 
bodium mtnte-mtrate is most effective in cast con- 
cretes hardening at lower temperatues when con- 
structing both reinforced and unreinforced ele- 
ments of underground structures. These additives 
plasticize the cast concrete mix, increasing the 
cone slump within 25 to 45%. The strength of cast 
fme sand concretes with frostproofing additives at 
least for a low water/cement (W/C) ratio of not 
less than 0.4, obeys the regularities established for 
high and low slump mixes and correlates with the 
W/C ratio with respect to the known relations 
The replacement of medium sand by fine in cast 
mixes of equal strength increases the content of 
cement by 10-15%, just as in stiff and plastic 
concretes of equal flowability and equal strength 
The strongest combinations of frostproofing addi- 
tives, which include ammonia water, cannot be 
used under underground conditions owing to tox- 
icity upon evaporation. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00463 



tion between the decrease of cost of the element 
and the decrease of its thickness. In the case of 
eccentric compression with very large eccentric- 
ities, when the compressive force can be neglected 
the regulanties characteristic for ffexural elements 
come into force. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00465 



EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 
MEASURES TO SHORTEN THE CONSTRUC- 
TION TIME OF MASS CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURES OF HYDROELECTRIC STATIONS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 6B 
W8 5-00476 



SSSsSn,^^™ ^^'^ MULTIAXIAL 

E. A. Kogan. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17 No 9 n 
448-452, September, 1983. 4 Fig, 1 Tab, 9 Ref 
Translated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo 
No. 9, p 22-25, September, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Concrete, 'Creep, 'Dam construc- 
tion. Compression, Multiaxial compression. Elas- 
ticity, Linear creep, Stress analysis, Poisson Ratio. 

The characteristics of elasticity and creep of 
mature concrete under uni-, bi-, and triaxial com- 
pression in the region of linear creep do not 
depend on the type of stress state and can be 
determined in ordinary uniaxial experiments The 
assumption of equality of Poisson's ratios of elastic 
strains and creep and their constancy in time made 
in the linear theory of an elastically creeping body 
is admissible. The usual assumption of independ- 
ence of the action of forces in various directions 
with consideration of Poisson's strains is confirmed 
by expenments with the long action of time con- 
stant compressive stresses not exceeding 30-40% of 
the ultimate strength. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00492 



SELECnON OF ECONOMIC THICKNESSES 
OF REINFORCED-CONCRETE ELEMENTS OF 
HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES, 

I. P. Pomazueva. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No 5 d 
292-293 May, 1982. 2 Fig. Translated from Gidro- 
tekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 5, p 49-50, May, 
1982. 

Descriptors: 'Reinforced concrete, 'Economic as- 
pects. Construction materials. Decision makine 
Concrete. *' 

Massive reinforced-concrete elements are finding 
wide use m hydrotechnical construction. The 
amount and cost of construction and assembly 
works of such elements are considerable, and the 
search for more advantageous solutions when de- 
signing the plants will produce a perceptible eco- 
nomic benefit. A variety of equally strong rein- 
forced concrete cross sections with different thick- 
nesses and reinforcement can be selected for use 
based on job specifications. The costs of equally 
strong reinforced concrete elements has been ana- 
lyzed as a function of their thickness and reinforce- 
ment for a number of power facilities being con- 
stnicted in Central Asia. The economic effective- 
ness of the element increased with decreases of the 
grade of concrete. An increase of the concrete 
grade does not allow reducing the amount of rein- 
forcement enough to obtain an economic effect for 
the element as a whole. The selection of the class 
of reinforcement does not affect the results of the 
analysis. Preference should be given to reinforce- 
ment of a higher class. In eccentrically compressed 
reinforced-concrete elements there is a direct rela- 



83 



INTENSE METHODS OF WINTER CONCRET- 
ING OF UNDERGROUND HYDRAULIC 
STRUCTURES IN THE FAR NORTH, 

E. M. Glazunov, A. I. Matyukhina, M. N. Rozin, 
and V. A. Rumyantsev. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17 No 9 p 
463-466, September, 1983. 1 Tab. Translated from 
Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No 9 n 35-37 
September, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Dam construction, 'Cold weather 
construction, 'Concrete, Hydraulic engineering 
Construction matenals. Additives, Costs, Gunite 
Formwork. 

A specific feature of the technology of construct- 
ing linings of underground structures in regions of 
the Far North is the need to create conditions for 
hardening of concrete at low natural temperatures 
of the air and surrounding rocks. Methods for 
concreting tunnels are proposed for these regions 
which make it possible to reduce energy expendi- 
tures several fold, increase the rate of constructing 
hnings by 1.5 to 2 times, to reduce total labor 
expenditures fo 2.0 to 2.5 times, and to reduce 
expenditure of manual labor by 30-40%. For the 
wide introduction of the concreting methods de- 
veloped It IS necessary to considerably broaden the 
range of concrete additives presently used in un- 
derground construction. When designing concrete 
plants It IS necessary to provide for special produc- 
tion lines for introducing these additives. Attention 
should first of all be given to the creation of 
optimal designs of thermoactive formwork with an 
adjustable heating regime and units for the prepa- 
ration, heating, and transport of the solution of the 
gunite additives during construction. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00494 



PROBLEMS OF CALCULATING THE 
STRENGTH OF MASSIVE CONCRETE AND 
REINFORCED-CONCRETE ELEMENTS OF 
COMPLEX HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES, 

S. B. Smimov. 



I 



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Field 8— ENGINEERING WORKS 
Group 8F — Concrete 



Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 17, No. 9, p 
471-476, September, 1983. 1 Fig, 10 Ref. Translat- 
ed from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 9, p 
41-45, September, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Concrete, 'Strength, 'Reinforced 
concrete. Construction materials. Dam construc- 
tion. Hydroelectric plants. Hydraulic engineering. 

An attempt was made to solve urgent problems of 
the strength of three dimensional concrete and 
reinforced concrete elements of a hydrostation. 
Solutions were sought through the selection of the 
cross sections of reinforcement of three directions 
on the basis of six components of the stress tensor; 
strengthening of concrete in compressed-extended 
zones of triaxially reinforced reinforced-concrete 
elements with consideration of the squeezing effect 
of tensile reinforcement; provision of strength of 
triaxially stressed concrete under complex loading; 
and strengthening of contact layers and block 
joints of concrete. (Baker-I VI) 
W85-00496 



8G. Materials 



GUIDELINES FOR INSPECTION OF DAMS 
FOLLOWING EARTHQUAKES. 

United States Committee on Large Dams, New 

York. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 8E. 

W85-00043 



EPOXY-BITUMEN WATER PROOFING OF 
HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE, 

V. I. Sakharov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 5, p 
274-277, May, 1982. 2 Fig, 2 Tab, 2 Ref. Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 5, p 
26-28, May, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Pipelines, 'Coatings, 'Waterproof- 
ing, 'Epoxy, 'Bitumen, 'Water distribution. 
Drinking water. Cracking, Leakage, Water stor- 
age. Water quality. 

When constructing hydraulic and water manage- 
ment structures related to the passage and treat- 
ment of drinking water, the need arises for using 
waterproof coatings which will not harm the qual- 
ity of the water. Tests were conducted on speci- 
mens of epoxy-bitumen waterproof compositions 
to determine the physical and mechanical proper- 
ties of the coatings, their adhesion, hardness, elas- 
ticity, and crack resistance. The coatings proved 
acceptable both technically and economically for 
the passage of water, as well as its storage and 
treatment of drinking water. The most effective 
area for use of epoxy-bitumen coatings is for wa- 
terproofing thin walled non-crack resistance com- 
ponents and structures. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00461 



USE OF ULTRASOUND FOR CHECKING THE 
FROST RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE, 

A. M. Filonidov. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 5, p 
278-283, May, 1982. 4 Fig, 4 Tab, 6 Ref Translated 
from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 5, p 
28-31, May, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Concrete, 'Testing procedures, 'Ul- 
trasonics, 'Frost protection, Construction materi- 
als. 

Tested methods of producing concrete with a pre- 
scribed frost resistance have been developed, but 
the method of testing the resistance of the concrete 
is very laborious. A new method was developed 
for determining the frost resistance of concrete on 
a known design after only one freezing cycle. The 
method proved satisfactory for prompt checking of 
the quality of concrete and for evaluating the frost 



resistance in structures under construction and in 
operation on the basis of cores. The method is 
based on a comparative testing method using cali- 
brated relations between compressive strength, ice 
content, ultrasound velocity, and frost resistance of 
concrete of known designs. A relatively high accu- 
racy of determining frost resistance, equal to plus 
or minus 15% can be obtained in 95-98% of the 
cases. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00462 

8H. Rapid Excavation 



HYDRAULICKING AT THE CONSTRUCHON 
OF THE ZAGORSK PUMPED-STORAGE STA- 
TION, 

L. A. Tolkachev, S. N. Semenenok, and A. M. 
Shtin. 

Hydrotechnical Construction, Vol. 16, No. 3, p 
138-142, March, 1982. 6 Fig. Translated from Gi- 
drotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 3, p 17-19, 
March, 1982. 

Descriptors: 'Hydraulicking, 'Pumped storage, 
•Zagorsk Pumped Storage Station, 'USSR, Con- 
struction, Earthworks, Borrow pits. 

The Zagorsk pumped storage station (PSS) is the 
first large pumped storage station in a series of 
unified PSS being constructed in the central zone 
of the European USSR. On the basis of construc- 
tion experience the following suggestions are of- 
fered. When using hydraulicking methods of con- 
structing earthworks for pumped storage stations 
with borrow pits located in flood plains of rivers it 
is necesssary to take into account the following 
circumstances: the high inhomogeneity of borrow 
pits both horizontally and vertically, which pre- 
cludes an estimation of the particle size distribution 
the basis of the average grading curve; siltation of 
borrow pits by clay and silt material with boulder 
and wood inclusions; there is no method of reliabil- 
ity determining the content of boulders and wood 
inclusions over the vertical section; and the special 
role of small rivers in the European USSR, which 
compel complete isolation of the areas of hydrau- 
licking works from the main channel. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00442 



81. Fisheries Engineering 



SELECTING SITES OF PROJECTED FISH 
PASSES, 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst, of Evolu- 
tionary Morphology and Animal Ecology. 
M. A. Skorobogatov, D. S. Pavlov, A. Sh. 
Barekyan, and L. G. Shtaf. 

Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 272, No. 1-6, p 
508-510, September, 1983. 2 Fig, 5 Ref. Translated 
from Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Vol. 272, 
No. 1, p 250-253, September, 1983. 

Descriptors: 'Dam design, 'Fish passages. Fish 
behavior. Hydroelectric plants. Spillways, Plan- 
ning, Decision making. Roach, Fish migration. 

One of the most important problems arising in the 
planning of areas for fish to pass through a dam is 
choosing the sites of the passes in the system at the 
hydroelectric center. A procedure for this choice 
is presented based on a comparison of the probable 
working efficiency of a fish pass at each possible 
location site. Hydraulic-biological studies carried 
out a few years ago make it possible to ascertain 
the factors influencing the formation of the paths 
of motion of fish, as well as the reactions of fish to 
various flow characteristics. The behavioral fea- 
tures of each school of fish are taken into account 
by finding the deviations of the transverse and 
longitudinal fish velocities from the average 
values. In order to determine the efficiency of a 
fish pass for a known flow structure in the tail- 
water of a hydroelectric system, all possible paths 



of fish motion from the initial point to the entry 
the fish collecting chute are calculated. As i 
example, the efficiency was calculated for oi 
operating regime of a model hydroelectric cent 
with a fish pass located in the middle of the spi 
way, for passage through the system of schools • 
roach with an average length of 25.4 mm Th 
approach provides an objective evaluation of tl 
likelihood that fish will enter a fish pass and inc 
cates the optimum location of the pass in tl 
hydroelectric system, as well as the optimum ope 
ating regime. In order to apply this approach i 
specific planning operations, it is advisable to can 
out studies in two possible directions: to seek srm 
experimental fish with behavior similar to that ■ 
spawning migrants and to study the reactions i 
fish likely to pass through hydroeletric center 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00159 



10. SCIENTIFIC AND 
TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

IOC. Secondary Publication 
And Distribution 



NISQUALLY GLACIER, MOUNT RAINIEl 
WASHINGTON, 1857-1979: A SUMMARY O 
THE LONG-TERM OBSERVATIONS AND 
COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY, 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA. Water Ri 

sources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2C. 

W85-00039 



ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REMOT 
SENSING FOR HIGHWAY PLANNING ANl 
NATURAL RESOURCES, 

Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Natural R( 
sources Conservation. 

D. L. Civco, W. C. Kennard, and M. W. Lefor. 
Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station Bulleti 
No. 456, January 1980. 136 p, 152 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Remote sensing, 'Bibliographies, Ii 
frared imagery, 'Wetlands, 'Aerial photograph; 
'Satellite technology, 'Sensors, 'Telemetry, Ecc 
nomic aspects. Engineering, Publications, Higl 
ways. Roads. 

Remote sensing is the art and science of gatherin 
information from a distance such as from aircral 
or satellites. Earth surface features and phenomen 
can be detected, identified, delineated and analyze 
through interpretation of the imagery collectec 
These procedures have proven valuable in natun 
resource planning, environmental impact assess 
ment, and engineering activities. The bibliograph 
is divided into five sections, each containing at 
stracts, many of which deal with the subject o 
freshwater wetlands, as well as with color infrarei 
photography itself. The complete citation is give 
for each publication abstracted, together with de 
tails on the problems, approach, equipment, result) 
and conclusions. Each abstract is followed by a lis 
of keywords which indicates the subject matter o 
the publication. In addition, an author index, 
keyword index, and a list of abbreviations am 
acronyms used are provided. The five sections ii 
the annotated bibliography are: (A) highways an{ 
remote sensing applications (53 abstracts); (B) envi 
ronmental impact of highways and corridor selec 
tion methods (23); (C) wetlands and remote sensini 
applications (14); (D) economics of remote sensini 
(11); and (E) general remote sensing application 
(51). Among the abstracts related to general appli 
cations are those concerned with proposed free 
way extensions, delineating forest cover types, am 
military geographic intelligence. (Garrison-Omni 
plan) 
W85-00047 



OI59(17)(21-NOV-84-0.3:.ll:57) 



84 

F1544 11/17/82 



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PB85-910202 



BOOKSTACKS 
DOCUMENTS 




lIL]l©^IiID) 




WATER 
ElESOURCES 
IBSTRACTS 



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:n: SWRABW 



VOLUME 18, NUMBER 2 

FEBRUARY 1985 









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SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS (SWRA) is produced by the Geo- 
logical Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, and published monthly by the National 
Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce. 



SWRA is available to Federal agencies and their contractors or grantees in water resources 
research upon request, citing contract or grant number and sponsoring agency. Write: 
Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 425, Reston, VA 22092. The 
SWRA Journal is also available on subscription from NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road, 
Springfield, VA 22161. Annual subscription rates for the North American Continent are: 
Journal only, $100; Journal and Annual Indexes, $125; Indexes only, $50. Other address- 
ees, write for prices. 



Some documents abstracted in this journal can be purchased from NTIS. Price codes are 
given in the entries and a current code-price conversion table is printed on the outside 
back cover. Other documents are available from originating organizations or authors as 
indicated in the citation. 




WATER RESOURCES 
ABSTRACTS 



A monthly publication of the Geological Survey 
U.S. Department of the Interior 



VOLUME 18. NUMBER 2 

FEBRUARY 1985 



W85-00508-W85-01117 



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The Secretary of the Interior has determined that the publication of the periodical is necessary in the 
transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing this periodical 
has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget through September 30, 1985. 



sss^ 



As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has respon- 
sibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This in- 
cludes fostering the wisest use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and 
wildlife, preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical 
places, and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The Department 
assesses our energy and mineral resources and works to assure that their development is in 
the best interests of all our people. The Department also has a major responsibility for 
American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in Island Territories under 
U.S. administration. 



PREFACE 



Selected Water Resources Abstracts, a monthly 
journal, includes abstracts of current and earlier 
pertinent monographs, journal articles, reports, ano 
other publication formats. These documents cover 
water resources as treated in the life, physical, and 
social sciences and the related engineering and legal 
aspects of the characteristics, supply condition, con- 
servation, control, use, or management of water 
resources. Each abstract includes a full bibliographic 
citation and a set of descriptors which are listed in 
the Water Resources Thesaurus. The abstract 
entries are classified into 10 fields and 60 groups 
similar to the water resources research categories 
established by the Committee on Water Resources 
Research of the then Federal Council for Science and 
Technology. 

Selected Water Resources Abstracts is designed 
to serve the scientific and technical information needs 
of scientists, engineers, and managers as one of 



several services of the Water Resources Scientific 
Information Center. The cumulative SWRA file from 
1968 and monthly updates are available also in 
magnetic tape through lease from NTIS. 

THE WATER RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFOR- 
MATION CENTER DOES NOT PROVIDE COPIES OF 
DOCUMENTS ABSTRACTED IN THIS JOURNAL. 
Sufficient bibliographic information is given to en- 
able readers to order the desired documents from 
local libraries or other sources. 

Comments and suggestions concerning the contents 
and arrangement of this bulletin are welcome. 

Water Resources Scientific 

Information Center 

U.S. Geological Survey 

MS 425 National Center 

Reston, VA 22092 



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CONTENTS 



SUBJECT FIELDS AND GROUPS 

Please use the edge index on the back cover to locate Subject Fields and Indexes. 

01 NATURE OF WATER 

Includes the following Groups: Properties; Aqueous Solutions and Suspensions. 

02 WATER CYCLE 

Includes the following Groups: General; Precipitation; Snow, Ice, and Frost; Evaporation and Transpiration; 
Streannflow and Runoff; Groundwater; Water in Soils; Lakes; Water in Plants; Erosion and Sedimentation; 
Chemical Processes; Estuaries. 

03 WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 

Includes the following Groups: Saline Water Conversion; Water Yield Improvement; Use of Water of Impaired 
Quality; Conservation in Domestic and fvlunicipal Use; Conservation in Industry; Conservation in Agriculture. 

04 WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 

Includes the following Groups: Control of Water on the Surface; Groundwater tvlanagement; Effects on Water of 
Man's Nonwater Activities; Watershed Protection. 

05 WATER OUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 

Includes the following Groups: Identification of Pollutants; Sources of Pollution; Effects of Pollution; Waste 
Treatment Processes; Ultimate Disposal of Wastes; Water Treatment and Quality Alteration; Water Quality 
Control. 

06 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 

Includes the following Groups: Techniques of Planning; Evaluation Process; Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, 
Pricing/Repayment; Water Demand; Water Law and Institutions; Nonstructural Alternatives; Ecologic Impact of 
Water Development. 

07 RESOURCES DATA 

Includes the following Groups: Network Design; Data Acquisition; Evaluation, Processing and Publication. 

08 ENGINEERING WORKS 

Includes the following Groups: Structures; Hydraulics; Hydraulic Machinery; Soil Mechanics; Rock Mechanics 
and Geology; Concrete; Materials; Rapid Excavation; Fisheries Engineering. 

09 MANPOWER, GRANTS, AND FACILITIES 

Includes the following Groups: Education— Extramural; Education— In-House; Research Facilities; Grants, 
Contracts, and Research Act Allotments. 

10 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

Includes the following Groups: Acquisition and Processing; Reference and Retrieval; Secondary Publication 
and Distribution; Specialized Information Center Services; Translations; Preparation of Reviews. 

SUBJECT INDEX 
AUTHOR INDEX 
ORGANIZATIONAL INDEX 
ACCESSION NUMBER INDEX 



IV 



SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS 



MATURE OF WATER 
Properties 



PERATURE DEPENDENCE AND MEAS- 
MENT OF RESISTIVITY OF PURE 
ER, 

oro Co., MA. 

Light. 

rtical Chemistry, Vol. 56, No. 7, p 1138-1142, 

1984. 4 Fig, 7 Tab, 18 Ref. 

iptors: *Resistivity, •Conductivity, *Water 
:rature, Ionic impurities. Sodium hydroxide, 
ichange, Pure water. 

purity water with ionic impurities of less 
). 1 micro g/kg is commercially available. Its 
y may be monitored by resistivity measure- 
corrected for temperature and trace impuri- 
rhe resistivity measurements of pure water 
he temperature range 0-70 degrees C and the 
ation of conductivity cells was accompUshed 
apparatus consisting of a digital resistivity 
or and sensors and a nuclear grade mixed bed 
change resin cartridge. The sensors used 
resistivity cells (cell constant of 0.100/cm) 
self contained temperature sensors and con- 
l electrodes made of titanium. Improved the- 
il resistivity, conductivity, temperature coef- 
, and pH values for water from to 100 
s C, were calculated. These values are re- 
I for the first time from 100 to 300 degrees C. 
jsistivity measurement of pure water is sensi- 
lough for the detection of trace ionic impuri- 
low as 0. 1 micro gAg (ppb). At 25 degrees 
sodium hydroxide concentration correspond- 
the maximum resistivity of water is approxi- 
' 0.8 micro g/kg and the pH is slightly 
le at pH 7.04. (CoUier-IVI) 
0945 



^ATER CYCLE 
General 



:R RESOURCES OF WESTERN DOUG- 
OUNTY, OREGON, 

?ical Survey, Portland, OR. Water Re- 
s Div. 

Curtiss, C. A. Collins, and E. A. Oster. 
Water-Resources Investigation Report 83- 
984. 81 p, 18 Fig, 9 Tab, 56 Ref 

ptors: 'Groundwater, Streams, Lakes, 
r quality. Aquifers, Hydrogeology, Stream- 
*Surface water, Douglas county, Areal in- 
tion, *Oregon, Umpqua River. 

item Douglas County, Quaternary coastal 
ands and marine terrace deposits may have 
it potential for ground-water development, 
of 200 gallons per minute have been report- 
m wells completed in Quaternary fluvial 
s along the lower Umpqua River. The 
area is imderlain by Tertiary marine sedi- 
that yield quantities of water barely ade- 
for domestic use. On the basis of wells 
d and the constituents analyzed, ground- 
quality was generally good, but the recom- 
1 criteria level of 300 micrograms per liter 
n was exceeded in about one-third of the 
s. Average annual runoff from eight streams 
em Douglas County was estimated to range 
4 cubic feet per second per square mile for 
eek to 6.8 cubic feet per second per square 
r Scholfield Creek. The estimated 7-day, 20- 
iw flow ranges from 0.01 cubic foot per 
per square mile for Weatherly Creek to 3.6 
set per second per square mile for the Smith 
The dissolved-soUds of the Umpqua River is 
ind stable, with Uttle seasonal and yearly 
>n. Likewise, the eight small streams in the 
area have small dissolved-solids but have 
bly higher nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen con- 
ions than those of the Umpqua River. All 
2S in the project area have dissolved-solids 
trations of less than 100 milligrams per hter 



and, except for Loon Lake, have limited phospho- 
rus available for algal production. Tahkenitch and 
Elbow Lakes are considered to be the most active 
in terms of biological productivity. (USGS) 
W85-00590 



PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE HY- 
DROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 
JAMES RIVER IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 

Geological Survey, Huron, SD. Water Resources 

Div. 

R. D. Benson. 

Available from OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed 

Ctr. Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources 

Investigations Report 83-4077, 1983. 115 p, 37 Fie 

25 Tab, 13 Ref 

Descriptors: *Surface water, *Runoff, ♦Stream- 
flow, Flow, Flood recurrence interval, James 
River, *South Dakota. 

The James River in South Dakota has very re- 
stricted channel capacities within the Lake Dakota 
Plain. Channel capacities in Brown County are as 
httle as 200 cubic feet per second, and spring 
flooding can be expected on an average of every 
other year. The river has potential for extended 
periods of flooding an average of once in 10 years. 
Extended periods of no flow during late-summer 
and winter also can be expected. Excluding flows 
of a very large magnitude, average travel time 
between Columbia and Scotland (a distance of 382 
river miles) is estimated to be 25-30 days for most 
flows. The upstream reach of the James River 
within the Lake Dakota Plain generally loses dis- 
charge with distance whereas the downstream 
reach generally gains discharge with distance. 
Ground water - surface water interaction does not 
appear to be significant along upstream reaches of 
the James River. Some interaction, although not 
quantified, does occur in Hanson, Davison, and 
Yankton Counties. Sand Lake National Wildlife 
Refuge, located just downsteam from the State line 
and containing Sand and Mud Lakes (combined 
capacity = 24,600 acre-feet), is a major source of 
water loss between LaMoure, N. Dak. and Colum- 
bia, S. Dak. Gross evaporation losses from the 
lakes during 1969-81 is estimated to have been 
slightly more than 29,000 acre-feet per year. Unac- 
counted-for losses in the lake system are estimated 
to have been slightly more than 19,000 acre-feet 
per year. (USGS) 
W85-00592 



GLACIER OUTBURST FLOODS FROM 
'HAZARD LAKE', YUKON TERRTTORY, AND 
THE PROBLEM OF FLOOD MAGNITUDE 
PREDICTION, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. of Geo- 
physics and Astronomy. 
G. K. C. Clarke. 

Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 98, p 3-21, 
1982. 5 Fig, 2 Tab, 16 Ref 

Descriptors: *Hazard Lake, 'Yukon, 'Glacial 
lakes, 'Flood peak, 'Outburst floods, Glaciohy- 
drology. Flood hydrographs, Mathematical 
models. Creep closure, Jokulhlaups, Glacier tun- 
nels. Simulation, Roughness coefficient. 

The 1965-66 surge of Steele Glacier, Yukon Terri- 
tory displaced ice as much as 9.5 km. The normal 
stream channel of Hazard Creek became ice- 
dammed, forming a proglacial lake called 'Hazard 
Lake'. In August 1978 'Hazard Lake' released 
19,620,000 cu m of water through a subglacial 
tunnel beneath Steele Glacier. The discharge 
during the outburst flood was measured by record- 
ing lake level changes with time, and a peak dis- 
charge of approximately 640 cu m/s was estimated 
from the data. An attempt was made to model the 
1978 flood from 'Hazard Lake' using an adaptation 
of a theoretical model for jokulhlaups. The aim 
was to calibrate the model as a first step toward 
using it as a peak discharge estimator for other 
glacier-dammed basins. The agreement between 
measured and simulated hydrographs is good. The 
creep closure, though included in this analysis, 
appears to play an insignificant role in limiting the 
discharge of 'Hazard Lake'. Release of thermal 
energy from the relatively warm lake water is the 



dominant factor contributing to tunnel enlarge- 
ment. The Manning roughness of outlet channels 
from glacier-dammed lakes is not known a priori 
and must either be assumed or estimated after the 
fact from the flood hydrograph. For 'Hazard Lake' 
the fit imphes Manning roughness in the range n' 
= 0.105 m to the -1/3 power s, consistent with 
Nye's estimate of n' = 0.12 m to the -1/3 power s 
for the 1972 Grimsvotn flood and an estimate of n' 
= 0.12 m to the -1/3 power s for the 1967 Summit 
Lake flood. If the Manning roughness for flood 
conduits hes within a narrow range, this would 
constrain one of the least certain variables of the 
model. By making several simplifying assumptions, 
the model is reduced to a simple mathematical 
description involving dimensionless numbers char- 
acterizing reservoir geometry and the relative 
magnitudes of creep closure and tunnel enlarge- 
ment by melting. The influence of lake tempera- 
ture, reservoir geometry, and creep closure on the 
character of flood hydrographs can be convenient- 
ly studied in this simplified form. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00670 



DEVELOPMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RE- 
CHARGE MODEL FOR HONG KONG, 

Hong Kong Public Works Dept. Geotechnical 

Control Office. 

B. Leach. 

Hydrological Sciences Joumal, Vol. 27, No. 4, p 

469-491, December, 1982. 17 Fig, 4 Tab, 24 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hong Kong, 'Groundwater re- 
charge, 'Mathematical models, Soil water, Rainfall 
runoff, Storms, Soil water suction, Rainfall intensi- 
ty. Slope stability, Evapotranspiration. 

A conceptual model of the infiltration/soil mois- 
ture storage/groundwater recharge process may 
provide a better understanding of the relationship 
between rainfall and the incidence of slope instabil- 
ity. Such a model was developed and calibrated for 
Hong Kong, which has a sub-tropical climate in 
which rainfall is typically of short duration and 
high intensity. The model, which operates on a 200 
s time base, estimates soil moisture deficits, runoff 
coefficients and recharge for individual storm 
events and event sequences. Modelled outputs are 
compared with field measurements of soil suction, 
runoff, observed and numerically-modelled pie- 
zometer responses. In order to assess the sensitivity 
of the recharge estimate to the various input pa- 
rameters, the model was mn using the rainfall and 
potential evapotranspiration data as measured for 
1980. The estimated annual recharge is especially 
sensitive to the evapotranspiration rates and the 
root constant input to the model. Comparisons of 
the model outputs with equivalent field observa- 
tions indicated the success of the model in the 
particular geological and climatic conditions under 
consideration. It is essential that the time intervals 
over which the soil moisture balance computations 
are undertaken are comparable with the minimum 
storm durations: in this case 30 min or less. 
(Moore-IVI) 
W85-00693 



NEW CHEMICAL APPROACH TO THE 
STUDY OF WATERS OF MT. FUJI ENVIRONS, 

Sagami Chemical Research Center, Sagamihara 

K. Sugawara, T. Yoshihara, K. Yanagi, and M. 

Ambe. 

Archiv fur Hydrobiolgie, Vol. 94, No. 3, p 269- 

285, 1982. 1 Fig, 9 Tab, 39 Ref 

Descriptors: *Mt. Fuji, 'Fuji Five Lakes, 'Japan, 
'Water chemistry, Groundwater movement. 
Springs, Runoff, Trace elements. Precipitation, 
Volcanoes. 

The large area (19 sq km) of the slope of Mt. Fuji 
is largely covered with rather uniform andesitic 
volcanic ejecta and fallen precipitation is easily 
sucked into the ground to mn along old diagenated 
lavaflow layers to finally issue as a number of 
springs at lower levels. The spring water is loaded 
with major elements from rocky material on its 
passage while trace elements are removed to a 
considerable extent. Fuji Five Lakes water is fed 
from two different areas, the south-eastern on Mt. 



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Fuji side where the fallen precipitation is largely 
sucked into the ground with no remarkable surface 
discharge, while the north-western consisting of 
Tertiary impervious rocks where the fallen water 
is discharged into the lakes as surface-runoff with 
no remarkable change from meteoric water. Calcu- 
lation indicates that about 70-80% of the total 
supply to the lakes is supplied by subsurface dis- 
charge of underground water from the northeast- 
em side. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00760 



INLAND WATERS AND HUMAN CULTURE 
(BINNENGEWASSER UND KULTUR), 

G. H. Schwabe. 

Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, Vol. 95, No. 1/4, p 445- 

461, 1982. 24 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Human culture, *Water, 'Social as- 
pects, Irrigation, Rice, Limnology, Hydrologic 
cycle. 

Water is indispensible to life. Its unique occurrence 
in three physical states in the biosphere is crucial 
to the hydrological cycle and atmospheric thermo- 
dynamics, and has shaped many features of the 
earth's surface. Culture, language and customs of 
all nations reflect its biological and ecological sig- 
nificance; hydrological conditions essentially deter- 
mined settlement patterns, place names reveal its 
significance in daily life, and water is a recurring 
focal point of mythology. Other artistic references 
are obvious although the influence on spiritual 
development may have been disregarded. Natural 
water affected material developments, yet these 
caused changes which interfered with the land- 
scape. All early urban settlements were based on 
artificial irrigation; subsequently developed social 
structures ensuring continued exploitation of irri- 
gation systems, deepened and broadened the spirit- 
ual significance of water. The basic foodstuff for 
half the world's population today is rice, probably 
the oldest crop, and areas irrigated for its growth 
cover 1,400,000 sq km. In spite of their extent and 
variety such systems have not yet received due 
limnological study. Constructive water use blos- 
somed into culture; modem misuse of this essential 
endangers mankind's future. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00774 



USE OF RAINFALL-SIMULATOR DATA IN 
PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF MODELING 

STUDIES, 

Geological Survey, Denver, CO. Water Resources 

Div. 

G. C. Lusby, and R. W. Lichty. 

Available from the OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed. 

Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources 

Investigations Report 83-4159, 1983. 59 p, 36 Fig, 

10 Tab, 12 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall simulators, 'Hydrologic 
models, 'Runoff plot, 'Overland flow, 'Small wa- 
tersheds. Infiltration rate. Experimental basins, 
'Colorado, Elbert County, Willow Gulch drainage 
basin. 

Results of a study using a rainfall simulator to 
define infiltration parameters for use in watershed 
modeling are presented. A total of 23 rainfall- 
simulation runs were made on five small plots 
representing four representative soil-vegetation 
types of the study watershed in eastern Colorado. 
Data for three observed rainfall-runoff events were 
recorded by gages on four of the plots. Data from 
all events were used to develop best-fit parameters 
of the Green and Ampt infiltration equation. The 
hydraulic conductivity of the transmission zone, 
KSAT, grossly controlled the goodness of fit of all 
modeling attempts. Results of fitting KSAT to 
reproduce runoff from rainfall simulator runs and 
results of fitting KSAT to reproduce runoff from 
observed rainfall-runoff events are inconsistent. 
Variations in results from site to site and at differ- 
ent times of the year were observed. (USGS) 
W85-00837 



EFFFX,TS OF TEMPORAL DECOMPOSITION 
ON PARA.MKTKR KSTIMATION FOR HYDRO- 
LOGICAL MODELS (DER EINFLUSS DER 



ZEITLICHEN UNTERGLIEDERUNG AUF DIE 
PARAMETERSCHATZUNG IN HYDROLOGIS- 
CHEN MODELLEN), 

Technische Hochschule, Aachen (Germany, F.R.). 

Lehrgebiet Wasser-Energie-Wirtschaft. 

M. W. Ostrowski, and U. Wolf 

Deutsche Gewasserkundliche Mitteilungen, Vol. 

28, No. 2, p 37-40, May, 1984. 8 Fig, 4 Tab. 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall-runoff relationships, 'Hy- 
drologic models. Model studies. Water resources 
development. Management, Rainfall intensity. 

The values of hydrological parameters in determi- 
nistic rainfall-mnoff models are highly dependent 
on the chosen temporal decomposition. This is 
caused by the deviation of the differential from the 
difference quotient of cumulative rainfall. Large 
variations may be observed in both multiple appli- 
cations of a single model to several basins with 
similar characteristics and the application of simi- 
larly structured models to the same basin. Possibili- 
ties to reduce differences between estimated and 
physical parameter values are demonstrated. The 
chosen time-step has to be reversely proportional 
to the actual rainfall intensity or related to the 
occurrence of runoff components, respectively. In 
addition, the variable temporal decomposition has 
considerable economic advantages as compared to 
constant time intervals. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00898 



SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN RAINFALL DIS- 
TRIBUTION AND RUNOFF PROCESS IN 
SMALL CATCHMENT AREAS (RAUMLICHE 
NIEDERSCHLAGSVERTEILUNG UND AB- 
FLUSSPROZESS IN KLEINEN EINZUGSGE- 
BIETEN), 
H. G. Mendel. 

Deutche Gewasserkundliche Mitteilungen, Vol. 
28, No. 2, p 53-54, May, 1984. 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall-runoff relationships, 'Small 
watersheds, 'Catchment area, Radar, Precipita- 
tion, Runoff, Sewer systems, Spatial distribution. 

The double-faceted problem of spatial variation of 
precipitation and the influences on runoff (bed- 
rock, soil moisture, slope of the tertain, surface 
properties) in small catchment areas was discussed 
at a workshop of 15 participants held in February 
1983 in Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. 
The problems of runoff from sewer systems and 
the possibihties for its control as well as the use of 
radar to measure precipitation load on the ground 
were of special interest. (Gish-I VI) 
W85-00901 



NEW ELECTRONIC EVAPORATION AND 
RAIN MEASURING EQUIPMENT, 

Eotvos Lorand Univ., Budapest (Himgary). Dept. 
of Atomic Physics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 7B. 
W8 5-0 1062 



2B. Precipitation 



RAINFALL PATTERNS IN THE WESTERN 
UNITED STATES, 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research 

Organization, South Melbourne (Australia). Div. 

of Chemical Technology. 

R. G. Vines. 

Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, No. C9, 

p 7303-7311, August, 1982. 12 Fig, 22 Ref, 1 

Append. 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Filter analysis, Sunspot 
cycle, Lunar cycle. Climatology, Time series anal- 
ysis. Spectral analysis. Statistical methods. 

Rainfall figures from World Weather Records, for 
towns west of the Mississippi in the United States, 
have been subjected to filter analysis. Time series 
comprising sets of annual rainfall data are analyzed 
in terms of the outputs of four filters. Filter IV 
reproduces what is essentially the moving-average 
rainfall over a long term. Filter III responds to any 
periodic fluctuations in precipitation in the range 



ca. 13 to 30 years with high acceptance from 15 to 
24 years. Filter II has corresponding response from 
ca. 8 to 13 years with high acceptance from 9 to 12 
years. Filter I responds to fluctuations from 6 to 8 
years. TTie combined response of all four filters is 
nearly flat from about 6.5 years to infinity and all 
fluctuations with periods less than about 5.5 to 6 
years are suppressed. TTie rainfall patterns obtained 
suggest substantial coherence of the data through- 
out much of the entire area. The results agree well 
with earlier work that reported a relationship be- 
tween the incidence of drought, based on tree-ring 
data, in the western United States and the double 
(ca. 22 year) sunspot cycle. However, an additional 
correlation with the (ca. 18 year) lunar cycle is 
also apparent, particularly on the west coast. These 
findings have been verified by simple spectral anal- 
ysis. Correlations using rainfall data alone might 
prove of use in future studies of climatic variabili- 
ty. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00513 



MODEL FOR THE RELATIONSHIPS BE- 
TWEEN PRECIPITATION D/H RATIOS AND 
PRECIPITATION INTENSITY, 

New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Dept. of Geolo- 
gy- 

C. J. Yapp. 

Joumal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, No. 
C12, p 9614-9620, November, 1982. 7 Fig, 1 Tab, 
20 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Chemistry of precipitation, 'Isotope 
ratios, 'Precipitation intensity, 'Deuterium, 'Hy- 
drogen, Wake Island, Johnston Island, Isotope 
studies. Meteoric water. Mathematical models. 

A simple quantitative model has been developed 
which predicts that a parametric correlation be- 
tween the isotopic composition of precipitation 
and precipitation intensity can exist as a conse- 
quence of the condensation process when certain 
conditions are met. These conditions include the 
following: (1) approximate constancy, from one 
sampling interval to the next, of the initial isotopic 
composition of the water vapor in precipitation- 
producing air masses; (2) approximate constancy of 
the initial condensation temperature; (3) approxi- 
mate constancy of the rate of vertical ascent of the 
precipitating air mass; and (4) approximate con- 
stancy of the ratio of condensed water to water 
vapor. Such conditions are probably rare in nature 
for the short collection intervals represented by 
existing samples. However, with the probable ex- 
ception of condition 3, tropical oceanic islands may 
satisfy the preceding conditions on the month-to- 
month time scale for which precipitation samples 
have generally been collected for isotopic analysis. 
Precipitation samples from Wake and Johnston 
Islands that plot on the meteoric water line were 
used to compare monthly delta-D (a hydrogen/ 
deuterium isotope ratio) values with corresponding 
precipitation intensity. In general, there appears to 
be a convergence of the data at high values of 
delta-D (low intensity) and a divergence at low 
values of delta-D (high intensity). Such behavior is 
predicted by the isotope-intensity model largely in 
terms of variation in the vertical rate of ascent. For 
Wake Island this divergence of the data appears to 
be bimodal in character. However, for Johnston 
Island, there is considerable scatter in the data. 
This scatter is roughly constrained by the envelope 
defined by two vertical ascent rates that approxi- 
mately characterize the presumably bimodal Wake 
Island trends. Thus much of the scatter in the 
Johnston Island data may be explained by month- 
to-month variability in vertical ascent rates. The 
data for these two islands suggest that a simple 
precipitation delta-D versus intensity correlation is 
unlikely for monthly sample intervals. However, 
the issue remains unresolved for longer time scales. 
(Author's abstract) 
W85-00517 



TOTAL PRECTPITABLE WATER AND RAIN- 
FALL DETERMINATIONS FROM THE 
SEASAT SCANNING MULTICHANNEL 
MICROWAVE RADIOMETER, 

National Earth Satellite Service, Washington, DC. 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 



"or primary bibliographic entry see Field 7B 
V85-00522 



ASE STUDY: ESTIMATING ANTECEDENT 
REaPITATION INDEX FROM HEAT CA- 
ACITY MAPPING MISSION DAY THERMAL 
VFRARED DATA, 

exas A and M Univ., College Station. Remote 

ensing Center. 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 7B. 

/85-00689 



AINFALL MEASUREMENT ACCURACY IN 
ACE: A COMPARISON OF GAGE AND 
ADAR RAINFALLS, 

ational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 

Jn, Boulder, CO. Weather Modification Program 

ffice. 

3r primary bibliographic entry see Field 7B. 

'85-00915 



DJUSTING ALGORITHM FOR ESTIMATED 

JB-REGIONAL MEANS OF AREAL PRECIPI- 

VTION USING A REGIONAL MEAN OF 

SOWN SIZE (ANGLEICH-VERFAHREN FUR 

ESCHATZTE TEILGEBIETS-NIEDERSCH- 

^GE BEI BEKANNTEM GESAMTGEBIETS- 

[EDERSCHLAG), 

uenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst, fuer Geo- 

iphie. 

ir primary bibUographic entry see Field 7A. 

85-00970 



ON ESTIMATION FROM SATELLITES: AN 
:amination of the GRIFFTTH-WOOD- 
:Y TECHNIQUE, 

tional Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
eenbelt, MD. Lab. for Atmospheric Sciences 
J. Negri, R. F. Adler, and P. J. Wetzel, 
imal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, Vol. 
No. 1, p 102-116, January, 1984. 27 Fig, 1 Tab, 
Ref 



mates from both techniques and the gage amounts 
were poor. The GWT is unnecessarily complicated 
for use m estimating daily rainfall. A method in 
which the relationship between clouds and rain is 
simple and straightforward can, to first order du- 
W85 ^^^ ""^^"'^^ "'"'^^ "^^"^^ ('^""'"'■'s abstract) 



scnptors: 'Rainfall, 'Satellite technology, 
riffith-Woodley Technique, Remote sensing, In- 
red imagery. Clouds, Mathematical equations, 
irida. 

i Griffith- Woodley Technique (GWT) is an ap- 
ach to estimating precipitation using infrared 
ervations of clouds from geosynchronous satel- 
5. It is examined in three ways: an analysis of 

terms in the GWT equations; a case study of 
ared imagery portraying convective develop- 
it over Florida; and the comparison of a simpli- 
! equation set and resultant rain maps to results 
ig the GWT. The objective is to determine the 
unant factors in the calculation of GWT rain 
mates. Analysis of a single day's convection 
r Florida produced a number of significant 
ghts mto various terms in the GWT rainfall 
ations. Due to the definition of clouds by a 
shold isotherm (-20 degrees C), the majority of 
ids on this day did not go through an idealized 

cycle before losing their identity through 
ger, sphttmg, etc. As a result, 82% of the 
ids had a defined life of 1 h (two images) or 

64% of the defmed clouds were assessed no 

because the empirically derived ratio of radar 
3 area to cloud area was zero for 64% of the 
pled clouds. For 76% of the sample, the tem- 
iture weighting term was identically 1.0. Terms 
directly related to cloud area were essentially 
arrelated with GWT rain volume, but cloud 

itself was highly correlated (r = 0.93). Dis- 
linatmg parameters in the GWT rain appor- 
nent algorithm were the temperatures that 
le the coldest 50% and coldest 10% cloud 
s. Further apportionment beyond these two 
sholds was found to be unnecessary. Simplify- 
issumptions were made to the GWT such that 
resultant equations were independent of cloud 
nistory. Application of a simple algorithm in- 
orating these assumptions led to daily rainfall 
:ms on three days that were, to first order, the 
: as those calculated from the GWT. Daily 
s in the FACE target area were actually closer 
le gage determined rain depths than the GWT 
lates. Correlations between half-hourly esti- 



DETERMINING DROUGHT FREQUENCY 
AND INTENSITY ON THE BASIS OF PLANT 
RESPONSE: WILD HAY IN THE SAND HILLS 
OF NEBRASKA, U.S.A., 

Nebraska Univ. -Lincoln. Center for Agricultural 

Meteorology and Climatology. 

D. A. Wilhite, and R. E. Neild. 

Agricultural Meteorology, Vol. 25, No 4 p 257- 

265, February, 1982. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 6 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Droughts, 'Frequency analysis. 

Wild hay, 'Nebraska, Mathematical studies. 

Weather, Crop yield. Plant growth, Climate, Hay. 

A district wide single year drought frequency of 
0.5 and 0.15 was computed for moderate and 
severe drought, respectively, for wild hay in the 
North Crop-Reporting District of Nebraska. This 
analysis was based on plant response to weather 
conditions. However, further study at the county 
level revealed a great deal of disparity in severe 
drought frequency between counties due to local 
environmental factors, primarily depth to water 
table. Computed severe drought frequencies were 
as much as six times greater in counties with a low 
percentage of wet meadowland, in comparison to 
those counties with a high percentage. When com- 
puting a region's agricultural drought hazard, fac- 
tors other than climate may be of local importance. 
Drought frequency should be computed for the 
smallest areal unit where yield data are available 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-01064 



USE OF RAINFALL MODELS IN AGRICUL- 
TURAL PLANNING, 

Reading Univ. (England). Dept. of Applied Statis- 
tics. 

R. D. Stem, and R. Coe. 

Agricultural Meteorology, Vol. 26, No. 1, p 35-50 
March, 1982. 7 Fig, 6 Tab, 20 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Model studies. Planning, 
Decision making. Agriculture, Statistical studies, 
Mathematical studies. 

Information useful in agricutural planning may be 
obtained from rainfall data and the fitting of 
models provides a powerful method of analyzing 
such data. The models used are briefly described 
and examples are given for data from Hyderabad, 
India. Three methods of using rainfall data to 
derive results important for agricultural planning 
are compared. The fu-st is a direct summary of the 
observed data, which may be sufficient if there is a 
long record of this data available. The other meth- 
ods involve fitting a Markov chain model to the 
daily data, and then using either recurrence rela- 
tions or simulation. The parameters in these models 
can easily and rehably be estimated even from 
short records. These models shouJd each be con- 
sidered an intermediate step in the analysis of the 
data. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-01066 



ECONOMICAL RECORDING TIPPING- 
BUCKET RAIN GAUGE, 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research 
Organization, Armidale (Australia). Pastoral Re- 
search Lab. 

K. A. Cornish, and G. C. Green. 
Agricultural Meteorology, Vol. 26, No. 4, p 247- 
253, July, 1982. 5 Fig, 1 Tab, 8 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Rain gauges, 'Measuring instru- 
ments, 'Tipping-bucket gages. Rainfall, Measuring, 
Automation. 

The design and construction of a plastic tipping 
bucket rain gauge are described. Several of the 
units were made and tested in the field and the 
laboratory. In field tests over a two month period 



Snow, Ice, and Frost — Group 2C 

all gauges were accurate to within 2% in rainfalls, 
in the range of 1-69 mm/d. In lab tests, the rain 
gauge was accurate with simulated rainfalls up to 
180 mm/hr, which is beyond most normal operat- 
ing requirements. The rain gauge is cheap and easy 
to construct, taking about 8-10 man hours per unit 
to build and calibrate, light, durable and suitable 
for remote sites. Its accuracy and reliability make it 
suitable for a variety of field uses. When in use the 
only maintenance required is to check the level 
and the condition of the batteries. As current is 
only drawn from the batteries when rain is being 
recorded, the battery life should approach its shelf 
life. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-01067 



GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION IN MONTHLY 
RAINFALL AND MILK PRODUCTION IN 
EASTERN NEW SOUTH WALES, 

Sydney Univ. (Australia). 

D. Dragovich. 

Agricultural Meteorology, Vol. 26, No 4 p 255- 

264, July, 1982. 4 Fig, 2 Tab, 6 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Livestock, 'Pastures 
'New South Wales, 'Australia, Grasslands, Milk 
production, Plant growth. Vegetation. 

Rainfall varied more widely on a month to month 
basis than did milk production, regardless of quota 
levels. In locations where lower quotas permitted 
wider fluctuations in milk production, patterns of 
rainfall and livestock output were more closely 
linked. The fact that rainfall-milk production rela- 
tionships emerged at this broad level of generaliza- 
tion points to the importance of moisture in affect- 
ing seasonahty of pasture growth, although further 
account needs to be taken of growth phases of 
individual pasture species (especially in relation to 
temperature) and, for livestock, seasonality of calv- 
ing patterns. Rainfall-milk production relationships 
were weakest in locations where output patterns 
were most strongly geared to satisfying a neariy 
constant monthly level of demand. (Baker-IVI) 



2C. Snow, Ice, and Frost 



TIME-DEPENDENT ICE SHEET MODEL- 
PRELIMINARY RESULTS, 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Greenbelt, MD. Lab. for Atmospheric Sciences. 
R. A. Bindschadler, and R. Gore. 
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, No 
C12, p 9675-9685, November, 1982. 6 Fig, 34 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Ice sheets, 'Model studies, 'Veloci- 
ty, 'Shear stress. Ice thickness. Ice pressure. Gla- 
ciers, Strain, Vertical resolution, Mathematical 
models. Ice streams. Basal sliding. 

A numerical model of ice sheet flow is developed 
to provide reliable predictions of regional ice sheet 
response characteristics. This model includes verti- 
cal resolution of temperature, stress, and strain rate 
which represents a considerable improvement over 
previous vertically averaged ice sheet models. The 
model follows the flow of ice along a flow line 
within an ice sheet drainage basin. The model 
results assume a flat bed and constant width. Lon- 
gitudinal stresses and basal sliding are included. 
Preliminary studies of response behavior are com- 
pleted using a simplified ice sheet geometry with a 
fixed terminus or grounding line. Basal sliding is 
dependent on the base shear stress and a specified 
distribution of basal water pressure. The numerical 
methods used to solve the coupled set of stress and 
velocity equations for the static and time-evolu- 
tionary cases are discussed. A steady state profile 
simulating an ice stream is calculated for a particu- 
lar set of input parameters, and changes in the 
profile are examined for different choices of pa- 
rameters. For time-dependent accumulation rates 
and boundary conditions, the model will reach a 
steady state configuration independent of initial 
geometry. The steady state configuration corre- 
sponds to the situation where the volume flux at 
any point is equal to the total accumulation re- 
ceived by the ice sheet upstream of that point, so 
there is no additional thickness change anywhere. 



no 

Q. 

< 

s; 

a 
I 
4; 

i: 

«\ 

r eci 

I' «• 



Field 2— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2C — Snow, Ice, and Frost 



The results of these studies illustrate ice sheet 
thinning in response to a lowered sea level or to a 
reduction in the extent of ice rises (or pinning 
points) within ice shelves. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-0O5I8 



SNOW CHEMISTRY ON JAMES ROSS 
ISLAND (ANTARCTIC PENINSULA), 

Institute Antartico Argentino, Buenos Aires. 
A. J. Aristarain, R. J. Delmas, and M. Briat. 
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, No. 
C13, p 11,004-11,012, December, 1982. 7 Fig, 2 
Tab, 53 Ref. 

Descriptors: *Snow chemistry, 'James Ross 
Island, 'Antarctica, 'Chemical properties. Chemis- 
try of precipitation, Aerosols, Sulfuric acid. Nitric 
acid. Nitrates, Path of pollutants. 

More than 400 flm samples were collected at an 
altitude of 1660 m on the small ice sheet covering 
James Ross Island (JRI) (northeastern coast of the 
Antarctic Peninsula); a better understanding was 
gained of the origin of the acidity of snow deposit- 
ed on the Antarctic continent. Chemical analysis of 
these samples provides information about the 
marine background aerosol composition in the 
area. The samples cover the years 1975-1979 (pit 
samples) and the last 15 years (fim core samples). 
Major impurities (Na, K, Ca, Al, H, S04, and 
N03) were determined by using flameless atomic 
absorption, neutron activation, acid titration, or ion 
chromatography. Aerosols are contributed mainly 
by the surrounding ocean; however, secondary, 
aerosol deposition (H2S04 and HN03) is also im- 
portant. All samples were found to be slightly 
acidic (pH generally in the range 5-6). Strong 
seasonal variations (maximum values in summer) 
are found in the H2S04 deposition. A photochemi- 
cal mechanism is proposed to explain the local 
production of H2S04 from gaseous marine sulfur 
compounds. By taking a mean value of 1.5 mEqv/ 
L (-t- or - 5) as a typical Antarctic H2S04 concen- 
tration in snow and a mean snow accumulation 
rate of 12 g/sq cm/yr, a yearly deposition of 0.13 
(-1- or - 0.06) Tg of H2S04 was determined for the 
entire Antarctic continent. Sea-salt particles do not 
significantly contribute nitrate at JRI. Nitrate has a 
relatively constant background level in JRI snow 
with sudden increases distributed all over the year; 
N03 concentrations range from 0.2 to 0.3 mEqv/ 
L. The N03 concentrations in JRI snow indicate 
that the acidity due to nitric acid would represent 
about 1/6 of the total acidity. (Collier-IVI) 
W85-00519 



USE OF SEASAT SYNTHETIC APERTURE 
RADAR AND LANDSAT MULTISPECTRAL 
SCANNER SUBSYSTEM DATA FOR ALASKAN 
GLAaOLOGY STUDIES, 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Greenbelt, MD. Hydrological Sciences Branch. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 7B. 
W85-00521 



SURGING OF FISHER GLAOER, EASTERN 
ANTARCnCA: EVIDENCE FROM GEOMOR- 
PHOLOGY, 

Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geo- 
physics, Canberra (Australia). 
P. Wellman. 

Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 98, p 23-28, 
1982. 3 Fig, 10 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Glacier surges, 'Geomorphology, 
•Fisher Glacier, 'Antarctic, Prince Charles Moun- 
tains, Moraines, Ice level. Climate. 

A study of the geomorphology of the Prince 
Charles Mountains using color vertical air photo- 
graphs shows well-preserved old moraines 
throughout much of the outcrop area. Along 
Fisher Glacier, lower Lambert Glacier and the 
Amery Ice Shelf, within the altitude range 50-2,000 
m, the old moraines show that the ice level had 
ri.sen 150-200 m above the present level at least 
three times. Old moraines elsewhere show that 
none of the other glaciers had risen significantly in 
their upper parts; the rise of their lower parts was 
caused by the rise of lower Lambert Glacier and 



the Amery Ice Shelf The changes in ice level are 
unlikely to be due to climatic change because this 
would not repeatedly affect only one glacier drain- 
ing central Antarctica. It is thought that the 
changes in ice level are caused by repeated surges 
of Fisher Glacier. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00671 



ICE MOVEMENT THROUGH SMITH SOUND 
IN NORTHERN BAFFIN BAY, CANADA, OB- 
SERVED IN SATELLITE IMAGERY, 

Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich 
(Switzerland). Geologisches Inst. 
H. Ito, and F. Muller. 

Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 98, p 129-143, 
1982. 9 Fig, 3 Tab, 6 Ref NSF grant DPP- 
7826132, Government of Canada DSS contract 
OSX4-0098, NSF contract GV-40404A1, Schwei- 
zerische Nationalfonds zur Forderung der Wis- 
senschaftlichen Forschung contract 2.383.70. 

Descriptors: 'Satellite technology, 'Ice move- 
ment, 'Baffin Bay, 'Smith Sound, Remote sensing, 
Landsat, Ice drift. Wind. 

Movement of pack ice in Smith Sound in northern 
Baffin Bay was observed for April 1975 using the 
satellite imagery obtained by Landsat. Mean veloc- 
ity was found to be directed to the south with a 
magnitude of 4.3 km/d. The movement was 
strongly influenced by the wind in that location, 
which changes considerably from one point to 
another within a relatively short distance, and 
cannot easily be estimated from the pressure-distri- 
bution data due to the local topography. On the 
other hand, the ice movement through the field 
can be used to some extent to evaluate the wind 
field. Very little consideration was given to the 
influence of the sea current. The amount of ice 
transported from Smith Sound was different for 
different wind conditions, but the findings show 
that on the average 600 sq km of pack ice was 
carried out of the area per day. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00672 



NUMERICAL MODEL OF TEMPERATE GLA- 
CIER FLOW APPLIED TO THE QUIESCENT 
PHASE OF A SURGE-TYPE GLAQER, 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Greenbelt, MD. Goddard Space Flight Center. 
R. Bindschadler. 

Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 99, p 239-265, 
1982. 18 Fig, 24 Ref NSF grants DES 72-01629 
AOl and EAR 76-22463 AOl. 

Descriptors: 'Glaciers, 'Glacier flow, 'Mathemat- 
ical models, 'Quiescent phase. Variegated Glacier, 
Alaska, Glacier surges. Shear stress. Glacier mass 
balance. 

A time-dependent numerical model of temperate 
glacier flow without sliding is developed and ap- 
plied to the quiescent phase of surge-type Varie- 
gated Glacier, Alaska. The model is based on a 
one-dimensional continuity equation but the trans- 
verse channel shape is explicitly included allowing 
the complex geometries of real glaciers to be mod- 
elled. Velocities and volume fluxes are calculated 
from the glacier geometry. Transverse stress is 
taken into account by shape factors which are 
fitted to measurements of geometry and velocity 
and are chosen to be insensitive to changes in 
geometry. Longitudinal stress gradients are taken 
into account by use of a large-scale surface slope. 
A Crank-Nicholson finite-difference approximation 
is used and it is unconditionally stable when a small 
contribution from the local slope is added to the 
average slope. Model parameters are fitted to ex- 
tensive data collected on Variegated Glacier in 
1973 and 1974. Predictions of the model over a 
four year interval agree well with field measure- 
ments. Predictions of the current quiescent phase 
(1965-84) indicate depth increases in the upper 
glacier of more than 75 m with a twenty-fold 
increase in the volume flux. During this interval 
the base shear stress increases 40% in the upper 
glacier and decreases 20% in the lower glacier. 
During the mid to late quiescent phase, ice motion 
becomes more important than mass balance in the 
redistribution of mass over the central region of 
the glacier. If normal flow were to persist, the 



predicted steady-state profile would be an ave 
of 100 m deeper and 41% more voluminous thi 
1973. T>ie predicted base shear-stress gradiei 
never negative enough to satisfy Robin and W( 
man's (J. Glaciol., 12(64):3-I8, 1973) conditio! 
blockage of subglacial water flow. The annual 
of water production by dissipation of mechai 
straining at the bed remains two orders of ms 
tude below that produced by summer surface r 
The predicted fractional increase in base si 
during the quiescent phase is a maximum in 
region believed to be the trigger zone of 
surges. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00673 



STABILITY OF SHEET FLOW OF WATER 
NEATH TEMPERATE GLACIERS AND IMl 
CATIONS FOR GLACIER SURGING, 

Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Geology. 

J. S. Walder. 

Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 99, p 273- 

1982. 3 Fig, 2 Tab, 36 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Sheet flow, 'Glacier surges, 'Ma 
matical models, Temperate glaciers. Heat diss 
tion. Pressure gradients. Glacier charmels. 

A mathematical model is presented for the stab 
of sheet flow of water beneath a temperate glat 
Enhanced viscous heat dissipation in thick part 
the sheet tends to make sheet flow unstable, 
instability increasing as sheet thickness and p 
sure gradient increase. However, incipient cl 
nels may be destroyed as the glacier sUdes c 
protuberances on its bed. Quasi-stable sheet f 
may be possible for sheets up to several millime 
in thickness, especially beneath glaciers that h 
relatively gentle surface slopes and slide at moi 
ate to high speeds. Such water sheets may so 
what reduce the effective roughness of gla 
beds, but probably not enough to allow sii 
initiation. Furthermore, the presence of numei 
water-filled cavities at the glacier bed will ten( 
reduce the sheet thickness and lessen the degrei 
'lubrication' of the glacier bed by the water sh 
(Author's abstract) 
W85-0O674 



SHORT-TERM VARIATIONS IN VELOO 
OF SOUTH CASCADE GLACIER, WASHP 
TON, U.S.A., 

Saint Olaf Coll., Northfield, MN. 

R. W. Jacobel. 

Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 99, p 325-3 

1982. 4 Fig, 2 Tab, 5 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Velocity, 'South Cascade Glac 
'Washington, 'Glaciers, Variation, Monte O 
method. 

An eight element array of reflectors was pi 
tioned along the center line near equilibrium 
South Cascade Glacier. The position of element 
this array was surveyed approximately twice di 
using a theodolite and a laser ranger, a distan 
measuring device. The data were taken over 63 
during July and August 1979. The array had ov 
all dimensions comparable to the 200 m ice thi 
ness in this part of the glacier. If the measu 
displacement for each stake represents the mot 
of the glacier, then for sufficiently small regie 
having the same overall average velocity, 
short-term stake motions should be compatil 
The surveyed area of South Cascade Glacier 
moving at an average velocity of 0.00183 m 
Variations in velocity for individual stakes wi 
typically 100% for periods of 12 h but decreai 
for longer time intervals. The constraints of reqi 
ing compatible motion for the entire array redui 
the averaged short-term fluctuations to the sa 
order as the variations between stakes for a gi\ 
12 h period. This implies that non-uniformity 
individual stake motion does not represent ti 
velocity variation of the studied portion of I 
glacier. Monte Carlo simulations of the experimi 
tal resolution show that only 30% of the variati 
can be attributed to measurement uncertainty, a 
that therefore the observed effects represent re 



WATER CYCLE— Field 2 
Snow, Ice, and Frost — Group 2C 



t localized variations 

loore-IVI) 

85-00675 



in surface velocity. 



;CULAR VARIATION OF ICE FLOW VELOC- 
Y AT LEWIS GLACIER, MOUNT KENYA, 

CNYA, 

isconsin Univ. -Madison. Dept. of Meteorology. 

Hastenrath, and P. Kruss. 

urnal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 99, p 333-339, 

82. 2 Fig, 6 Ref NSF grants EAR77-13130 and 

VR79-23897. 

scriptors: *Ice flow, 'Lewis Glacier, *Kenya, 
sunt Kenya, Mathematical models, Simulation, 
Jocity, Crevasses. 

•asurements at various epochs in the course of 
: twentieth century indicate a slowing down of 
rface ice flow velocity. Theoretical modeling 
3ws this observed velocity decrease to be con- 
tent with the well-documented secular glacier 
session. The numerical simulation further sug- 
sts a marked decrease in the velocity maximum 
ring the 1900's and a gradual upward movement 
the position of this maximum. Crevasse orienta- 
n is transverse above, and longitudinal below, 
: velocity maximum. The secular change in the 
igitudinaJ velocity profile seems to affect the 
5vasse pattern. The rapid retreat of Lewis Gla- 
ir in recent times is illustrated by comparing the 
78 and 1974 aerial surveys. Numerical modeling 
the future behavior of Lewis Glacier indicates 
it it is likely that the glacier will continue to 
treat at the present rate, or even more rapidly, 
;o the mid 1980's. A major overall decrease in 
; surface velocity is also indicated, with the 
locity by 1985 being reduced to an ammount 
preaching half the 1978 value. The velocity 
iximum will become less sharply defined and 
11 move quite significantly up-glacier. An appar- 
t manifestation of such a trend is the recent 
velopment of a large longitudinal crevasse 
iching some 150 m into the region previously 
aracterized by transverse crevasses. (Moore- 

'D 
85-00676 



JPRAGLACIAL RE-SEDEMENTATION 

lOM MELT-WATER STREAMS ON TO 
<OW OVERLYING GLACIER ICE, SYLGJU- 
)KULL, WEST VATNAJOKULL, ICELAND, 

jlorado Univ. at Boulder. Inst, of Arctic and 

Ipine Research. 

)r primary bibliographic entry see Field 2J. 

85-00677 



^ULAR ICEBERGS: IMPLICATIONS FROM 
EOPHYSICAL STUDIES OF ICE SHELVES, 

isconsin Univ. -Madison. Geophysical and Polar 
isearch Center. 
Shabtaie, and C. R. Bentley. 
lumal of Glaciology, Vol. 28, No. 100, p 413-430, 
182. 9 Fig, 34 Ref. NSF grants DPP76-01415 ard 
PP79-20736. 

escriptors: 'Icebergs, *Ice shelves, Ross Ice 
lelf, Tabular icebergs. Iceberg calving. Rift 
ines, Elevation, Brine infiltration. Melting, Cre- 
isses. Radar, Iceberg transport. 

ecent geophysical and glaciological investiga- 
jns of the Ross Ice Shelf have revealed many 
)mplexities in the ice shelf that can be important 
ctors in iceberg structure. The presence of rift 
mes, surface and bottom crevasses, corrugations, 
dge/troughs, and other features could substantial- 
modify the hydrauhcs of iceberg towing and 
ad to disintegration in the course of transport, 
he relationships between the elevation above sea- 
vel and total ice thickness for three ice shelves 
loss. Brunt, and McMurdo) are given; from them, 
ipressions for the thickness/freeboard ratios of 
ibular icebergs calved from these ice shelves are 
t)tained. The relationships obtained from the 
leasured values of surface elevation and ice thick- 
5ss are in agreement with models derived assum- 
ig hydrostatic equilibrium. Areas of brine infiltra- 
on into the Ross Ice Shelf have been mapped, 
xamples of radar profiles in these zones are 



shown. Absorption from the brine layers results in 
a poor or absent bottom echo. It is probable that 
little saline ice exists at the bottom of the Ross Ice 
Shelf front due to a rapid bottom melting near the 
ice front, and that the thickness of the saline ice at 
the bottom of icebergs calving from the Ross Ice 
Shelf is no more than a few meters, if there is any 
at all. We have observed many rift zones on the ice 
shelf by airborne radar techniques, and at one site 
the bottom and surface topographies of (buried) 
rift zones have been delineated. These rift zones 
play an obvious role in iceberg formation and may 
also affect the dynamics of iceberg transport. 
Bottom crevasses with different shapes, sizes, and 
spacings are abundant in ice shelves; probably 
some are filled with saline ice and others with 
unfrozen sea-water. Existence of these bottom cre- 
vasses could lead to a rapid disintegration of ice- 
bergs in the course of transport, as well as increas- 
ing the frictional drag at the ice-water boundary. 
Radar profiles of the ice-shelf front at four sites in 
flow bands of very different characteristics are 
shown. In some places rifting up-stream from the 
front shows regular spacings, suggesting a periodic 
calving. Differential bottom melting near the front 
causes the icebergs to have an uneven surface and 
bottom (i.e. dome shaped). Electrical resistivity 
soundings on the ice shelf can be applied to esti- 
mate the temperature-depth function, and from 
that the basal mass-balance rate. With some modifi- 
cations, the technique may also be applied to esti- 
mating the basal mass-balance rates of tabular ice- 
bergs. (Author's abstract) 
W85-00678 



GROWTH OF ICE SHEETS, 

O. V. Dement'eva. 

Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 18, No. 5, p 803-805, Sep- 
tember-October, 1983. 1 Fig, 1 Tab, 8 Ref Trans- 
lated from Izvestiyz Akademii Nauk SSSR, Mek- 
hanika Zhidkosti i Gaza, No. 5, p 169-172, Septem- 
ber-October, 1983. 

Descriptors: *Ice sheets, *Ice formation. Fluid me- 
chanics. Ice thickness. Freezing, Rivers, Flow rate. 

The ice sheets considered are those formed by 
river or underground water flowing onto a surface, 
spreading, and freezing into layers. The outflow is 
due to freezing of the water carrying region 
through which the surface and underground water 
circulate. The shape and size of the sheets change 
during their formation and depend on the climatic, 
geological, and morphological conditions of the 
region and also on the hydrogeological conditions 
of freezing and the regime of the water source. 
When the ice sheets are formed, a process takes 
place that is analogous to the formation of an 
alluvial dam. The water that forms the ice sheet 
flows through a crack in the ice or in the ground 
with a constant flow rate. Spreading, it goes over 
into the solid phase. A graph is offered of a case of 
the growth of thickness of an ice sheet during the 
winter of 1965/66. Knowing the volume of ice in 
the sheet and its width, the flow of water per unit 
of width can be calculated. (Baker-I VI) 
W85-00686 



COMPUTER SIMULATION OF BUOYANCY 
AND SNOW-COVER EFFECTS IN PALSA DY- 
NAMICS, 

S. I. Outcalt, and F. Nelson. 

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 16, No. 2, p 259- 

263, May, 1984. 1 Fig, 16 Ref NSF grant DPP- 

8117124. 

Descriptors: 'Permafrost, 'Snow cover, 'Buoyan- 
cy, 'Palsa, Computer models, Simulation, Bogs, 
Model studies. Ice, Peat, Finland. 

Floating palsas are permafrost bodies commonly 
found in bogs of the discontinuous permafrost 
region, although similar features may occur in 
taliks formed within organic terrain of the continu- 
ous permafrost zone. A simple computer model 
was developed to simulate the modulation effects 
of winter snow thickness on the development and 
destruction of these features. The one dimensional 
model tracks the annual mass budgets of ice rich 
peat and the overlying dry peat layer by estimating 
the annual accretion or thaw of ice within the peat. 



This is accomplished by the aid of a solution to the 
Stefan problem, modified to incorporate the influ- 
ence of the thermal resistance of layers overlying 
the zone of frost or thaw. The elevation of a palsa 
above surrounding organic terrain is determined 
by the Archimedean principle. The thickness of 
the dry and ice rich peat layers, both lower in 
density than the surrounding wet peat, vary 
through time. The model demonstrates the sensi- 
tivity of system dynamics to both snow cover 
depth in a given year and the site's snow cover 
history. In more abstract terms, the model can be 
viewed as a special type of autocorrelation filter 
which moves through a site's history of tempera- 
ture and winter snow depth, and maps mound 
heights and the thickness of constituent materials. 
(Baker-IVI) 
W85-00877 



FLOW, THERMAL STRUCTURE, AND SUBG- 
LACIAL CONDITIONS OF A SURGE-TYPE 
GLACIER, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. of Geo- 
physics and Astronomy. 
G. K. C. Clarke, S. G. Collins, and D. E. 
Thompson. 

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 
2, p 232-240, February, 1984. 6 Fig, 50 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Glacier surges, 'Ice temperature, 
'Tapridge Glacier, 'Yukon territory, Glaciohy- 
drology, Glacier flow. Heat transfer. Percolation, 
Subglacial flow. 

Surges are an incompletely explained cyclic flow 
instability pecular to certain glaciers. Measure- 
ments on Tapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory, 
show an unambiguous association of thermal struc- 
ture and flow evolution in a surge-type glacier. A 
large bulge is forming at the boundary between 
warm-based (upstream) and cold-based (down- 
stream) ice. Upstream from the bulge the glacier is 
progressively thickening as the next surge ap- 
proaches; downstream it is nearly stagnant and 
thinning. For Trapridge Glacier the boundary be- 
tween the reservoir and receiving areas is con- 
trolled by basal ice temperature. In the receiving 
area the glacier is cold based, but bottom tempera- 
ture has increased as much as 0.5 degrees C be- 
tween 1981 and 1982, and the basal heat flux is 
roughly 10 times the expected geothermal flux. 
Water percolation through permeable subglacial 
material is the probable energy source. Deforma- 
tion of the substrate could destroy this drainage 
system and trigger a surge. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00958 



1981-1982 SURGE OF HAZARD GLACIER, 
YUKON TERRITORY, 

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. of Geo- 
physics and Astronomy. 
G. K. C. Clarke, and S. G. Collins. 
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 
3, p 297-304, March, 1984. 4 Fig, 2 Tab, 25 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Glacier surges, 'Hazard Glacier, 
'Yukon Territory, Basal temperature. Thermal 
regime. Ice thickness. 

Hazard glacier is situated in the Steele Creek 
Drainage basin, Yukon Territory. A minor surge, 
believed to have started in 1981 or earlier and 
ended by summer 1982, was the first to have been 
directly observed. The surge displaced ice as much 
as 0.7 km. Before the surge, ice thickness was 
measured by radio echo sounding and tempera- 
tures were taken in three holes to the glacier bed. 
The glacier is subpolar with 10 m temperatures 
near -5.4 C, and temperature versus depth profiles 
show many anomalous features, which may be due 
to past surges and to ablation at the upper surface. 
Part of the glacier is warm based: at two sites the 
basal temperature in 1977 was at the melting point; 
at the third site, upstream from the others, it was - 
2.70 C. If this is the true basal temperature then 
part of the active zone remained cold based during 
the 1981-1982 surge or a rapid increase in basal 
temperature occurred between 1977 and the surge 
onset in 1981. Hazard Glacier's subpolar thermal 
regime is consistent with a thermal mechanism but 



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does not eliminate equally plausible alternatives. 

(Moore-IVI) 

W85-0O959 



ILLUSTRATION OF THE SPATIAL VARIA- 
BILITY OF LIGHT ENTERING A LAKE USING 
AN EMPIRICAL MODEL, 
McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Ontario). Dept. of Ge- 
ography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2H. 
W85-01017 



CONTROLS ON ADVECTIVE SNOWMELT IN 
A MARITIME ALPINE BASIN, 

Canterbury Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). 

Dept. of Geography. 

R. D. Moore, and I. F. Owens. 

Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, Vol. 

23, No. 1, p 135-142, January, 1984. 6 Fig, 2 Tab, 

24Ref. 

Descriptors: *Snowmelt, *Advection, 'Alpine re- 
gions, 'New Zealand, Heat transfer. Air circula- 
tion, Air temperature, Wind, Sensible heat. Latent 
heat, Flood forecasting. 

The surface energy budget of a snowpack in an 
alpine basin near the Main Divide of New Zea- 
land's South Island was calculated from meteoro- 
logical observations during a spring melt period. 
The sensible and latent heat exchanges account for 
82% of the energy used for melting snow, net 
radiation accounts for 16% and the sensible heat of 
rain for 2%. Regression analysis shows that indices 
of airmass characteristics and regional circulation 
explain most of the variances in the observed tem- 
perature and wind at the site, which are the major 
controls on turbulent exchange. Local advection of 
heat is important during periods of strong insola- 
tion. Local thermally-generated winds enhance 
turbulent exchange over the snowpack during 
calm, anticyclonic periods. The airmass and re- 
gional circulation indices account for 75% of the 
variance in the daily totals of sensible plus latent 
heat flux. These results support the utility of large- 
scale indices for forecasting snowmelt during 
flood-producing rain-on-snow events. (Author's 
abstract) 
W85-01042 



AMOUNT OF SOIL ICE PREDICTED FROM 
WEATHER OBSERVATIONS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Kimberly, ID. 

Snake River Conservation Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 2G. 

2D. Evaporation and Transpiration 

RESERVOIR EVAPORATION IN CENTRAL 
COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO. Water Re- 
sources Div. 

N. E. Spahr, and B. C. Ruddy. 
AvaUable from OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Fed 
Ctr., Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources 
Investigations Report 83-4103, 1983. 232 p 51 Fie 
16Tab, 17Ref ^' 

Descriptors: 'Evaporation, 'Mass-transfer, 'Reser- 
voir evaporation, Reservoirs, 'Colorado, 'Enerev 
budget. * 

Evaporation losses from seven reservoirs operated 
by the Denver Water Department in central Colo- 
rado were determined during various periods from 
1974 to 1980. The reservoirs studies were Ralston, 
Cheesman, Antero, Williams Fork, Elevenmile 
Canyon, Dillon, and Gross. Energy-budget and 
mass-transfer methods were used to determine 
evaporation. Class-A pan data also were collected 
at each reservoir. The energy-budget method was 
the most accurate of the methods used to deter- 
mine evaporation. At Ralston, Cheesman, Antero, 
and Williams Fork Reservoirs the energy-budget 
method was used to calibrate the mass-transfer 
coefficients. Calibrated coefficients already were 
available for Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and 



Gross Reservoirs. Using the calibrated coefficients, 
long-term mass-transfer evaporation rates were de- 
termined. Annual evaporation values were not de- 
termined because the instrumentation was not op- 
erated for the entire open-water season. Class-A 
pan data were used to determine pan coefficients 
for each season at each reservoir. The coefficients 
varied from season to season and between reser- 
voirs, and the seasonal values ranged from 0.29 to 
1.05. (USGS) 
W85-00613 



AMOUNTS OF WATER REQUIRED BY IM- 
PORTANT ECOSYSTEMS OF A RURAL LAND- 
SCAPE, 

Vysoka Skola Zemedelska, Brno (Czechoslovakia). 

Inst, of Forest Ecology. 

M. Penka. 

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae, Serie C, Vol. 52, 

No. 1-2, p 3-15, 1983. 4 Fig, 4 Tab, 33 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Transpiration, 'Fields, 'Meadows, 
'Forests, Ecosystems, Evaporation, Water 
demand. Orchards, Vineyards, Agriculture, Irri- 
gated crops, Vegetables, Grasslands. 

The amounts of water required by a rural land- 
scape were determined, using field, meadow, and 
forest ecosystems as models. The variations in tran- 
spiration or transpiration flow were determined in 
dominant plant species of the ecosystems and their 
components. The amounts of water required for 
transpiration (integrated transpiration, IT, or inte- 
grated transpiration flow, ITF) were estimated 
from the data obtained by measurement. The total 
amounts of water required by individual ecosys- 
tems and their components were then calculated 
by extrapolation. The results were used for compi- 
lation of a summary suggesting the amounts of 
water needed by the studied ecosystems of a rural 
landscape and the share taken by each in the 
hydraulic cycle. The meadow ecosystems require 
as much as 600 mm of water during the whole 
growing season. The same values are found for 
high-yield vegetable species and varieties and for 
irrigated agricultural crops as well as for woody 
seedlings. Evaporation rates exceeding this value 
occur from open water surfaces (600-700 mm) and 
soils freshly laid bare (to 700 mm). Field ecosys- 
tems and unirrigated crops require as much as 500 
mm of water. Forest ecosystems require as much 
as 400 mm of water. As much as 350 mm of water 
are required by the garden ecosystems (vineyards, 
orchards, and cash crops) and by the grassland 
ecosystems managed along classical lines. (Moore- 

W85-00625 



EFFECT OF WIND ON THE TRANSPIRATION 
OF YOUNG TREES, 

Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Botany. 

M. Dixon, and J. Grace. 

Annals of Botany, Vol. 53, No. 6, p 811-819, June 

1984. 3 Fig, 1 Tab, 26 Ref 

Descriptors: 'Transpiration, 'Trees, 'Wind, Pine, 
Oak, Fagus, Sorbus, Heat transfer. Vapor pressure! 
Stomatal transpiration. Leaves, Resistance. 

The effects of wind on the transpiration rates of 
four plant species, Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus 
robur L., Fagus sylvatica L. and Sorbus aucuparia 
L., were studied in a controlled environment wind 
tunnel. Transpiration declined with increasing 
wind speed in a manner consistent with predictions 
of the Penman-Monteith equation. The calculations 
refute the more traditional view that wind in- 
creases transpiration. This view neglects the con- 
comitant effect of wind on heat transfer, which, 
under high radiation loads, causes a reduction in 
leaf temperature and hence in water vapor pressure 
at the sites of evaporation. The stomatal resistance 
declined with increasing wind speed in two species 
and increased in one, but this effect was smaller 
than reported in other studies. In all cases the 
magnitude of the stomatal response was over-shad- 
owed by the declining leaf to air vapor pressure 
difference. The relationship between the aerody- 
namic resistance and wind speed showed unexpect- 
edly good agreement with the standard relation- 
ship used for laminar boundary layers. A definite 



decline in surface resistance with increasing wind 
speed occurred in robur and S. aucuparia. 
There is some evidence to suggest that wind 
damage to the leaf surface influenced leaf surface 
resistance. (Moore-IVI) 
W85-00626 



CALCULATION OF EVAPORATION FOR 
INLAND LAKES USING MO.NTHLY MEAN 
VALUES OF METEOROIX>GICAL PARAM- 
ETERS, BASED ON MEASURED WATER TEM- 
PERATURES fZUR VERDUNSTLNGSBER- 
ECHNUNG FUR BINNENSEEN ALS MONATS- 
MITTELWERTEN METEOROLOGISCHER PA- 
RAMETER BEI GEMESSENER WASSERTEM- 
PERATUR), 

Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst, fuer Geo- 
graphic. 
J. Werner. 

Deutsche Gewasserkundliche Mitteilungen Vol 
28, No. 2, p 41^, May, 1984. 2 Fig, 3 Tab, 5 Ref. 

Descriptors: 'Lakes, 'Evaporation, Water temper- 
ature, Dalton's formula. Wind, Humidity. 

Using measured monthly evaporation depths of 
three inland lakes in North Rhine-Westphalia, a 
simple method for calculating the evaporation is 
tested. The method is derived from Dalton's for- 
mula and yields satisfactory results under favorable 
conditions in a comparison with directly measured 
values from three inland lakes in North Rhine- 
Westphalia. If the water temperature is well 
known, the method gives satisfactory results. It is 
necessary, however, to transfer the wind velocities 
measured at the station in the vicinity of the lake 
concerned by calculation, using simultaneous wind 
measurements for comparison. (Baker-IVI) 
W85-00899 



INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY 
ON POTENTIAL EVAPORATION, 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Atmos- 
pheric Sciences. 
L. Mahrt, and M. Ek. 

Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, Vol 
23, No. 2, p 222-234, February, 1984. 6 Fig, 3 Tab 
27 Ref USAF contract F19628-81-K-0046. 

Descriptors: 'Evaporation rate, 'Atmospheric sta- 
bility. Water vapor. Turbulent transport, Diurnal 
variation, Penman relationship. 

The Penman relationship for potential evaporation 
is modified to simply include the influence of at- 
mospheric stability on turbulent transport of water 
vapor. Explicit expressions for the stability-de- 
pendent, surface exchange coefficient developed 
by Louis are used. The diurnal variation of poten- 
tial evaporation is computed for the stability-de- 
pendent and original Penman relationships using 
Wangara data. The influence of afternoon instabil- 
ity increases the aerodynamic term of the modified 
Penman relationship by 50% or more on days with 
moderate instability. However, the unmodified 
Penman relationship predi